Offshore wind farm developments - public perceptions: survey

Findings from a survey exploring public perceptions of offshore wind farm (OWF) developments in Scotland. It describes whether and how respondents in Scotland have been impacted by OWFs, their attitudes to OWFs, and how OWFS affect their tourism and recreation choices.


1. Decommissioning was not covered in this study as no offshore wind farms have yet been decommissioned in the Scotland

2. An outward postcode refers to the prefix or first part of the full postcode

3. Renewable and low carbon energy - (

4. A Fairer, Greener Scotland: Programme for Government 2021-22 - ( (Last accessed online – January 2022)

5.Offshore wind policy statement - ( (Last accessed Online July 2021)

6. 1. Introduction and background - Sectoral marine plan for offshore wind energy - (

7. ScotWind Offshore Wind Leasing Round: statement by the Net Zero Secretary - 18 January 2022 - (

8. David Bidwell, "The Role of Values in Public Beliefs and Attitudes Towards Commercial Wind Energy," Energy Policy 58 (2013/07/01/ 2013),; Åsa Waldo, "Offshore Wind Power in Sweden—a Qualitative Analysis of Attitudes with Particular Focus on Opponents," Energy Policy 41 (2012/02/01/ 2012),; Götz Walter, "Determining the Local Acceptance of Wind Energy Projects in Switzerland: The Importance of General Attitudes and Project Characteristics," Energy Research & Social Science 4 (2014/12/01/ 2014),

9. Paul Upham and Katinka Johansen, "A Cognitive Mess: Mixed Feelings About Wind Farms on the Danish Coast and the Emotions of Energy Infrastructure Opposition," Energy Research & Social Science 66 (2020/08/01/ 2020),; Marco Sonnberger and Michael Ruddat, "Local and Socio-Political Acceptance of Wind Farms in Germany," Technology in Society 51 (2017/11/01/ 2017),

10. Claire Haggett, "Understanding Public Responses to Offshore Wind Power," Energy Policy 39, no. 2 (2011/02/01/ 2011), J. K. Kaldellis et al., "Environmental and Social Footprint of Offshore Wind Energy. Comparison with Onshore Counterpart," Renewable Energy 92 (2016/07/01/ 2016),

11. Sokoloski, Rebecca, Ezra M. Markowitz, and David Bidwell. "Public estimates of support for offshore wind energy: False consensus, pluralistic ignorance, and partisan effects." Energy Policy 112 (2018): 45-55; Firestone, Jeremy, et al. "Wind in the sails or choppy seas?: People-place relations, aesthetics and public support for the United States' first offshore wind project." Energy research & social science 40 (2018): 232-243.

12. See: Timeline of Coronavirus (COVID-19) in Scotland, Scottish Parliament Information Centre.

13. Scotland population mid-year estimate - Office for National Statistics (

14. Census table data | Scotland's Census (

15. Socio-economic classification uses National Readership Survey social grades. Questions on education, age and occupation are asked to establish social grades (A, B, C1, C2, D, E). Social grades are regularly grouped into ABC1 and C2DE which are taken to equate to middle class and working class, respectively. NRS Llfestyle and classification data: social grade

16. See Urban-rural classification for Scotland(last accessed 31/01/22).

17. Scottish Government (2019), Marine social attitudes: Survey

18.An outward postcode refers to the prefix or first part of the full postcode



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