Publication - Progress report

Remanufacture, refurbishment, reuse and recycling of vehicles: trends and opportunities

Published: 18 Dec 2013
Directorate:
Environment and Forestry Directorate
Part of:
Environment and climate change
ISBN:
9781784121136

This report describes the short, medium and long term trends related to the remanufacturing, refurbishment, reuse and recycling of vehicles, parts and components in Scotland.

Remanufacture, refurbishment, reuse and recycling of vehicles: trends and opportunities
Footnotes

Footnotes

The potential policy actions in the above figure are based on the views of various stakeholders, (including from both industry and government) and taken together with evidence found from other countries. It provides a comprehensive list of options to address the key challenges and opportunities arising from short, medium and long term trends in the automotive sector. These opportunities have the potential to deliver significant economic social and environmental benefits for Scotland.

[1] Duty of Care - A Code of Practice, Scottish Government, October 2012

[2] 'Towards the Circular Economy', Ellen MacArthur Foundation, Vol.1, Fig 8, p.66, 2012

[3] Article 7(2), Directive 2000/53/EC of the European Parliament and the Council of 18 th Sept 2000 on end of life vehicles

[4] A resource-efficient Europe - Flagship initiative under the Europe 2020 Strategy, COM(2011)21, p.2

[5] Towards the Circular Economy, Ellen MacArthur Foundation, Vol 1, Figure 1, p. 15, 2012

[6] Towards the Circular Economy, Ellen MacArthur Foundation, Vol 1, Figure 4, p. 18, 2012

[7] http://www.ifm.eng.cam.ac.uk/uploads/Research/CTM/Roadmapping/foresight_vehicle_v1.pdf

[8] 'European Automotive Remanufacturing - Technical Trends and Market Development' (Ed. Fernand J. Weiland), p.108 (Paper by Stef de Winter; Actronics, 'Remanufacturing and CAN Bus Communication')

[9] Freiberger, S. et al, 'Reverse Engineering Technologies for Remanufacturing of Automotive Systems communicating via CAN bus', Journal of Remanufacturing, 2011 1:6 - http://www.journalofremanufacturing.com/content/1/1/6

[10] 'European Automotive Remanufacturing - Technical Trends and Market Development' (Ed. Fernand J. Weiland), p.135 (Paper by Fernand L. Weiland; FJW Consulting, 'European Automotive Remanufacturing - Where is it Heading?')

[11] http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Topics/Environment/climatechange/scotlands-action/climatechangeact

[12] BS 8887-2:2009 Design for manufacture, assembly, disassembly and end-of-life processing ( MADE). Terms and definitions - http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-scotland-scotland-business-14249227

[13] 'Towards the Circular Economy', Ellen MacArthur Foundation, Vol. 1, 2012

[14] Duty of Care - A Code of Practice, Scottish Government, October 2012

[15] Automotive Parts Remanufacturer Association Europe - http://www.apra-europe.org/main.php?target=news&contentid=2077

[16] 'Towards the Circular Economy', Ellen MacArthur Foundation, Vol. 1, p.28, 2012

[17] http://www.nissan-global.com/EN/ENVIRONMENT/DEALER/GREEN_SHOP/RECONDITIONED_PART

[18] Kohler, H., 'The Contribution of Remanufacturing to Resource Efficiency - Activities at Mercedes Benz, publicly available company presentation, 2012

[19] ReMaTecNews, Vol 11, No. 2, p.12, 2011

[20] http://www.caterpillar.com/company/global-footprint/europe-africa-middle-east/united-kingdom/key-facilities

[21] 'Towards the Circular Economy', Ellen MacArthur Foundation, Vol. 1, p.28, 2012

[22] Sundin, E. And Dunback, O., 'Reverse logistics challenges in remanufacturing of automotive mechatronic devices', Journal of remanufacturing, 2013, 3:2 - http://www.journalofremanufacturing.com/content/3/1/2

[23] An information sharing system between car producers and dismantlers, developed to meet legal obligations under the ELV Directive by supporting the depollution process - covers 1775 different models from 69 car brands - http://www.idis2.com

[24] BS 8887-220:2010 Design for manufacture, assembly, disassembly and end-of-life processing ( MADE). The process of remanufacture. Specification

[25] Centre for Remanufacturing and Reuse, 'Public Procurement of remanufactured goods' 2011 - http://www.remanufacturing.org.uk/pdf/story/1p484.pdf

[26] 'European Automotive Remanufacturing - Technical Trends and Market Development' (Ed. Fernand J. Weiland), p.134 (Paper by Fernand L. Weiland; FJW Consulting, 'European Automotive Remanufacturing - Where is it Heading?')

[27] 'European Automotive Remanufacturing - Technical Trends and Market Development' (Ed. Fernand J. Weiland), p.158 (Paper by Fernand L. Weiland; FJW Consulting, 'European Automotive Remanufacturing - Where is it Heading?')

[28] 'European Automotive Remanufacturing - Technical Trends and Market Development' (Ed. Fernand J. Weiland), p.157 (Paper by Fernand L. Weiland; FJW Consulting, 'European Automotive Remanufacturing - Where is it Heading?')

[29] Information supplied via personal communication with Dr Winifred Ijomah, University of Strathclyde

[30] 'From Recycling to Remanufacturing - a success story in China', Presentation at the Remanufacturing World Summit, Bayreuth, 2012 (Wu and Koehler)

[31] http://www.reman.rit.edu

[32] www.artc.a-star.edu.sg

[33] 'The End of Life Vehicle Regulations 2003, 2005 and 2010', Government Guidance Notes, BIS, July 2010

[34] Data and information provided via personal communication with BIS, November 2012

[35] Based on Certificates of Destruction data provided by the Department of Business, Innovation & Skills (2009 - 110,677, 2010 - 93,112 and 2011 - 96,717 CoDs issued by ATFs in Scotland)

[36] http://www.bis.gov.uk/assets/biscore/business-sectors/docs/d/11-528-depolluting-end-of-life-vehicles-guidance.pdf

[37] http://www.sepa.org.uk/waste/waste_regulation/producer_responsibility/end_of_life_vehicles/end_of_life_vehicles_faqs.aspx

[38] For example, www.atfprofessional.co.uk

[39] Data for the number of CODs issued in 2010 and the number of second-hand car exports in the same year were supplied via personal communication from BIS, November 2012

[40] Zoras, A. Et al, 'Automotive industry challenges in meeting EU 2015 environmental standard', Technology in Society 34(2012) pp. 55-83

[41] Coates, G. et al, 'Assessing the economics of pre-fragmentation material recovery within the UK', Resources, Conservation and Recycling 52(2007) 286-302

[42] Commission staff working document accompanying the report on the targets contained in article 7(2)(b) of directive 2000/53/EC on ELV - impact assessment SEC(2007)14, p.54

[43] Commission staff working document accompanying the report on the targets contained in article 7(2)(b) of directive 2000/53/EC on ELV - impact assessment SEC(2007)14, p.52

[44] http://www.atfprofessional.co.uk/1204overton.aspx

[45] Taken from Zoras, A. Et al, 'Automotive industry challenges in meeting EU 2015 environmental standard', Technology in Society 34(2012) pp. 55-83

[46] http://www.mrw.co.uk/news/bmra-welcomes-elv-energy-recovery-decision/8638206.article

[47] Zoras, A. Et al, 'Automotive industry challenges in meeting EU 2015 environmental standard', Technology in Society 34 (2012) pp. 55-83

[48] 'Breakthrough Moment', Recycling Today Global, pp. 30-32, May 2012

[49] Vermeulen, I. et al, 'Automotive shredder residue ( ASR): Reviewing its production from end-of-life vehicles ( ELVs) and its recycling, energy or chemical valorisation', Journal of Hazardous Materials 190 (2011) p. 16

[50] 'Breakthrough Moment', Recycling Today Global, pp. 30-32, May 2012

[51] 'Making raw materials available for Europe's future wellbeing - proposal for a European innovation partnership on raw material', European Commission communication - COM(2012) 82 final, 2012, p.3

[52] Alonso, E., Wallington, T., Sherman, A., Everson, M. et al., "An Assessment of the Rare Earth Element Content of Conventional and Electric Vehicles," SAE Int. J. Mater. Manf. 5(2):2012, doi:10.4271/2012-01-1061.

[53] 'Rare earth metals in short supply?', article in Engineering and Technology magazine, 23 rd April 2012

[54] 'Japan Recycles Minerals from Used Electronics', article in the New York Times, 10 th October 2010

[55] 'Hitachi technology to recycle rare-earth magnets', article in Recycling International website, 2012

[56] 'Honda announces large rare earth recycling effort', article in Ceramic Technology Today, 23 rd April 2012

[57] 'Rare earth metals in short supply?', article in Engineering and Technology magazine, 23 rd April 2012

[58] 'Research into rare earths from electric motors', article in Recycling International, Jan/Feb 2012, p.8

[59] 'Rare Earth Element Recycling Joint Venture Launched', article in Waste Management World, 18 th February 2011

[60] 'Engineers seek to extract rare earth metals from scrap', article in The Engineer website, 19 th September 2012

[61] Feedback was received from members of the European Group of Automotive Recycling Associations about the situation in Ireland, Switzerland, Poland, Netherlands, Denmark and Sweden

[62] Togawa K., 'Japan's Automotive Recycling System: Evaluation Three Years after Implementation', in Promoting 3Rs In Developing Countries. Lessons from Japanese Experiences, Edited by M. Kojima, IDE Spot Survey 30, Institute of Developing Economies, IDE- JETRO, pp. 107-124, 2008

[63] Kitagawa K., 'Automotive Recycling in Europe, Japan & North America', Presentation by the JICA Expert Team for ELV Management Plan in Mexico, Japan Productivity Centre

[64] Willis K.P., Osada S. & Willerton K., 'Plasma gasification: Lessons learned at EcoValley WTE Facility' [Japan], Proceedings on the 18 th Annual North American Waste to Energy Conference, May 2010

[65] Directive 2000/53/EC of The European Parliament and of The Council of 18 September 2000 on end-of-life vehicles, Official Journal of the European Commission, L269/34, 21.10.2000

[66] 'End of Life Vehicles: Legal aspects, national practices and recommendations for successful approach'. DG for Internal Policies for the European Parliament, IP/A/ENVI/ST/2010-07, October 2010

[67] The End-of-Life Vehicles (Storage and Treatment) (Scotland) Regulations 2003 - Guidance on the Keeping and Treatment of Waste Motor Vehicles and Conditions of Site Licences, Scottish Environment and Rural Affairs Department, 2003

[68] 'End of Life Vehicles: Legal aspects, national practices and recommendations for successful approach'. DG for Internal Policies for the European Parliament, IP/A/ENVI/ST/2010-07, October 2010

[69] Backfilling refers to a recovery operation where a suitable waste is used for reclamation purposes in evacuated areas or for engineering purposes in landscaping and where the waste is a substitute for non-waste materials. For example, using ASR to fill voids in depleted salt mines.

[70] 'End of Life Vehicles: Legal aspects, national practices and recommendations for successful approach'. DG for Internal Policies for the European Parliament, IP/A/ENVI/ST/2010-07, October 2010

[71] 'End of Life Vehicles: Legal aspects, national practices and recommendations for successful approach'. DG for Internal Policies for the European Parliament, IP/A/ENVI/ST/2010-07, October 2010

[72] Togawa K., 'Japan's Automotive Recycling System: Evaluation Three Years after Implementation', in Promoting 3Rs In Developing Countries. Lessons from Japanese Experiences, Edited by M. Kojima, IDE Spot Survey 30, Institute of Developing Economies, IDE-JETRO, pp. 107-124, 2008

[73] Kitagawa K., 'Automotive Recycling in Europe, Japan & North America', Presentation by the JICA Expert Team for ELV Management Plan in Mexico, Japan Productivity Centre

[74] Togawa K., 'Japan's Automotive Recycling System: Evaluation Three Years after Implementation', in Promoting 3Rs In Developing Countries. Lessons from Japanese Experiences, Edited by M. Kojima, IDE Spot Survey 30, Institute of Developing Economies, IDE- JETRO, pp. 107-124, 2008

[75] Willis K.P., Osada S. & Willerton K., 'Plasma gasification: Lessons learned at EcoValley WTE Facility' [Japan], Proceedings on the 18 th Annual North American Waste to Energy Conference, May 2010

[76] Aftermarket parts are new parts but are not produced by the vehicle manufacturers. They tend to be a lower cost option relative to the original equipment supplied by the vehicle manufacturers.

[77] Automotive Recycling UK, MVDA, Issue 115 3 rd Quarter 2012, p.15

[78] Automotive Recycling UK, MVDA, Issue 111 3 rd Quarter 2011, p.9

[79] A publicly available specification ( PAS) is step towards standardisation based on a consensus driven approach involving the key stakeholders of the sector involved. It provides an agreed framework against which goods and services can be provided

[80] West Yorkshire Police - http://www.westyorkshire.police.uk/news/national-agreement-secured-disposal-and-recycling-police-vehicles

[81] Based on discussions with Scottish public sector procurement representatives

[82] ' EU 27 Steel scrap statistics on imports/exports and steelwork consumption', European Ferrous Recovery and Recycling Federation, 2012

[83] 'A study to examine the costs and benefits of the ELV Directive. Annex 2: Arisings and Treatment of ELVs - Report to DG Environment', GHK/ Bio Intelligence Services, 2006, p.18

[84] Commission staff working document accompanying the report on the targets contained in article 7(2)(b) of directive 2000/53/EC on ELV - impact assessment SEC(2007)14, p.48

[85] Commission staff working document accompanying the report on the targets contained in article 7(2)(b) of directive 2000/53/EC on ELV - impact assessment SEC (2007) 14, p.49

[86] 'China faces rare-earth legal challenge', article in Recycling International, April 2012, p. 10

[87] 'Towards the Circular Economy', Ellen MacArthur Foundation, Vol. 1, Fig 8, p.66, 2012

[88] Transport and Travel in Scotland 2010, Table S1, Scottish Government - http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Publications/2011/08/31092528/9

[89] Based on Certificate of Destruction figures provided by BIS - personal communication 28/09/12

[90] 2010 and 2011 estimates are based on Certificate of Destruction figures for Scotland provided by BIS - personal communication 28/09/12

[91] 'Projection of end-of-life vehicles - Development of a projection model and estimates of ELVs for 2005 to 2030', European Topic Centre on Resource and Waste Management (for European Environment Agency), 2008, pp. 18-20

[92] 'A study to examine the costs and benefits of the ELV Directive - Report to DG Environment', GHK/ Bio Intelligence Services, 2006

[93] SMMT forecasts UK new car and LCV registrations to 2013

[94] 'Investigation into the scope for the Transport Sector to switch to Electric Vehicles and Plug-in Hybrid Vehicles', BERR/DfT, 2008, p.5

[95] 'Case study on EV recycling', Recycling International, Spring 2010

[96] 'A study to examine the costs and benefits of the ELV Directive - Report to DG Environment', GSK/ Bio Intelligence Services, Annex 2, Table 9, 2006

[97] Commission staff working document accompanying the report on the targets contained in article 7(2)(b) of directive 2000/53/EC on ELV - impact assessment SEC(2007)14, p.45

[98] Zoras, A. Et al, 'Automotive industry challenges in meeting EU 2015 environmental standard', Technology in Society 34(2012) pp. 55-83

[99] Ferrao, P. et al, 'Assessing the economics of auto recycling activities in relation to EU Directive on End of Life Vehicles', Technological Forecasting and Social Change 73 (2006) pp. 277-289

[100] Commission staff working document accompanying the report on the targets contained in article 7(2)(b) of directive 2000/53/EC on ELV - impact assessment SEC(2007)14, p.7

[101] 'A study to examine the costs and benefits of the ELV Directive - Report to DG Environment', GHK/ Bio Intelligence Services, 2006, Table 5.5, p.74

[102] Eurostat ELV data - http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/portal/page/portal/waste/key_waste_streams/end_of_life_vehicles_elvs

[103] Based upon 'Producer Responsibility: Policy Evaluation - Final Report to the Scottish Government', Eunomia, 2011, Table 10-6, p. 127

[104] Based on industry feedback on price for granulated bumper plastic

[105] Straetmans, B. ' SRF Market Views in Europe', International Workshop on SRF, 2010, European Recovered Fuel Organisation - Potential value for SRF meeting CEN TC 343 in use for co-processing in cement plants and/or co-firing in coal power plants

[106] Values estimated through discussions with two technology suppliers/operators. The zero value of the residue as an aggregate is viewed as a conservative estimate

[107] Automotive Recycling UK, MVDA, Issue 111 3 rd Quarter 2011, p.9

[108] Zero Waste Scotland

[109] http://www.innovateuk.org/content/competition/resource-efficiency-new-designs-for-a-circular-eco.ashx

[110] http://www.revolvereuse.com


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