1. Although the four countries joined the OECD in 2010, they were included as OECD members in the PISA reports for the 2009 round. Latvia was also included for 2015.
2. Note that Spain’s results have not been included in international reports or in the OECD average for Reading. Please see Chapter 1 for further information.
3. Note that some of this data had a lower response rate than other questions (below 75%)