Publication - Statistics

Scottish household survey 2018: annual report

Published: 10 Sep 2019

Results from the 2018 edition of the continuous survey based on a sample of the general population in private residences in Scotland.

Scottish household survey 2018: annual report
12 Culture and Heritage

12 Culture and Heritage

Main Findings

Nine in 10 (90 per cent) adults were culturally engaged in 2018, either by attending or visiting a cultural event or place or by participating in a cultural activity. Although this represents a decline since 2017, the level of cultural engagement in Scotland has increased by three percentage points since first recorded in 2007.

Cultural attendance

Around eight in 10 adults (81 per cent) in Scotland had recently attended or visited a cultural event or place of culture in 2018. The most popular form of cultural attendance was going to the cinema (56 per cent of adults) followed by visits to historical or archaeological places and attendance at live music events (both 34 per cent).

Women, younger people, those with degrees or professional qualifications, those with good physical and mental health, those living in less deprived areas and those with a higher household income were most likely to attend cultural events. This profile has remained the same over time.

Cultural participation

Over three quarters (76 per cent) of adults participated in some form of cultural activity in 2018. By far the most popular form of cultural participation was reading books for pleasure (63 per cent).

Overall participation in cultural activities was higher among women, those with degrees or professional qualifications, those with good physical and mental health, those living in less deprived areas and those with a higher household income.

The overall level of cultural participation did not change with age. However, the types of cultural activities people participated in changed with age for most activities.

Cultural services provided by local authorities

Satisfaction with local authority cultural services varied by type of service. Satisfaction with library services in 2018 has decreased since 2007. Satisfaction with theatre or concert hall services has maintained over this period whilst satisfaction with museums and galleries has improved.

In 2018, over eight in 10 adults who had used local authority cultural services were very or fairly satisfied with their provision.

12.1 Introduction and Context

The Scottish Government wants to develop the conditions and skills for culture to thrive, so it is cared for, protected and produced for the enjoyment and enrichment of all present and future generations. The Scottish Household Survey is the main source of data on heritage and cultural engagement Scotland.

The Scottish Government is currently developing a Culture Strategy for Scotland following engagement with individuals, artists, cultural organisations and communities across Scotland. A public consultation was held in summer 2018 and the finalised strategy is due to be published later in 2019.

This strategy highlights the positive impact that culture has on society and its potential to contribute to individual, community and national wellbeing and prosperity.

The strategy sets out three ambitions:

  • Transforming through culture
  • Empowering through culture
  • Strengthening culture

The new national outcome for culture in the newly refreshed National Performance Framework[130] signifies that Scottish Ministers and the Scottish Government recognise the potential and importance of culture as an intrinsic part of Scotland’s wellbeing and that other policy areas should give consideration to it. The national outcome is:

“We are creative and our vibrant and diverse cultures are expressed and enjoyed widely”

Four new national indicators will monitor progress against this outcome. These are:

  • Attendance at cultural events or places of culture
  • Participation in a cultural activity
  • Growth in the cultural economy
  • People working in arts and culture

The first two national indicators are measured using the data from the SHS at national and sub national levels that is presented in this chapter. The Scottish Household Survey is the primary source of data on heritage and cultural engagement Scotland.

This data helps the Scottish Government and our key partners across the public sector and cultural sectors to monitor the progress of culture strategy ambitions which in turn will inform strategic policy decisions and broader ambition.

Cultural engagement is defined as those adults who have either participated in a cultural activity or who have attended at least one type of cultural event or place in the past 12 months. The SHS is the primary source of information on cultural attendance and participation in Scotland and is the only source of data on attendance and participation at local authority level. Questions on cultural attendance were introduced in the SHS for the first time in 2007. It is possible to obtain data at local authority level every year from 2012 onwards. The 2018 local authority data will be published at a later date.

“Attendance at a cultural event or place of culture" is defined as those adults who attended or visited at least one type of cultural event or place in the previous year. There are a number of different types of cultural events and places of culture: cinemas, museums, libraries and live music events, for example. Likewise, “participation in any cultural activity” is defined as adults taking part in at least one activity in the previous year. Examples of cultural activities include reading for pleasure, dancing and crafts.

Annex 2: Glossary provides a full list of activities, places or events for cultural attendance and participation. When respondents are asked about their cultural attendance and participation “in the last 12 months” this is referring to the 12 months prior to the respondents interview and not the calendar year January-December 2018.

Please note that figures from 2018[131] onwards are not directly comparable with previous years, due to substantial changes that were made to the culture questions in 2018. As part of a substantial review of the whole SHS questionnaire new response categories were added to better understand the nature and frequency of attendance and participation at cultural events and activities. For example, ‘streaming of a live performance’ and ‘viewing cultural content online’ were included to collect information on newer forms of digital cultural engagement. Some of the activities and events were also reworded (e.g. ‘Gallery’ became ‘Art Gallery’ and ‘Dance show / event - e.g. ballet’ became ‘Dance, either for fitness or not for fitness’). The order of the activities and events was also changed.

For this reason, changes between 2018 and previous years will not be reported in this chapter for the more detailed breakdowns. The 2018 culture data will be treated as a new baseline. More detailed information on the changes can be found in the 2017 and 2018 SHS questionnaires[132].

12.2 Cultural Engagement

Cultural engagement[133] in Scotland was high. Nine in 10 (90 per cent) adults were culturally engaged in 2018, either by attending or visiting a cultural event or place or by participating in a cultural activity (Figure 12.1).

Although this represents a decline since 2017 (from 93 per cent to 90 per cent), the level of cultural engagement in Scotland has maintained since 2012 and increased by three percentage points since it was first recorded in the SHS in 2007 (from 87 per cent to 90 per cent).

Note that the figures for years 2012 to 2017 are provided for illustration purposes only and caution should be used when comparing the 2018 results to earlier years.

Figure 12.1: Cultural engagement by adults in the last 12 months[134] by year
Percentages, 2007 to 2018 data (minimum base: 9,130)

Figure 12.1: Cultural engagement by adults in the last 12 months by year

Substantial changes were made to the cultural attendance and participation questions in 2018 with the aim to better capture the nature and frequency of cultural attendance and participation. This may have affected cultural engagement comparisons over time. For this reason, changes between 2018 and previous years will not be reported in this chapter for the more detailed breakdowns.

12.3 Attendance at Cultural Events and Places

In 2018, 81 per cent of adults in Scotland attended or visited a cultural event or place (Table 12.1). When trips to the cinema are excluded, the attendance figure was lower at 74 per cent.

Whilst cultural attendance has decreased by three percentage points since 2017, attendance was still higher than it was in 2012 (81 per cent compared to 78 per cent). A similar pattern is seen when trips to the cinema are excluded.

Note that the figures for years 2012 to 2017 are provided for illustration purposes only and caution should be used when comparing the 2018 results to earlier years.

Table 12.1: Attendance at any cultural events and visiting places of culture in the last 12 months[135] by year
Percentage of adults, 2012 to 2018 data

Adults 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017
Attendance (exc. cinema) 70 72 73 75 75 77
Attendance (inc. cinema) 78 80 80 82 83 84
Base 9,890 9,920 9,800 9,410 9,640 9,810
Adults 2018
Attendance (exc. cinema) 74
Attendance (inc. cinema) 81
Base 9,700

Substantial changes were made to the cultural attendance questions in 2018 with the aim to better capture the nature and frequency of cultural attendance. This may have affected attendance comparisons over time. For this reason changes between 2018 and previous years will not be reported in this chapter for the more detailed breakdowns.

Figure 12.2 shows that over half of respondents (56 per cent) went to the cinema in the last 12 months making this the most common type of cultural attendance. The next most common types of cultural attendance were visits to historical or archaeological places and attendance at live music events (both 34 per cent).

In 2018, the lowest levels of attendance were seen at archives (two per cent) and book festivals (six per cent). Just under a fifth of adults (19 per cent) did not attend or visit a cultural event or place of culture in the last 12 months.

Figure 12.2: Attendance at cultural events and visiting places of culture in the last 12 months
Percentage of adults, 2018 data (base: 9,700)

Figure 12.2: Attendance at cultural events and visiting places of culture in the last 12 months

12.3.1 Attendance by Gender

In 2018, more women attended or visited a cultural event or place than men. Eighty two per cent of women attended or visited a cultural event or place compared to 79 per cent of men (Table 12.2). Women also had higher cultural attendance than men after excluding trips to the cinema, with the gap between women and men increasing to five percentage points (76 per cent and 71 per cent).

Table 12.2 shows that gender differences were more pronounced for particular cultural events and places. More women than men visited the theatre (37 per cent compared with 27 per cent). Women were also more likely than men to visit the library (30 per cent compared with 23 per cent).

Table 12.2: Attendance at cultural events and visiting places of culture in the last 12 months by gender
Percentage of adults, 2018 data

Adults Men Women Identified in another way Refused All
Cinema 55 57 * * 56
Library 23 30 * * 26
Classical Music 7 8 * * 7
Live Music Event 34 33 * * 34
Theatre 27 37 * * 32
Dance Show Event 7 13 * * 11
Historic Place 35 33 * * 34
Museum 32 32 * * 32
Art Gallery 21 21 * * 21
Exhibition 17 19 * * 18
Street Arts 16 16 * * 16
Culturally Specific Festival 15 16 * * 16
Book Festival 5 7 * * 6
Archive Office 2 2 * * 2
Streaming Live Performance 6 9 * * 7
None 21 18 * * 19
Attendance (exc. cinema) 71 76 * * 74
Attendance (inc. cinema) 79 82 * * 81
Base 4,320 5,380 0 0 9,700

Columns may not add to 100 per cent since multiple responses were allowed.

12.3.2 Attendance by Age

In 2018, younger age groups were more likely to attend a cultural event than older age groups. Ninety-one per cent of 16 to 24 year olds attended or visited a cultural event or place compared to 56 per cent of those aged 75 and over (Table 12.3). The pattern holds when cinema attendance is excluded (78 per cent and 54 per cent).

Table 12.3 reveals that age differences were more pronounced for certain cultural events or places. Eighty per cent of adults aged 16 to 24 and 73 per cent of 25 to 34 year olds went to the cinema, compared with 18 per cent of those aged 75 or over. Similarly, almost half of 16 to 24 year olds (44 per cent) attended a live music event, compared with 10 per cent of those aged 75 or over.

Table 12.3: Attendance at cultural events and visiting places of culture in the last 12 months by age
Percentage of adults, 2018 data

Adults 16 to 24 25 to 34 35 to 44 45 to 59 60 to 74 75 plus All
Cinema 80 73 71 55 38 18 56
Library 25 30 36 22 24 22 26
Classical Music 6 7 7 7 9 8 7
Live Music Event 44 41 41 36 25 10 34
Theatre 21 32 35 35 37 23 32
Dance Show Event 8 11 16 10 11 5 11
Historic Place 30 39 45 36 30 16 34
Museum 28 39 42 31 29 17 32
Art Gallery 21 22 24 22 21 12 21
Exhibition 16 18 20 19 19 9 18
Street Arts 15 19 24 19 13 4 16
Culturally Specific Festival 15 20 21 17 12 6 16
Book Festival 3 6 8 6 6 4 6
Archive Office 1 2 2 2 3 2 2
Streaming Live Performance 11 8 9 6 7 2 7
None 9 10 11 20 27 44 19
Attendance (exc. cinema) 78 80 82 74 69 54 74
Attendance (inc. cinema) 91 90 89 80 73 56 81
Base 680 1,300 1,370 2,390 2,540 1,430 9,700

Columns may not add to 100 per cent since multiple responses were allowed.

12.3.3 Attendance by Highest Level of Qualification

In 2018, adults with degrees or professional qualifications were most likely to attend cultural places and events; whereas attendance was lowest for those with no qualifications (93 per cent compared to 51 per cent) (See Figure 12.3). The pattern holds when cinema attendance is excluded (89 per cent compared to 44 per cent).

Figure 12.3: Attendance at cultural events and visiting places of culture in the last 12 months by highest level of qualification[136]
Percentage of adults, 2018 data (minimum base: 560)

Figure 12.3: Attendance at cultural events and visiting places of culture in the last 12 months by highest level of qualification

As with the overall figure, attendance at individual events or places was consistently higher for adults with a degree or professional qualification (Table 12.4). The most marked differences between those with degrees and no qualifications can be seen for trips to the cinema (70 per cent and 23 per cent respectively) and visits to historic or archaeological places (54 per cent and 11 per cent respectively).

Table 12.4: Attendance at cultural events and visiting places of culture in the last 12 months by highest qualification level[137]
Percentage of adults, 2018 data

Adults Degree, Professional qualification HNC/HND or equivalent Higher, A level or equivalent O' Grade, Standard grade or equivalent Other qualification No qualifications All
Cinema 70 66 64 54 27 23 56
Library 38 27 25 20 19 14 26
Classical Music 14 7 5 3 3 2 7
Live Music Event 46 41 38 28 12 11 34
Theatre 45 34 31 24 22 17 32
Dance Show Event 16 12 9 8 6 5 11
Historic Place 54 37 32 23 12 11 34
Museum 51 34 30 21 14 11 32
Art Gallery 36 21 18 12 9 7 21
Exhibition 33 18 14 8 6 4 18
Street Arts 27 17 15 11 6 5 16
Culturally Specific Festival 25 17 15 10 5 6 16
Book Festival 12 6 4 2 2 1 6
Archive Office 4 2 1 1 1 1 2
Streaming Live Performance 12 7 8 5 4 2 7
None 7 11 13 21 40 49 19
Attendance (exc. cinema) 89 80 79 68 54 44 74
Attendance (inc. cinema) 93 89 87 79 60 51 81
Base 3,000 1,140 1,370 1,760 560 1,780 9,700

Columns add to more than 100 per cent since multiple responses allowed.

12.3.4 Attendance by Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation (SIMD)

In 2018, levels of cultural attendance increased as deprivation as measured by the Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation (SIMD 2016) decreased. Figure 12.4 shows there was a 19 percentage point difference in cultural attendance (including cinema) between the 20 per cent most and 20 per cent least deprived areas (71 per cent compared with 90 per cent). When cinema attendance is excluded, the difference is even greater, with 61 per cent in the most deprived areas and 86 per cent in the least deprived areas attending a cultural event or place.

Figure 12.4: Attendance at cultural events and visiting places of culture in the last 12 months by Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation
Percentage of adults, 2018 data (minimum base: 1,770)

Figure 12.4: Attendance at cultural events and visiting places of culture in the last 12 months by Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation

As with the overall figure, attendance at individual events or places was consistently higher for adults living in the least deprived areas (Table 12.5). The most noticeable differences between the least deprived and most deprived can be seen for visits to historic or archaeological places (45 per cent and 20 per cent respectively) and the theatre (44 per cent and 21 per cent respectively).

Table 12.5: Attendance at cultural events and visiting places of culture in the last 12 months by area deprivation
Percentage of adults, 2018 data

Adults 20% Most deprived 2 3 4 20% Least deprived Scotland
Cinema 48 51 54 60 68 56
Library 23 23 27 28 31 26
Classical Music 3 5 8 8 13 7
Live Music Event 23 30 34 36 44 34
Theatre 21 28 31 35 44 32
Dance Show Event 7 9 11 10 14 11
Historic Place 20 28 37 39 45 34
Museum 23 27 31 34 43 32
Art Gallery 14 17 21 23 30 21
Exhibition 10 14 18 21 25 18
Street Arts 11 15 16 16 23 16
Culturally Specific Festival 10 15 16 17 19 16
Book Festival 3 4 6 6 10 6
Archive Office 1 2 2 2 3 2
Streaming Live Performance 4 6 8 8 10 7
None 29 24 18 15 10 19
Attendance (exc. cinema) 61 69 75 77 86 74
Attendance (inc. cinema) 71 76 82 85 90 81
Base 1,840 1,850 2,140 2,100 1,770 9,700

Columns add to more than 100 per cent since multiple responses allowed.

12.3.5 Attendance by Net Annual Household Income

In 2018, cultural attendance was the highest for those with the highest net annual household income . Ninety per cent of those with a net annual household income of over £30,000 attended or visited a cultural event or place (Figure 12.5). Attendance was lowest for those with a net annual household income of between £0 and £10,000 (68 per cent). The pattern holds when cinema attendance is excluded (84 per cent compared to 60 per cent).

Figure 12.5: Attendance at cultural events and visiting places of culture by net annual household income
Percentage of adults, 2018 data (minimum base: 930)

Figure 12.5: Attendance at cultural events and visiting places of culture by net annual household income

As with the overall figure, attendance at individual events or places was consistently highest for adults with the highest net annual household income (Table 12.6). The biggest differences between those with a net annual household income of over £30,000 and those with a net annual household income of between £0 and £10,000 can be seen for trips to the cinema (69 per cent and 42 per cent) and visits to historic or archaeological places (46 per cent and 23 per cent).

Table 12.6: Attendance at cultural events and visiting places of culture in the last 12 months by net annual household income
Percentage of adults, 2018 data

Adults £0-£10,000 £10,001 - £20,000 £20,001 - £30,000 Over £30,000 All
Cinema 42 42 55 69 57
Library 26 24 26 28 26
Classical Music 5 5 6 10 7
Live Music Event 23 24 30 45 34
Theatre 21 23 29 41 32
Dance Show Event 7 7 9 14 11
Historic Place 23 21 31 46 34
Museum 23 22 30 40 32
Art Gallery 16 15 20 26 21
Exhibition 14 13 15 23 18
Street Arts 13 10 14 22 17
Culturally Specific Festival 11 10 13 21 16
Book Festival 3 4 5 8 6
Archive Office 2 2 2 3 2
Streaming Live Performance 8 5 6 9 7
None 32 31 19 10 19
Attendance (exc. cinema) 60 62 73 84 74
Attendance (inc. cinema) 68 69 81 90 81
Base 930 3,010 2,050 3,300 9,300

Columns add to more than 100 per cent since multiple responses allowed.

12.3.6 Attendance by Long-Term Physical or Mental Health Condition

In 2018, cultural attendance was lowest among adults with a physical or mental health condition that caused long-term major reduced daily capacity. Fifty-two per cent of those with a condition that caused long-term major reduced capacity attended or visited a cultural event or place compared with 86 per cent attendance for those with no condition (Figure 12.6).

For those whose condition caused minor reduced daily capacity, the attendance rate was 76 per cent, and for those whose condition caused no reduced daily capacity, the attendance rate was 81 per cent.

When cinema is excluded, attendance for those with major reduced daily capacity conditions was 46 per cent and, for those with no condition, it was 78 per cent. For those with minor reduced daily capacity, the attendance rate was 71 per cent and for those with no reduced capacity, the attendance rate was 76 per cent.

Figure 12.6: Attendance at cultural events and visiting places of culture in the last 12 months by long-term physical or mental health condition
Percentage of adults, 2018 data (minimum base: 710)

Figure 12.6: Attendance at cultural events and visiting places of culture in the last 12 months by long-term physical or mental health condition

As with the overall figure, attendance at individual events or places was consistently higher for adults with no long-term physical or mental health condition (Table 12.7). The most striking differences between those with no condition and those with a long-term physical or mental health condition that caused long-term major reduced daily capacity can be seen for trips to the cinema (63 per cent and 26 per cent respectively) and attendance at live music events (39 per cent and 12 per cent respectively), although attending the cinema was the most frequently attended activity for those that did have a long-term physical or mental health condition that caused long-term major reduced daily capacity.

Table 12.7: Attendance at cultural events and visiting places of culture in the last 12 months by long-term physical or mental health condition
Percentage of adults, 2018 data

Adults Yes, causes long term major reduced daily capacity Yes, causes long term minor reduced daily capacity Yes, but no reduced daily capacity None All
Cinema 26 47 51 63 56
Library 19 30 31 27 26
Classical Music 3 8 10 8 7
Live Music Event 12 27 33 39 34
Theatre 18 29 36 34 32
Dance Show Event 5 8 11 12 11
Historic Place 13 30 38 38 34
Museum 15 29 32 35 32
Art Gallery 8 21 21 23 21
Exhibition 7 17 19 19 18
Street Arts 6 13 15 19 16
Culturally Specific Festival 7 15 15 17 16
Book Festival 2 5 5 7 6
Archive Office 1 2 3 2 2
Streaming Live Performance 3 5 8 8 7
None 48 24 19 14 19
Attendance (exc. cinema) 46 71 76 78 74
Attendance (inc. cinema) 52 76 81 86 81
Base 1,360 1,250 710 6,330 9,700

Columns may not add to 100 per cent since multiple responses were allowed.

12.3.7 Frequency of Attending Cultural Events or Places

In 2018 the library was the most frequently attended cultural place or event, with almost one in five people (18 per cent) visiting at least once a week, and over a third of adults visiting at least once a month (35 per cent) (See Table 12.8). Twenty per cent of respondents who attended the cinema within the past 12 months went at least once a month.

Table 12.8: Frequency of attending cultural events and visiting places of culture in the last 12 months
Percentage of adults, 2018 data

Adults At least once a week Less often than once a week / at least once a month Less often than once a month but within the last 12 months Don't know Total Base
Cinema 3 20 76 0 99 4,840
Library 18 35 47 0 100 2,600
Classical Music 1 6 92 1 100 750
Live Music Event 2 9 89 0 100 3,010
Theatre 0 4 95 0 99 2,960
Dance Show Event 1 4 94 2 101 1,000
Historic Place 2 11 87 0 100 3,110
Museum 1 9 90 0 100 2,940
Art Gallery 2 11 87 0 100 1,980
Exhibition 1 7 91 1 100 1,730
Street Arts 1 4 94 1 100 1,420
Culturally Specific Festival 0 1 98 0 99 1,410
Book Festival 5 12 82 1 100 570
Archive Office 6 13 80 1 100 230
Streaming Live Performance 3 6 88 3 100 690

12.4 Participation in Cultural Activities

In 2018, 76 per cent of adults in Scotland participated in a cultural activity (Table 12.9). When reading is excluded, participation was 53 per cent. Levels of participation, when reading is included, have decreased from 78 per cent in both 2012 and 2017. When reading is excluded, participation has increased from 48 per cent in 2012 to 53 per cent in 2018. This 2018 participation figure has maintained since 2017.

Note that the figures for years 2012 to 2017 are provided for illustration purposes only and caution should be used when comparing the 2018 results to earlier years.

Table 12.9: Participation in any cultural activity in the last 12 months[138] by year[139]
Percentage of adults, 2012 to 2018 data

Adults 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017
Participation (exc. reading) 48 49 50 52 53 54
Participation (inc. reading) 78 78 79 79 79 78
Base 9,890 9,920 9,800 9,410 9,640 9,810
Adults 2018
Participation (exc. reading) 53
Participation (inc. reading) 76
Base 9,700

Substantial changes were made to the cultural participation questions in 2018 with the aim to better capture the nature and frequency of cultural participation. This may have affected participation comparisons over time. For this reason changes between 2018 and previous years will not be reported in this chapter for the more detailed breakdowns.

Figure 12.7 shows levels of participation by adults at specific cultural activities in the last 12 months in 2018. Reading for pleasure was by far the most common cultural activity in 2018, with 63 per cent of respondents saying that they had done this in the last year.

The next most popular activity was viewing performances online (22 per cent), followed by crafts (16 per cent). Participation levels in all other cultural activities was 12 per cent or less. About one in four people (24 per cent) had not participated in any cultural activity in the last 12 months.

Figure 12.7: Participation in cultural activities in the last 12 months
Percentages, 2018 data (base: 9,700)

Figure 12.7: Participation in cultural activities in the last 12 months

12.4.1 Participation by Gender

In 2018, more women than men participated in a cultural activity in the last 12 months. Eighty-one per cent of women participated in a cultural activity in the last 12 months compared with 71 per cent of men, although this did vary by activity (Table 12.10). When reading is excluded, the difference between women and men was slightly smaller (seven percentage points).

Table 12.10 shows women participated more than men in a number of cultural activities including crafts (23 per cent compared with seven per cent), reading books for pleasure (69 per cent compared with 56 per cent) and dance (18 per cent compared with six per cent).

Men had higher participation rates than women for playing a musical instrument (14 per cent of men and seven per cent of women) and viewing performances online (24 per cent compared with 20 per cent).

Table 12.10: Participation in cultural activities in the last 12 months by gender
Percentage of adults, 2018 data

Adults Men Women Identified in another way Refused All
Read 56 69 * * 63
Dance 6 18 * * 12
Play Instrument 14 7 * * 10
Taken Part In Play 1 1 * * 1
Singing Group/Choir 2 5 * * 4
Art Sculpture 8 12 * * 10
Photography 9 6 * * 7
FilmMaking 3 1 * * 2
Computer Artwork Animation 9 6 * * 8
Crafts 8 23 * * 16
Creative Writing 5 5 * * 5
Viewed Performances Online 24 20 * * 22
Viewed Cultural Content Online 12 10 * * 11
Shared Art Creative Content Online 6 4 * * 5
Other Cultural 3 1 * * 2
None 29 19 * * 24
Participation (exc. reading) 49 56 * * 53
Participation (inc. reading) 71 81 * * 76
Base 4,320 5,380 0 0 9,700

Columns add to more than 100 per cent since multiple responses allowed.

12.4.2 Participation by Age

Overall, cultural participation in 2018 was broadly similar for all age groups; however, participation decreased with age when reading was excluded from the measure. Sixty per cent of 16 to 24 year olds participated in culture when reading was excluded compared to 36 per cent of those aged 75 and over (Table 12.11).

For most cultural activities, younger adults, particularly those aged 16 to 24 were more likely than older age groups to participate (Table 12.11). The biggest difference can be seen for viewing performances online (29 per cent of 16 to 24 year olds and four per cent of 75 years and over).

Those in the 75 and over age group were more likely to read books for pleasure (64 per cent compared to 52 per cent) and do craftwork such as knitting, woodwork and pottery (19 per cent compared to eight per cent).

Table 12.11: Participation in cultural activities in the last 12 months by age
Percentage of adults, 2018 data

Adults 16 to 24 25 to 34 35 to 44 45 to 59 60 to 74 75 plus All
Read 52 60 66 65 67 64 63
Dance 15 15 15 12 10 4 12
Play Instrument 18 13 12 9 7 4 10
Taken Part In Play 3 1 1 1 1 1 1
Singing Group/Choir 2 4 3 5 5 3 4
Art Sculpture 15 14 13 7 7 5 10
Photography 10 8 7 8 6 4 7
FilmMaking 4 3 3 2 1 1 2
Computer Artwork Animation 12 10 10 7 5 2 8
Crafts 8 14 15 15 22 19 16
Creative Writing 9 6 5 4 3 3 5
Viewed Performances Online 29 29 29 22 14 4 22
Viewed Cultural Content Online 12 14 11 13 10 3 11
Shared Art Creative Content Online 8 7 6 4 3 1 5
Other Cultural 1 2 2 2 3 2 2
None 27 24 21 23 25 27 24
Participation (exc. reading) 60 59 58 52 48 36 53
Participation (inc. reading) 73 76 79 77 75 73 76
Base 680 1,300 1,370 2,390 2,540 1,430 9,700

Columns add to more than 100 per cent since multiple responses allowed.

12.4.3 Participation by Highest Level of Qualification

As with cultural attendance, participation in cultural activities in 2018 was highest among adults with a degree or professional qualification (90 per cent) and lowest for those with no qualifications (55 per cent) (See Figure 12.8). When reading is excluded, the difference between participation is even greater (70 per cent for those with a degree or professional qualifications compared with 28 per cent for those with no qualifications).

Figure 12.8: Participation in cultural activities in the last 12 months by highest level of qualification[140]
Percentage of adults, 2018 data (minimum base: 560)

Figure 12.8: Participation in cultural activities in the last 12 months by highest level of qualification

As with the overall figure, participation in individual cultural activities was consistently higher for those with a degree or professional qualification (Table 12.12). Eighty-one per cent of those with a degree or professional qualification were more likely to read books for pleasure compared with 45 per cent of those with no qualifications. Adults with a degree or professional qualification were also more likely than adults with no qualifications to view performances online (33 per cent compared with seven per cent).

Table 12.12: Participation in cultural activities in the last 12 months by highest level of qualification[141]
Percentage of adults, 2018 data

Adults Degree, Professional qualification HNC/HND or equivalent Higher, A level or equivalent O Grade, Standard grade or equivalent Other qualification No qualifications All
Read 81 65 60 51 55 45 63
Dance 18 15 13 9 5 4 12
Play Instrument 16 11 10 8 4 3 10
Taken Part In Play 2 1 1 1 - - 1
Singing Group/Choir 7 4 3 2 3 2 4
Art Sculpture 15 13 9 7 2 5 10
Photography 12 9 6 5 2 2 7
FilmMaking 3 3 2 1 - 1 2
Computer Artwork Animation 11 10 8 6 2 2 8
Crafts 19 16 12 14 17 12 16
Creative Writing 8 5 6 2 1 1 5
Viewed Performances Online 33 28 22 16 4 7 22
Viewed Cultural Content Online 20 13 10 5 2 3 11
Shared Art Creative Content Online 7 9 4 3 1 2 5
Other Cultural 3 2 1 1 1 2 2
None 10 19 24 32 36 45 24
Participation (exc. reading) 70 59 52 46 31 28 53
Participation (inc. reading) 90 81 76 68 64 55 76
Base 3,000 1,140 1,370 1,760 560 1,780 9,700

Columns add to more than 100 per cent since multiple responses allowed.

12.4.4 Participation by Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation (SIMD 2016)

There was a large difference (22 percentage points) in cultural participation between those living in the 20 per cent most deprived and the 20 per cent least deprived areas. Sixty-three per cent of adults in the 20 per cent most deprived areas participated in cultural activities in 2018, compared with 85 per cent of adults in the 20 per cent least deprived areas (Figure 12.9). This is consistent with the differences observed for cultural attendance.

When reading is excluded, the pattern is similar, with 41 per cent in the most deprived areas and 61 per cent in the least deprived areas of Scotland participating in a cultural activity.

Figure 12.9: Participation in cultural activities in the last 12 months by Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation
Percentage of adults, 2018 data (minimum base: 1,770)

Figure 12.9: Participation in cultural activities in the last 12 months by Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation

As with the overall figure, participation in cultural activities was consistently higher for adults living in the least deprived areas (Table 12.13). The most marked differences between those living in the 20 per cent least deprived areas and those living in the 20 per cent most deprived areas can be seen for reading a book for pleasure (73 per cent and 51 per cent) and viewing performances online (27 per cent and 16 per cent).

Table 12.13: Participation in cultural activities in the last 12 months by Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation
Percentage of adults, 2018 data

Adults 20% Most deprived 2 3 4 20% Least deprived Scotland
Read 51 59 63 68 73 63
Dance 10 11 11 14 15 12
Play Instrument 6 10 11 12 13 10
Taken Part In Play 1 1 1 1 2 1
Singing Group/Choir 3 3 4 5 5 4
Art Sculpture 9 10 9 10 11 10
Photography 5 7 7 10 9 7
FilmMaking 2 2 3 2 3 2
Computer Artwork Animation 7 7 8 8 8 8
Crafts 10 15 18 19 17 16
Creative Writing 4 5 5 5 6 5
Viewed Performances Online 16 20 22 24 27 22
Viewed Cultural Content Online 7 9 11 13 15 11
Shared Art Creative Content Online 4 5 4 6 5 5
Other Cultural 1 2 2 2 2 2
None 37 28 23 19 15 24
Participation (exc. reading) 41 49 54 58 61 53
Participation (inc. reading) 63 72 77 81 85 76
Base 1,840 1,850 2,140 2,100 1,770 9,700

Columns add to more than 100 per cent since multiple responses allowed.

12.4.5 Participation by Net Annual Household Income

In 2018, cultural participation was highest for those with the highest net annual household income. Eighty-one per cent of those with a net annual household income of over £30,000 participated in culture (Figure 12.10). Participation was lowest for those with a net annual household income of between £10,000 and £20,000 (70 per cent). The pattern holds when reading is excluded (60 per cent compared to 45 per cent).

Figure 12.10: Participation in cultural activities in the last 12 months by net annual household income
Percentage of adults, 2018 data (minimum base: 930)

Figure 12.10: Participation in cultural activities in the last 12 months by net annual household income

As with the overall figure, participation in cultural activities was consistently higher for adults with a net annual household income of over £30,000 (Table 12.14). The most marked differences between those with the highest net annual household income and those with a net annual household income of between £10,001 and £20,000 can be seen for viewing performances online (29 per cent compared to 15 per cent) and reading for pleasure (67 per cent compared to 58 per cent).

Table 12.14: Participation in cultural activities in the last 12 months by net annual household income
Percentage of adults, 2018 data

Adults £0-£10,000 £10,001 - £20,000 £20,001 - £30,000 Over £30,000 All
Read 58 58 63 67 63
Dance 12 9 10 15 12
Play Instrument 8 8 9 12 10
Taken Part In Play 1 1 1 1 1
Singing Group/Choir 2 3 5 4 4
Art Sculpture 9 9 9 11 10
Photography 7 6 7 9 7
FilmMaking 1 2 2 3 2
Computer Artwork Animation 4 6 6 9 7
Crafts 15 17 17 15 16
Creative Writing 4 6 4 5 5
Viewed Performances Online 15 15 19 29 22
Viewed Cultural Content Online 8 8 9 15 11
Shared Art Creative Content Online 5 4 4 6 5
Other Cultural 2 2 2 2 2
None 29 30 25 19 24
Participation (exc. reading) 46 45 51 60 53
Participation (inc. reading) 71 70 75 81 76
Base 930 3,010 2,050 3,300 9,300

Columns add to more than 100 per cent since multiple responses allowed.

12.4.6 Participation by Long-Term Physical or Mental Health Condition

In 2018, cultural participation was lowest where a condition caused long-term major reduced daily capacity. Sixty-four per cent of those with a condition that caused long-term major reduced daily capacity participated in culture compared with 77 per cent participation for those with no such condition (Figure 12.11). For both those with minor reduced daily capacity or no reduced daily capacity, the participation rate was 79 per cent.

When reading is excluded, participation for those with major reduced daily capacity conditions was 37 per cent and, for those with no condition, it was 55 per cent. For those with minor reduced daily capacity, the participation rate was 51 per cent and for those with no reduced capacity, the participation rate was 58.

Figure 12.11: Participation in cultural activities in the last 12 months by long-term physical or mental health condition
Percentage of adults, 2018 data (minimum base: 710)

Figure 12.11: Participation in cultural activities in the last 12 months by long-term physical or mental health condition

As with the overall figure, participation in individual cultural activities was consistently higher for adults with no long-term physical or mental health condition, except for participation in crafts (Table 12.15).

The most marked differences between those with no condition and a condition that caused long-term major reduced daily capacity can be seen for viewing performances online (24 per cent and 10 per cent respectively), reading for pleasure (64 per cent and 54 per cent respectively) and dance (14 per cent and four per cent).

Those with a condition that caused long-term major reduced daily capacity were more likely to participate in crafts than those with no condition (18 per cent and 14 per cent).

Table 12.15: Participation in cultural activities in the last 12 months by long-term physical or mental health condition
Percentage of adults, 2018 data

Adults Yes, causes long term major reduced daily capacity Yes, causes long term minor reduced daily capacity Yes, but no reduced daily capacity None All
Read 54 67 66 64 63
Dance 4 9 16 14 12
Play Instrument 6 9 11 11 10
Taken Part In Play - 1 2 1 1
Singing Group/Choir 2 4 5 4 4
Art Sculpture 8 10 14 10 10
Photography 5 7 9 8 7
FilmMaking 1 2 1 3 2
Computer Artwork Animation 5 6 7 8 8
Crafts 18 21 20 14 16
Creative Writing 4 6 5 5 5
Viewed Performances Online 10 18 25 24 22
Viewed Cultural Content Online 5 10 17 12 11
Shared Art Creative Content Online 3 6 7 5 5
Other Cultural 2 3 3 2 2
None 36 21 21 23 24
Participation (exc. reading) 37 51 58 55 53
Participation (inc. reading) 64 79 79 77 76
Base 1,360 1,250 710 6,330 9,700

Columns add to more than 100 per cent since multiple responses allowed.

12.4.7 Frequency of Participating in Cultural Activities

Those who read a book for pleasure participated in the cultural activity the most frequently in 2018 (Table 12.16). Of those who read for pleasure, 73 per cent did so at least once a week, and a further 13 per cent read at least once a month. Playing a musical instrument was also popular amongst responding participants, with 55 per cent participating at least once a week.

Table 12.16: Frequency of participating in cultural activities in the last 12 months
Percentage of adults, 2018 data

Adults At least once a week Less often than once a week / at least once a month Less often than once a month but within the last 12 months Don't know Total Base
Read 73 13 14 0 100 6,250
Dance 37 26 37 0 100 1,100
Play Instrument 55 23 21 1 100 940
Taken Part In Play 10 9 77 3 99 110
Singing Group/Choir 51 17 30 2 100 420
Art Sculpture 34 32 33 1 100 920
Photography 37 36 27 1 101 690
FilmMaking 18 25 56 2 101 180
Computer Artwork Animation 37 25 37 1 100 640
Crafts 48 26 26 0 100 1,750
Creative Writing 33 27 37 2 99 440
Viewed Performances Online 43 27 29 1 100 1,900
Viewed Cultural Content Online 32 30 36 1 99 1,020
Shared Art Creative Content Online 32 26 40 2 100 440
Other Cultural 31 23 40 6 100 190

Respondents participated in cultural activities more frequently than they attended cultural places or events. Eighteen per cent attended a library at least once a week (Table 12.8), apart from this, attendance at cultural events at least once a week was low. Participation in cultural activities at least once a week ranged from 10 per cent to 73 per cent.

12.5 Satisfaction with Local Authority Cultural Services

Since 2007, questions have been asked on the frequency of use and satisfaction with local

authority cultural services. Table 12.17 presents the reported levels of satisfaction (including users and non-users of these services) with three different types of local authority cultural services.

Between 2007 and 2018, satisfaction with libraries has decreased by 10 percentage points (55 per cent to 45 per cent); satisfaction with theatres or concert halls has maintained and satisfaction with museums and galleries has increased (41 per cent to 42 per cent).

Table 12.17: Satisfaction with local authority culture services
Percentage of adults, 2007 to 2018 data

Adults 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
Libraries
Very/fairly satisfied 55 55 53 52 52 50 51 49 49 48 49 45
Neither satisfied or dissatisfied 10 8 7 8 8 8 10 12 15 15 17 15
Very/fairly dissatisfied 3 2 2 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3
No opinion 32 34 37 38 37 39 38 36 34 35 32 37
Museums and galleries
Very/fairly satisfied 41 42 41 38 44 42 44 46 46 45 46 42
Neither satisfied or dissatisfied 14 12 10 11 10 10 11 14 16 17 18 16
Very/fairly dissatisfied 4 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3
No opinion 41 42 45 48 44 46 42 38 35 36 34 39
Theatres or concert halls
Very/fairly satisfied 44 44 43 42 45 44 46 47 48 47 47 43
Neither satisfied or dissatisfied 14 11 10 10 10 9 10 13 15 16 17 16
Very/fairly dissatisfied 5 4 4 3 3 2 2 2 3 2 2 3
No opinion 38 40 43 45 42 45 42 38 35 35 34 39
Base 10,220 9,240 9,710 9,020 9,660 9,890 9,920 9,800 9,410 9,640 9,810 9,700

Table 12.18 shows levels of satisfaction with local authority culture services, as above, but only amongst adults who have used these services in the past year. Levels of satisfaction with local authority provision was considerably higher when only users of the services are included in the analysis. In 2018, over eight in 10 adults were either very or fairly satisfied with each of the three services (between 85 per cent and 88 per cent).

Table 12.18: Satisfaction with local authority culture services (Service users within the past 12 months[142] only)
Percentage of adults, 2007 to 2018 data

Adults 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
Libraries
Very/fairly satisfied 90 92 92 91 92 93 92 92 92 93 91 88
Neither satisfied or dissatisfied 5 4 4 4 4 3 3 4 4 4 5 7
Very/fairly dissatisfied 3 3 3 4 2 2 3 2 3 2 2 3
No opinion 2 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 2 2
Base 4,090 3,510 3,590 3,400 3,510 3,450 3,370 3,270 3,100 3,060 3,160 3,090
Museums and galleries
Very/fairly satisfied 87 89 88 87 90 92 91 92 91 91 87 86
Neither satisfied or dissatisfied 8 7 6 7 5 3 4 5 6 5 8 9
Very/fairly dissatisfied 2 2 3 2 1 2 2 1 2 1 2 3
No opinion 3 2 4 4 4 3 3 2 2 3 3 3
Base 2,870 2,630 2,720 2,460 2,830 2,800 2,980 3,020 2,920 2,830 2,990 3,050
Theatres or concert halls
Very/fairly satisfied 86 87 88 88 89 90 91 91 90 90 89 85
Neither satisfied or dissatisfied 8 6 6 6 5 5 4 5 6 6 7 9
Very/fairly dissatisfied 3 4 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 1 2
No opinion 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4
Base 3,560 3,210 3,270 2,960 3,280 3,020 3,260 3,290 3,340 3,230 3,270 3,300

Contact

Email: shs@gov.scot