Arable Farmer-led Group: climate change evidence

A summary of existing evidence around the arable sector, including greenhouse gas emissions produced by the Rural and Environment Science and Analytical Services (RESAS) division.


1. Million tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent

2. Excluding around 30,000 hectares fallow and set aside land

3. Agriculture in the UK 2019 (

4. Including common grazing. Figure based on Scottish Agricultural Census: June 2019 and UK Standard Area Measurements (SAM)

5. Farms with Standard Labour Requirements (SLR) more than 0.5. Standard Labour Requirements represent the approximate average labour requirement for a livestock or crop enterprise. The annual hours of a full-time worker is 1,900 hours.

6. Food Standards Scotland, 2018. Available at:

7. Using SIMD classifications.


9. Sixth Carbon Budget - Climate Change Committee (

10. Anderson Centre, Dec 2020. Summary Report: Analysis of Brexit Scenario Impacts on Scottish Agricultural Sectors.

11. The Climate Change Plan update incorporates some likely methodological changes not yet included in GHG inventory figures resulting in 7.7 MtCO2e in 2018 rather than 7.5.

12. It is not possible to split the GHG Inventory data by product type.

13. It has not been possible to provide specific figures for only arable in the timeframe

14. James Hutton Institute. Briefing for RESAS.


16. The importance of biodiversity and wildlife on farmland | Business Wales (

17. Final Report - The Economics of Biodiversity: The Dasgupta Review - GOV.UK (

18. Does plantation forestry restore biodiversity or create green deserts? - Bremer, L., Farley, K.

19. "Natural capital is the part of nature which directly or indirectly underpins value to people including ecosystems, species, freshwater, soils, minerals, the air and oceans, as well as natural processes and functions. … In combination with other types of capital, natural capital forms part of our wealth; that is, our ability to produce actual or potential goods and services into the future to support our wellbeing." Natural Capital Terminology (

20. Scotland's Natural Capital Asset Index - 2019 Update summary.pdf (


22. A review of evidence Is reported in Wilson, J.D., Evans, A.D. & Grice, P.V. (2009) Bird conservation and agriculture.

23. POST (2010) Insect Pollination, London

24. Managing Arable Farmland for Wildlife

25. Adaptive management and targeting of agrienvironment schemes does benefit biodiversity: a case study of the corn bunting Emberiza calandra - Perkins - 2011 - Journal of Applied Ecology - Wiley Online Library

26. Hancock, M.H. & Wilson, J.D. (2003) 'Winter habitat associations of seed-eating passerines', Bird Study, Vol 50, 116-130

27. See for example

28. R. Wolton (2009) UK Biodiversity Action Plan: Priority species linked to hedgerows, A report to Hedgelink

29. Multifunctional Role of Field Margins in Arable Farming (2014) Hackett M, Lawrence A – ADAS UK

30. Field margins – Wildlife and Farming

31. WAT-SG-44 (

32. Cole L et al; (2015) Riparian buffer strips: their role in the conservation of insect pollinators in intensive grassland systems

33. For more information see

34. Agroecology | Ecological Sciences | Research | The James Hutton Institute


36. Agroecological Transitions - Durie Farms.pdf (

37. A measure which combines technical efficiency (the rate of physical output to physical input) and allocative efficiency (the rate at which costs are minimised). This provides an analogue to TFP at a sectoral level.

38. Dinitrgoen (N2) is the for of nitrgoen making up 78% of the Earth's atmosphere; it has a very low reactivity and is not a greenhouse gas or nitrogen pollutant




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