Information

Racist Incidents Recorded by the Police in Scotland, 2012-13

Racist Incidents Recorded by the Police in Scotland, 2012-13


3. Commentary

The statistics on racist incidents are used to inform National Outcome 9 - 'we live our lives safe from crime, disorder and danger', National Outcome 11 - 'we have strong, resilient and supportive communities where people take responsibility for their own actions and how they affect others', as well as The Strategy for Justice in Scotland.

The Police and Fire Reform (Scotland) Act 2012 changed the policing landscape in Scotland, replacing the eight police forces, the Scottish Police Services Authority and the Scottish Crime and Drug Enforcement Agency from 1 April 2013. The Police Service of Scotland is now responsible for operational policing in Scotland and will be held to account by the Scottish Police Authority. The statistics set out in this bulletin cover the year immediately preceding the establishment of the Police Service of Scotland.

Users of the statistics should note that data on the number of racist incidents recorded by the police in Scotland is only available from 2004-05 onwards.

3.1. Incidents recorded by the police (tables 1 and 2, and charts 1 and 2)

  • In 2012-13, a total of 4,628 racist incidents were recorded by the police in Scotland, a 14% decrease on the 5,389 racist incidents recorded in 2011-12. This continues the generally downward trend seen in the data since 2006-07.
  • Six of the eight police forces recorded a decrease in the number of racist incidents between 2011-12 and 2012-13. Dumfries and Galloway recorded 68 incidents, the same number as in 2011-12 and Northern recorded 119 incidents, 12 more than in 2011-12.
  • The number of racist incidents, as a rate per 10,000 population, is generally higher in urban areas. In 2012-13, the number of racist incidents recorded per 10,000 population was highest in Glasgow City (21 per 10,000 population), followed by City of Edinburgh (19 per 10,000 population) and Aberdeen City (15 per 10,000 population).
  • It should be noted that there are a number of factors that may influence the number of racist incidents recorded by the police. One factor is that police forces are continuing to work with a range of victim support agencies to encourage reporting of such incidents. Other factors may be an increasing public intolerance of such behaviour, and increased public confidence that reporting such incidents is worthwhile. There have also been improvements in data collection by police forces, while the introduction of centralised call centres may have also encouraged the reporting of incidents.

Chart 2 Racist incidents recorded by the police per 10,000 population, by local authority area, 2012-13

Chart 2 Racist incidents recorded by the police per 10,000 population, by local authority area, 2012-13

3.2. Detail of the incidents (tables 3, 4, 5 and 6, and charts 3 and 4)

  • Various details were recorded in relation to each racist incident, such as the location where the incident took place, the date and time of the incident, and whether a crime was recorded as part of the incident.

Chart 3 Location of racist incidents, Scotland, 2012-13

Chart 3 Location of racist incidents, Scotland, 2012-13

  • The most common locations (excluding 47 incidents where location was unknown) for an incident in 2012-13 were the street (32%), a dwelling house (22%) and in a shop (17%). Other locations included a pub/ place of entertainment (6%) and restaurant/ takeaway (6%).

Chart 4 Racist incidents by weekday and time, Scotland, 2004-05 to 2012-13

Chart 4 Racist incidents by weekday and time, Scotland, 2004-05 to 2012-13

  • Just over half of all racist incidents (51%) were recorded between Friday and Sunday, with the remaining 49% spread fairly evenly throughout the other four days of the week. Chart 4 shows that racist incidents peak between 6pm and midnight on every day of the week, with the exception of Sunday where racist incidents peak between midnight and 6am. (Table 5).
  • In 2012-13, where the person making the initial report about the incident was known (3,418 incidents), over two thirds of incidents were reported to the police by the victim/complainer, which is the same as in 2011-12. From 2009-10 onwards, Lothian & Borders Police have been unable to provide information on who reported the incident and these incidents are included as unknown (Table 6) (see note 4.3).

3.3. Crimes recorded (tables 1, 7a, and 7b)

  • In 2012-13, 96% of racist incidents recorded by the police resulted in one or more crimes being recorded. A total of 5,228 crimes were recorded as part of racist incidents in 2012-13, a 19% decrease on the 6,472 crimes recorded in 2011-12 (Table 1).
  • In 2012-13, the crime/offence most frequently recorded as part of a racist incident was racially aggravated conduct, which accounted for 52% of all crimes recorded. Other crimes/offences recorded as part of a racist incident included breach of the peace etc. (25%), common assault (12%) and fire-raising, vandalism etc. (4%). In 2012-13, these four crimes and offences accounted for 92% of all crime and offences recorded as part of a racist incident, similar to the 93% in 2011-12 (Table 7a). Definitions of racially aggravated conduct and racially aggravated harassment are included in note 4.6.
  • Overall, 71% of all crimes recorded by the police as part of a racist incident in 2012-13 were cleared up, this compares with a clear-up rate of 68% in 2011-12. The clear-up rate varies depending on the crime recorded as part of the incident, with 43% of crimes involving fire-raising, vandalism etc. being cleared up in 2012-13, compared to a clear-up rate of 77% for racially aggravated conduct. However, note that there were 211 crimes of fire-raising, vandalism etc. recorded as part of an incident, compared to 2,694 offences of racially aggravated conduct. The clear-up rate for racially aggravated conduct has shown an increase every year since the data collection began in 2004-05, where the clear up rate was 56% (Table 7b). The definition of 'cleared-up' can be found in note 4.5.

3.4. Victims/complainers of racist incidents (tables 8, 8a, 10 and 11 and chart 5)

  • The victim/complainer is the person who perceived the incident to be racist and the complainer may not necessarily be the person(s) at whom the racist incident was targeted. See note 4.6 for further information. Data on the characteristics of victims/complainers should therefore be treated with caution.
  • Where ethnic group was known (5,004 victims/complainers), 41% of victims/complainers were of an Asian ethnic group (that is Indian, Pakistani, Bangladeshi, Chinese or Other Asian). The largest groups of victims/complainers were Pakistani and White British each accounting for 23% of the total victims/complainers, where ethnic group was known. Ethnicity of victims/complainers for Scotland as a whole can only be reported at an aggregate level as detailed in Table 8.
  • Seven police forces were able to provide more disaggregated ethnic group information (2,917 victims/complainers), Pakistani, Pakistani Scottish or Pakistani British (19%), Other White (16%) and White Scottish (13%) were the largest groups of victims/complainers of racist incidents in 2012-13. Strathclyde police force (which accounts for 45% of the victims/complainers in 2012-13) was not able to provide this level of ethnic group information (Table 8a).
  • Where age and gender were known (5,034 victims/complainers), 71% of victims/complainers of racist incidents recorded in 2012-13 were male, and this has remained relatively unchanged from previous years. Both males and females are most at risk of being a victim/complainer of a racist incidents when aged 26 to 35 years (42 per 10,000 population and 14 per 10,000 population, respectively) (Table 10).

Chart 5 Rate per 10,000 population of victims/complainers1 and perpetrators of racist incidents, by age and gender of victim/complainer1, Scotland, 2012-13

Chart 5 Rate per 10,000 population of victims/complainers and perpetrators of racist incidents, by age and gender of victim/complainer, Scotland, 2012-13

1. The victim/complainer is the person who perceived the incident to be racist. The complainer may not necessarily be the person(s) at whom the racist incident was targeted. See note 4.6.

  • In 2012-13, 70% of victims/complainers were reporting to the police for the first time. 13% of victims/complainers had previously reported one or two racist incidents to the police in the previous two years and 8% had previously reported 3 or more incidents. A further 9% of victims/complainers were known to have reported incidents to the police previously, but the number of times was unknown. Note that these percentages were based on those incidents for which previous incident information was known (4,949 victims/ complainers). Central Scotland Police force was unable to provide information on the number of previous incidents reported by the victim/complainer from 2010-11 onwards (Table 11).

3.5. Perpetrators of racist incidents (tables 12, 13, 14 and 15, and chart 5)

  • Information about perpetrators of racist incidents may only be fully available where the incident was resolved, and any crime involved has been cleared up (see note 4.5 for definition of cleared up).
  • Where information on the ethnic group of perpetrators was available (4,277 perpetrators) in 2012-13, 95% of perpetrators were of white group, including White British (82%), White Irish (1%) and Other White (13%) (which includes Gypsy / Traveller and Polish White) (Table 12).
  • Where age and gender was known (4,269 perpetrators), 21% of perpetrators in 2012-13 were under the age of 16 years, and therefore making them eligible for referral to the Scottish Children's Reporter Administration (SCRA) rather than the Procurator Fiscal. Males accounted for over three quarters of perpetrators of racist incidents recorded by the police in 2012-13 (Table 14).
  • Perpetrators of a racist incident, males were more likely to be aged 16 to 20 years (34 per 10,000 population) and females most likely to be aged 16 to 20 years or 21 to 25 years (both 8 per 10,000 population). The 16 to 20 age group has the highest rate per 10,000 population for both males and females in each year covered by the statistical bulletin (Table 14).

Chart 6 Action taken against perpetrators of racist incidents, Scotland, 2004-05 to 2012-13

Chart 6 Action taken against perpetrators of racist incidents, Scotland, 2004-05 to 2012-13

1. Lothian & Borders Police were unable to provide data on the police action taken with regard to the perpetrator from 2009-10 onwards.

Where action taken by the police was known (3,243 perpetrators), 79% of perpetrators in 2012-13 were referred to the Procurator Fiscal or SCRA, while 2% received a police warning. No further action was taken against 8% of perpetrators of racist incidents recorded by the police in 2012-13 (Table 15). Information from 2009-10 onwards is based on all forces apart from Lothian & Borders, who were unable to provide data on the police action taken with regard to the perpetrator (see note 4.3).

Table 1 Racist incidents recorded, by police force area, 2004-05 to 2012-13

Number
Police force   2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 2010-11 2011-12 2012-13
Central Total Incidents 280 355 357 336 381 267 278 332 313
  Incidents which involved 1 or more crimes1 277 354 348 336 381 266 278 323 307
  Total Crimes 402 571 525 522 566 404 337 403 344
Dumfries & Galloway Total Incidents 78 89 102 64 98 78 66 68 68
  Incidents which involved 1 or more crimes1 69 74 76 58 82 67 62 61 65
  Total Crimes 85 91 95 58 95 74 69 64 72
Fife2 Total Incidents 302 241 193 149 138 139 209 220 180
  Incidents which involved 1 or more crimes1 276 206 193 149 138 139 209 216 171
  Total Crimes 464 355 271 218 187 177 260 252 173
Grampian Total Incidents 437 386 439 391 621 624 629 577 446
  Incidents which involved 1 or more crimes1 435 386 436 390 607 621 629 577 441
  Total Crimes 701 674 877 735 1,072 1,158 906 801 537
Lothian & Borders Total Incidents 814 1,292 1,521 1,391 1,112 1,158 1,083 1,337 1,210
  Incidents which involved 1 or more crimes1 814 1,292 1,521 1,391 1,112 1,154 1,083 1,337 1,210
  Total Crimes 913 1,306 1,543 1,493 1,366 1,348 1,368 1,579 1,384
Northern Total Incidents 123 128 123 140 138 89 78 107 119
  Incidents which involved 1 or more crimes1 116 128 120 138 138 88 67 90 108
  Total Crimes 217 143 144 188 139 89 94 94 108
Strathclyde Total Incidents 2,152 2,216 2,213 2,396 2,289 2,321 2,284 2,478 2,038
  Incidents which involved 1 or more crimes1 1,939 2,075 2,051 2,193 2,212 2,269 2,190 2,438 1,905
  Total Crimes 2,620 2,900 2,823 3,082 2,824 2,896 2,812 2,969 2,324
Tayside Total Incidents 333 405 374 380 368 284 284 270 254
  Incidents which involved 1 or more crimes1 332 405 374 380 368 284 284 270 254
  Total Crimes 332 404 376 380 368 324 327 310 286
Scotland Total Incidents 4,519 5,112 5,322 5,247 5,145 4,960 4,911 5,389 4,628
  Incidents which involved 1 or more crimes1 4,258 4,920 5,119 5,035 5,038 4,888 4,802 5,312 4,461
  Total Crimes 5,734 6,444 6,654 6,676 6,617 6,470 6,173 6,472 5,228

1. The number of incidents in which a crime was recorded has been subject to a minor revision between 2004-05 and 2010-11 following the discovery of an error in the way these figures had been extracted in previous years. See note 4.3.

2. A restructuring of recording methodology and data management arrangements in Fife Constabulary from April 2011 resulted in an increase in the number of racist incidents.

Table 2 Racist incidents recorded, by local authority area, 2004-05 to 2012-13

Number & Rate per 10,000 population
  2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 2010-11 2011-12 2012-13
Local Authority Number Rate per 10,000 population1 Number Rate per 10,000 population1 Number Rate per 10,000 population1 Number Rate per 10,000 population1 Number Rate per 10,000 population1 Number Rate per 10,000 population1 Number Rate per 10,000 population1 Number Rate per 10,000 population1 Number Rate per 10,000 population1
Aberdeen City 313 15 267 13 309 15 322 15 483 23 451 21 464 21 429 19 327 15
Aberdeenshire 86 4 75 3 88 4 31 1 107 4 90 4 90 4 96 4 80 3
Angus 46 4 66 6 55 5 50 5 65 6 45 4 49 4 55 5 32 3
Argyll & Bute 33 4 25 3 43 5 34 4 25 3 26 3 32 4 45 5 34 4
Clackmannanshire 50 10 49 10 58 12 58 12 53 10 41 8 35 7 68 13 52 10
Dumfries & Galloway 78 5 89 6 102 7 64 4 98 7 78 5 66 4 68 4 68 5
Dundee City 217 15 246 17 242 17 244 17 215 15 160 11 157 11 154 10 141 10
East Ayrshire 75 6 67 6 78 7 69 6 71 6 81 7 74 6 70 6 53 4
East Dunbartonshire 41 4 33 3 33 3 42 4 38 4 41 4 40 4 31 3 30 3
East Lothian 28 3 38 4 64 7 54 6 35 4 35 4 47 5 53 5 56 6
East Renfrewshire 48 5 55 6 40 4 33 4 36 4 40 4 43 5 48 5 21 2
Edinburgh, City of 599 13 972 21 1,179 25 1,021 22 822 17 898 19 844 17 1,017 21 916 19
Eilean Siar 18 7 12 5 8 3 10 4 11 4 6 2 3 1 - - 2 1
Falkirk 160 11 182 12 167 11 171 11 215 14 124 8 152 10 151 10 160 10
Fife 302 9 241 7 193 5 149 4 138 4 139 4 209 6 220 6 180 5
Glasgow City 1,226 21 1,277 22 1,209 21 1,301 22 1,256 21 1,318 22 1,328 22 1,499 25 1,220 21
Highland 97 5 107 5 107 5 122 6 123 6 81 4 68 3 94 4 100 4
Inverclyde 32 4 36 4 31 4 52 6 38 5 20 2 27 3 40 5 25 3
Midlothian 52 7 81 10 40 5 65 8 43 5 35 4 46 6 60 7 57 7
Moray 38 4 44 5 42 5 38 4 31 4 83 9 75 9 52 6 39 4
North Ayrshire 91 7 103 8 102 8 99 7 100 7 92 7 88 7 113 8 91 7
North Lanarkshire 181 6 207 6 234 7 282 9 249 8 252 8 220 7 205 6 188 6
Orkney Islands 4 2 4 2 3 2 5 3 2 1 2 1 4 2 8 4 8 4
Perth & Kinross 70 5 93 7 77 5 86 6 88 6 79 5 78 5 61 4 81 5
Renfrewshire 131 8 86 5 130 8 123 7 118 7 122 7 145 9 136 8 150 9
Scottish Borders 26 2 43 4 41 4 47 4 46 4 43 4 38 3 27 2 37 3
Shetland Islands 4 2 5 2 5 2 3 1 2 1 - - 3 1 5 2 9 4
South Ayrshire 42 4 64 6 45 4 63 6 53 5 77 7 50 4 62 5 47 4
South Lanarkshire 162 5 181 6 199 6 212 7 210 7 179 6 168 5 139 4 127 4
Stirling 70 8 124 14 132 15 107 12 113 13 102 11 91 10 113 13 101 11
West Dunbartonshire 90 10 82 9 69 8 86 9 95 10 73 8 69 8 90 10 52 6
West Lothian 109 7 158 10 197 12 204 12 166 10 147 9 108 6 180 10 144 8
Scotland 4,519 9 5,112 10 5,322 10 5,247 10 5,145 10 4,960 10 4,911 9 5,389 10 4,628 9

1. Population data used to calculate these rates are the relevant mid year population estimates prepared by the National Records of Scotland: http://www.gro-scotland.gov.uk/statistics/theme/population/estimates/mid-year/index.html.

Table 3 Racist incidents recorded, by location of incident, Scotland, 2004-05 to 2012-13

Number & Percentage
Location 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 2008-091 2009-102 2010-11 2011-12 2012-13 % breakdown 2012-13
Dwelling house (including garden) 804 845 1,418 913 895 715 933 997 993 22
Street 1,396 1,763 1,818 1,626 1,652 1,240 1,623 1,801 1,469 32
Shop 1,101 1,145 823 1,121 718 677 834 919 779 17
Restaurant/Takeaway 388 449 353 389 369 317 390 331 265 6
Other Business 129 164 122 144 430 116 128 189 136 3
Public transport/bus stop 51 74 73 88 143 72 95 97 103 2
School/College 73 71 59 69 65 51 55 77 74 2
Sporting Venue 17 21 22 24 126 19 32 41 27 1
Pub/place of public entertainment 143 185 148 214 195 219 271 359 265 6
Place of Worship 12 28 19 31 13 11 15 21 11 0
Medical Establishment (e.g. hospital, health centre) 47 61 50 59 58 49 72 90 81 2
Other 358 305 417 566 468 331 463 389 378 8
Unknown - 1 - 3 13 1,143 - 78 47  
Total 4,519 5,112 5,322 5,247 5,145 4,960 4,911 5,389 4,628 100%

1. Information for 2008-09 is not directly comparable with previous years due to changes in recording practices for Lothian & Borders Police force. Please see note 4.3.

2. Information on location of incident was not available for 2009-10 for Lothian & Borders Police force. Please see note 4.3.

Table 4 Racist incidents recorded, by quarter, Scotland, 2004-05 to 2012-13

Number
Quarter1 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 2010-11 2011-12 2012-13
April to June 1,221 1,207 1,303 1,599 1,341 1,354 1,365 1,349 1,256
July to September 1,187 1,508 1,465 1,399 1,230 1,276 1,189 1,468 1,213
October to December 1,138 1,267 1,317 1,147 1,252 1,264 1,210 1,309 1,110
January to March 973 1,130 1,237 1,102 1,322 1,066 1,147 1,263 1,049
Total 4,519 5,112 5,322 5,247 5,145 4,960 4,911 5,389 4,628

1. Where the date was unknown, forces were asked to record as 15th of month; if month was unknown, forces were asked to record as 15th June.

Table 5 Racist incidents recorded, by day of week, Scotland, 2004-05 to 2012-13

Number
Day1 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 2010-11 2011-12 2012-13
Monday 569 639 624 621 642 573 570 687 593
Tuesday 538 576 624 661 595 544 585 597 544
Wednesday 557 600 652 641 593 585 561 649 556
Thursday 571 629 628 635 631 629 626 631 566
Friday 789 915 892 859 855 792 739 869 678
Saturday 834 999 1,088 1,037 984 1,012 973 1,042 930
Sunday 661 754 814 793 845 825 857 914 761
Total 4,519 5,112 5,322 5,247 5,145 4,960 4,911 5,389 4,628

1. Where the date was unknown, forces were asked to record as 15th of month; if month unknown, asked to record as 15th June. The 'day' variable was then calculated from this date. Some days will therefore include unknown values.

Table 6 Racist incidents recorded, by category of person making initial report, Scotland, 2004-05 to 2012-13

Number
Reporter 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 2010-11 2011-12 2012-13
Victim/complainer1 3,833 4,391 4,373 3,987 3,737 2,867 2,778 2,800 2,353
Police 158 220 350 518 671 329 355 462 400
Third part agency report 31 74 38 50 73 80 67 68 52
Witness 282 213 331 404 419 356 453 574 459
Other 215 214 230 285 230 170 175 148 154
Unknown2 - - - 3 15 1,158 1,083 1,337 1,210
Total 4,519 5,112 5,322 5,247 5,145 4,960 4,911 5,389 4,628

1. The victim/complainer is the person who perceived the incident to be racist. The complainer may not necessarily be the person(s) at whom the racist incident was targeted. See note 4.6.

2. Information on person making initial report was not available for Lothian & Borders Police force for 2009-10 onwards.

Table 7a Crimes recorded by the police as part of racist incidents, Scotland, 2004-05 to 2012-13

Number
Crimes recorded 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 2010-11 2011-12 2012-13
Crimes of violence and sexual offences 69 83 77 65 84 60 74 73 44
Crimes of dishonesty 62 67 83 73 72 91 48 52 40
Fire-raising, vandalism etc. 468 571 473 456 366 403 353 325 211
Other crimes 82 96 105 84 69 94 46 34 24
Total offences - of which 5,053 5,627 5,916 5,989 6,026 5,822 5,652 5,988 4,909
Common assault 750 876 908 812 739 884 848 803 608
Breach of the peace etc.1 915 795 859 1,066 1,125 829 820 1,201 1,285
Racially aggravated harassment 360 300 237 247 228 183 159 121 119
Racially aggravated conduct 2,969 3,583 3,808 3,778 3,815 3,801 3,683 3,658 2,694
Other offences 59 73 104 86 119 125 142 205 203
Unknown crimes/offences - - - 6 - - - - -
Total 5,734 6,444 6,654 6,673 6,617 6,470 6,173 6,472 5,228

1. Includes Breach of the peace, Threatening or abusive behaviour, Offence of stalking, Offensive behaviour at football and Threatening communications (Offensive Behaviour at Football and Threatening Communications Act 2012). See note 4.8.

Table 7b Clear-up rate of crimes recorded by the police as part of racist incidents, Scotland, 2004-05 to 2012-13

Percentage
Crimes cleared up 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 2010-11 2011-12 2012-13
Crimes of violence and sexual offences 49 34 48 55 62 70 69 73 73
Crimes of dishonesty 48 46 47 48 63 65 52 62 60
Fire-raising, vandalism etc. 33 32 38 36 35 47 37 38 43
Other crimes 82 81 90 85 86 94 89 85 100
Total offences - of which 56 56 60 60 65 68 69 70 72
Common assault 51 53 55 57 63 69 68 69 71
Breach of the peace etc.1 62 56 67 62 71 73 70 60 64
Racially aggravated harassment 57 46 57 57 61 63 67 62 74
Racially aggravated conduct 56 58 60 60 64 68 70 75 77
Other offences 24 32 38 29 46 61 44 51 57
Total 54 54 58 58 63 67 67 68 71

1. Includes Breach of the peace, Threatening or abusive behaviour, Offence of stalking, Offensive behaviour at football and Threatening communications (Offensive Behaviour at Football and Threatening Communications Act 2012). See note 4.8.

Table 8 Ethnic group of victims/complainers1 of racist incidents, Scotland, 2004-05 to 2012-13

Number & Percentage
Ethnic Group2 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 2010-11 2011-12 2012-13 % breakdown (where known) 2012-13
White British 826 1,030 983 1,030 1,095 1,158 1,048 1,295 1,139 23
White Irish 63 91 139 121 124 87 131 95 75 1
Other White3 130 122 414 477 509 534 546 700 706 14
Mixed 127 149 170 152 150 129 248 151 173 3
Pakistani 1,773 1,545 1,833 1,654 1,584 1,458 1,376 1,357 1,155 23
Indian 443 431 507 488 609 557 536 486 367 7
Bangladeshi 67 26 67 48 54 62 95 57 43 1
Chinese 151 153 183 117 152 127 110 153 84 2
Other Asian 508 984 532 559 505 497 503 520 395 8
African 321 325 404 443 478 505 416 539 476 10
Caribbean 92 171 59 53 59 46 46 35 24 *
Other Black 118 68 111 181 160 115 249 174 140 3
Other 295 379 339 290 290 323 335 327 227 5
Unknown 145 346 222 177 226 185 267 422 308  
Total 5,059 5,820 5,963 5,790 5,995 5,783 5,906 6,311 5,312 100

1. The victim/complainer is the person who perceived the incident to be racist. The complainer may not necessarily be the person(s) at whom the racist incident was targeted. See note 4.6.

2. See note 4.6 for detail of changes to ethnic group classifications implemented in 2009-10.

3. Includes Gypsy/Traveller, Polish White and Other White.

Further breakdown of ethnic group of victims/complainers of racist incidents

In 2009-10, forces were asked to use the more detailed classification of 21 groups when returning data on the ethnic group of victims/complainers and perpetrators of racist incidents. Due to differences in the recording systems used, not all police forces have been able to provide data using the more detailed classification codes since 2009-10. See note 4.6.

Data provision of ethnic group of victims/complainers and perpetrators, based on 21 category classification

  2009-10 2010-11 2011-12 2012-13
Police Force
Central
Dumfries & Galloway
Fife
Lothian & Borders
Northern
Tayside x
Grampian x x x
Strathclyde x x x x

Table 8a provides a more detailed breakdown of ethnic group where this is available. However, these figures should be treated with caution due to the variation in the number of police forces able to supply the data at this level over the four year period. The inclusion of forces with differing population structures may affect the overall distribution of ethnic classification over time.

In addition, it would not be sensible to use this data as a proxy for Scotland. Strathclyde accounts for 45% (2,395) of all victims/complainers of racist incidents. Due to its population size, (42% of the Scottish population) and diverse ethnic breakdown of population, it is likely that inclusion of Strathclyde would alter this distribution considerably.

  • In 2012-13, in the seven police forces which were able to provide a more detailed breakdown of ethnic classification, 35% of victims/complainers were of an Asian ethnic group (that is Indian, Pakistani, Bangladeshi, Chinese or Other Asian), the largest of these groups being Pakistani, accounting for 19% of victims/complainers. This reflects the overall Scottish picture. A further 23% of victims/complainers of racist incidents were White British, the largest group being White Scottish (13%).
  • Overall, the percentage breakdowns over the four year period are fairly stable. Smaller percentages should be treated with caution since these relate to smaller numbers and will therefore be more volatile over time. Due to the change in numbers of forces able to provide the data at this level over the four year time period, time series should be treated with caution. It is not possible to know if a year on year change is a genuine change or if it is due to the different population structures as more forces were able to begin to provide more detailed data.
  • It is important to note that Ethnicity is a self-defined category; therefore any breakdown of broader ethnic groups will be dependent on how victims/complainers choose to define themselves.

Table 8a Further breakdown of ethnic group of victims/complainers1 of racist incidents for selected2 police force areas in Scotland, 2009-10 to 2012-13

Percentage breakdown
Ethnic Group 2009-103 2010-114 2011-124 2012-135
White Scottish 11 11 13 13
White English 4 4 3 5
White Welsh/White Northern Irish6 1 1 * 2
White British 4 4 5 4
White Irish 1 2 2 1
White Gypsy/Traveller * * * *
White Polish 1 1 1 4
Other White 14 15 14 16
Mixed 2 2 2 3
Pakistani, Pakistani Scottish or Pakistani British 24 22 20 19
Indian, Indian Scottish or Indian British 8 8 6 6
Bangladeshi, Bangladeshi Scottish or Bangladeshi British 1 2 1 1
Chinese, Chinese Scottish or Chinese British 4 2 3 2
Other Asian, Asian Scottish or Asian British 11 9 9 7
African, African Scottish or African British 7 6 7 9
Caribbean, Caribbean Scottish or Caribbean British 1 1 1 *
Black, Black Scottish or Black British * 4 2 1
Other African, Caribbean or Black 2 * 2 2
Other7 4 7 7 4
All victims/complainers (Base=100%) 2,104 2,500 2,697 2,917
Number of police forces able to provide detailed breakdown2 5 6 6 7

1. The victim/complainer is the person who perceived the incident to be racist. The complainer may not necessarily be the person(s) at whom the racist incident was targeted. See note 4.6.

2. Due to differences in the recording systems used, not all police forces have been able to provide data using the more detailed classification codes since 2009-10. See note 4.6.

3. In 2009-10, Grampian, Tayside and Strathclyde were unable to provide data using the detailed classification of ethnic group.

4. In 2010-11 and 2011-12, Grampian and Strathclyde were unable to provide data using the detailed classification of ethnic group.

5. In 2012-13, Strathclyde was unable to provide data using the detailed classification of ethnic group.

6. Includes Welsh White and Northern Irish White. Due to small numbers these categories have been combined.

7. Includes Arab and Other. Due to small numbers, these categories have been combined.

Table 9 Main language of victims/complainers1 of racist incidents, Scotland, 2004-05 to 2012-13

Number
Language 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 2010-11 2011-12 2012-13
English 4,238 4,770 5,058 3,880 3,846 3,559 3,399 4,022 3,263
Other 652 728 637 1,562 806 505 498 510 375
Unknown2,3 169 322 268 348 1,343 1,719 2,009 1,779 1,674
Total 5,059 5,820 5,963 5,790 5,995 5,783 5,906 6,311 5,312

1. The victim/complainer is the person who perceived the incident to be racist. The complainer may not necessarily be the person(s) at whom the racist incident was targeted. See note 4.6.

2. Lothian & Borders Police force have been unable to provide data on main language of victim/complainer from 2008-09 onwards and these victims/complainers have therefore been included as 'unknown'.

3. Central Scotland Police force have been unable to provide information from 2010-11 onwards on the main language of victim/complainer, and these victims/complainers have therefore been included as 'unknown'.

Table 10 Age and gender of victims/complainers1 of racist incidents, Scotland, 2004-05 to 2012-13

Number & Rate per 10,000 population
Gender Age 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 2010-11 2011-12 2012-13 Rate per 10,000 population (2012-13)
Male Under 16 198 218 269 172 217 211 229 220 184 4
16 to 20 279 332 346 306 288 285 286 277 169 10
21 to 25 482 525 664 634 688 649 615 637 490 27
26 to 35 1,172 1,286 1,413 1,315 1,484 1,450 1,545 1,566 1,366 42
36 to 50 1,124 1,285 1,207 1,267 1,328 1,210 1,216 1,294 1,073 19
Over 50 356 346 313 369 341 330 346 420 300 3
Total Male 3,611 3,992 4,212 4,063 4,346 4,135 4,237 4,414 3,582 14
Female Under 16 116 135 200 115 126 115 153 133 111 2
16 to 20 96 109 140 128 108 128 126 116 132 8
21 to 25 165 188 182 203 199 168 183 238 169 9
26 to 35 364 416 383 427 391 427 398 485 462 14
36 to 50 363 455 415 412 413 427 444 475 454 8
Over 50 111 105 108 91 115 128 118 106 124 1
Total Female 1,215 1,408 1,428 1,376 1,352 1,393 1,422 1,553 1,452 5
Unknown gender/age 233 420 323 351 297 255 247 344 278  
Total 5,059 5,820 5,963 5,790 5,995 5,783 5,906 6,311 5,312 10

1. The victim/complainer is the person who perceived the incident to be racist. The complainer may not necessarily be the person(s) at whom the racist incident was targeted. See note 4.6.

Table 11 Number of previous incidents1 reported to police by victim/complainer2, Scotland, 2004-05 to 2012-13

Number
Number of incidents 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 2010-11 2011-12 2012-13
None - first report 3,543 4,157 4,350 3,918 4,043 3,910 3,959 4,073 3,460
1 447 508 517 475 544 541 518 542 441
2 216 241 245 250 240 253 218 255 196
3 121 132 130 143 152 151 134 142 97
4 73 96 74 91 97 79 77 77 70
5 52 61 49 66 69 75 53 54 54
6 47 47 49 34 42 53 37 35 33
7 32 34 36 19 27 41 37 34 24
8 24 21 31 21 24 28 37 27 16
9 20 20 24 16 19 22 22 19 12
10 or more 110 105 150 136 172 124 126 158 95
Repeat incidents but number unknown 288 250 286 602 542 405 367 512 451
Unknown3 86 148 22 19 24 101 321 383 363
Total 5,059 5,820 5,963 5,790 5,995 5,783 5,906 6,311 5,312

1. Previous incidents occurring within the previous two years.

2. The victim/complainer is the person who perceived the incident to be racist. The complainer may not necessarily be the person(s) at whom the racist incident was targeted. See note 4.6.

3. Central Scotland Police force have been unable to provide information on the number of previous incidents reported by the victim/complainer from 2010-11 onwards, and these victims/complainers have therefore been included as 'unknown'.

Table 12 Ethnic group of perpetrators of racist incidents, Scotland, 2004-05 to 2012-13

Number & Percentage
Ethnic Group1 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 2010-11 2011-12 2012-13 % breakdown 2012-13
White British 3,060 3,743 4,320 4,281 4,161 4,219 4,183 4,075 3,498 82
White Irish 16 32 32 58 43 36 71 38 22 1
Other White2,3 19 20 101 61 104 125 661 538 552 13
Mixed 42 14 13 16 24 20 17 18 15 *
Asian4 73 106 132 100 117 99 99 145 103 2
Black5 25 27 69 48 38 46 64 48 55 1
Other 11 22 11 14 26 23 30 26 32 1
Unknown 75 136 404 435 934 936 437 393 264  
Total 3,321 4,100 5,082 5,013 5,447 5,504 5,562 5,281 4,541 100

1. See note 4.6 for detail of changes to ethnic group classifications implemented in 2009-10.

2. Following a transition to the 21 group ethnic classification codes, Central Scotland police force and Lothian & Borders Police force have each had a larger number of perpetrators classing themselves as 'Other White'.

3. Includes Gypsy/Traveller, Polish White and Other White.

4. Includes Indian, Pakistani, Bangladeshi, Chinese and Other Asian.

5. Includes Black African, Black Caribbean and Other Black.

Table 13 Main language of perpetrators of racist incidents, Scotland, 2004-05 to 2012-13

Number
Language 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 2010-11 2011-12 2011-12
English 3,175 3,988 4,651 4,607 3,463 3,154 3,372 3,516 3,045
Other 56 20 38 56 45 31 46 45 40
Unknown1 90 92 393 350 1,939 2,319 2,144 1,720 1,456
Total 3,321 4,100 5,082 5,013 5,447 5,504 5,562 5,281 4,541

1. Lothian & Borders Police force have been unable to provide information on main language of the perpetrator from 2008-09 onwards and these perpetrators have therefore been included as 'unknown'.

Table 14 Age and gender of perpetrators of racist incidents, Scotland, 2004-05 to 2012-13

Number & Rate per 10,000 population
Gender Age 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 2010-11 2011-12 2012-13 Rate per 10,000 population (2012-13)
Male Under 16 591 694 934 791 864 913 900 762 681 15
16 to 20 643 939 911 841 939 1,016 970 765 567 34
21 to 25 341 401 465 501 561 580 586 585 469 26
26 to 35 435 489 612 564 666 659 679 735 661 20
36 to 50 384 464 592 619 626 704 682 708 618 11
Over 50 121 121 202 223 222 203 238 278 283 3
Total Male 2,515 3,108 3,716 3,539 3,878 4,075 4,055 3,833 3,279 13
Female Under 16 162 286 303 228 263 254 288 258 206 5
16 to 20 112 174 223 186 206 209 177 161 137 8
21 to 25 67 78 83 100 112 115 130 143 139 8
26 to 35 158 130 145 174 162 179 192 206 202 6
36 to 50 132 158 189 191 205 214 213 229 225 4
Over 50 31 42 50 55 70 73 57 78 81 1
Total Female 662 868 993 934 1,018 1,044 1,057 1,075 990 4
Unknown gender/age 144 124 373 540 551 385 450 373 272  
Total 3,321 4,100 5,082 5,013 5,447 5,504 5,562 5,281 4,541 10

Table 15 Police action taken with regard to perpetrator, Scotland, 2004-05 to 2012-13

Number
Action taken 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 2010-11 2011-12 2012-13
Referral to Procurator Fiscal or SCRA 2,512 3,181 3,353 3,446 3,652 2,477 2,699 2,846 2,570
Police warning 141 62 123 82 101 44 91 52 64
Referred to other agency for action 74 92 2 9 5 8 13 49 14
Other action 370 509 553 716 922 787 509 479 337
No further action 138 141 854 731 721 141 359 358 258
Unknown1 86 115 197 29 46 2,047 1,891 1,497 1,298
Total 3,321 4,100 5,082 5,013 5,447 5,504 5,562 5,281 4,541

1. Lothian & Borders Police force have been unable to provide data on police action taken from 2009-10 onwards, and the action taken with regard to perpetrators of these incidents has therefore been included as 'unknown'.

Contact

Email: Jan Young

Back to top