Climate loss and damage: practical action

The report is a synthesis of different views and analyses of practical action for addressing climate loss and damage. It considers mobilising and innovative finance, assessing needs and delivering actions.

7 References

Achampong, L; (2023) Reforming climate finance, Development Co-operation Report 2023: Debating the Aid System, European Network on Debt and Development. Development Co-operation Report 2023 : Debating the Aid System | OECD iLibrary (

European Network on Debt and Development Andrei, S, Rabbani, G and Khan, H (2014) Noneconomic loss and damage caused by climatic stressors in selected coastal districts of Bangladesh. Bangladesh Centre for Advanced Studies. content/uploads/2016/02/ADB-Studyon-Non-Economic-Losses-and-Damages-Report_Final-Version-Reduced-File-Size.compressed1.pdf

Ayeb-Karlsson, S; Chandra, A; McNamara, KE; (2021) Stories of Loss and Healing: Connecting Non-Economic Losses and Damages with Gendered Wellbeing Erosion in the Asia-Pacific Region. Research Square: Durham, NC, USA

Bahinipati, C. S. (2020). Assessing the Costs of Droughts in Rural India: A Comparison of Economic and Non-Economic Loss and Damage. Current Science, 118(11), 1832.

Bahinipati, C. S. (2021). Do risk management strategies prevent economic and non-economic loss and damages? Empirical evidence from drought affected households in western India. Environmental Quality Management, 31(3), 59–66.

Barua, P., Eslamian, S., Rahman, S.H. (2021). Rehabilitation and Relocation Program for Climate Displaced People of Bangladesh. In: Leal Filho, W., Luetz, J., Ayal, D. (eds) Handbook of Climate Change Management. Springer, Cham.

Bharadwaj, R and Shakya, C (eds) (2021) Loss and damage case studies from the frontline: a resource to support practice and policy. IIED, London. ISBN: 978-1 78431 928-1

Bharadwaj, R and Huq, S (2022) Climate-induced migration and health issues: a toolkit for policymakers. IIED, London.

Bharadwaj, R., Mitchell, T., Huq, S. (2023). Non-economic loss and damage: closing the knowledge gap. IIED, London.

Boyd, E., Chaffin, B. C., Dorkenoo, K., Jackson, G., Harrington, L., N'Guetta, A., Stuart-Smith, R. (2021). Loss and damage from climate change: A new climate justice agenda. One Earth, 4(10), 1365–1370.

CAFOD (2021) Using the United Kingdom's SDRs to tackle Covid-19 and climate change:

Chiba, Y. and Prabhakar, S. (2017). Priority Practices for Addressing Non-economic Loss and Damage caused by Typhoons in Japan: Case Study of Nachikatsuura Town. IGES Research Report. Kanagawa, Japan: Institute for Global Environmental Strategies (IGES). Retrieved from

Chiba, Y., Prabhakar, S., & Islam, M. (2019). Addressing non-economic loss and damage associated with climatic events: Cases of Japan and Bangladesh. APN Science Bulletin, 9(1).

Cianconi, P., Betrò, S., & Janiri, L. (2020). The Impact of Climate Change on Mental Health: A Systematic Descriptive Review. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 11.

Clement, V, Rigaud, KK, de Sherbinin, A, Jones, B, Adamo, S, Schewe, J, Sadiq, N and Shabahat, E (2021) Groundswell Part 2: Acting on Internal Climate Migration. World Bank, Washington, DC.

Eriksen, S. E., Schipper, L. F., Scoville-Simonds, M., Vincent, K., Adam, H. N., Brooks, N., Harding, B., Khatri, D., Lenaerts, L., Liverman, D., Mills-Novoa, M., Mosberg, M., Movik, S., Muok, B., Nightingale, A., Ojha, H., Sygna, L., Taylor, M., Vogel, C., and West, J. J. (2021) Adaptation interventions and their effect on vulnerability in developing countries: Help, hindrance or irrelevance?, World Development, Volume 141, 2021, 105383, ISSN 0305-750X,

Forsyth, T. and Evans, N. (2013) What is Autonomous Adaption? Resource Scarcity and Smallholder Agency in Thailand, World Development, Volume 43, 2013, Pages 56-66, ISSN 0305-750X, (

Gomes, M. (2021) Poverty-centred local adaptation in Mozambique. IIED, London.

Hallegatte, S., Vogt-Schilb, A., Bangalore, M. and Rozenberg, J. (2017) Unbreakable: Building the Resilience of the Poor in the Face of Natural Disasters. Climate Change and Development Series. Washington, DC: World Bank. Doi:10.1596/978-1-4648-1003-9

Heldrich, A. (1970). Compensating Non-Economic Losses in the Affluent Society. The American Journal of Comparative Law, 18(1), 22.

Islam, M.R., Hasan, M. Climate-induced human displacement: a case study of Cyclone Aila in the south-west coastal region of Bangladesh. Nat Hazards 81, 1051–1071 (2016).

Islam, M. M., Nipa, T. A., Islam, M. S., Hasan, M., & Khan, M. I. (2022). Economic and non-economic loss and damage to climate change: evidence from a developing country shrimp farms to cyclone Bulbul. Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 25(4), 214–230.

Jordan, J. C. (2020) Theatre making and storytelling on the margins: the lived experience of climate change in Dhaka. RiDE: the journal of Applied Theatre and Performance. Vol 25, 2020 – Issue 4.

Linnerooth-Bayer, J., Surminski, S., Bouwer, L.M., Noy, I., Mechler, R. (2019). Insurance as a Response to Loss and Damage?. In: Mechler, R., Bouwer, L., Schinko, T., Surminski, S., Linnerooth-Bayer, J. (eds) Loss and Damage from Climate Change. Climate Risk Management, Policy and Governance. Springer, Cham.

Lisa Schipper (2020) Maladaptation: When Adaptation to Climate Change Goes Very Wrong One Earth, 2020.

Mace MJ, Verheyen R (2016) Loss, damage and responsibility after COP21: all options open for the Paris agreement. RECIEL 25(2):197–214.

McNamara, K, Westoby, R, Clissold, R and Chandra, A (2021) Understanding and responding to climate-driven non-economic loss and damage in the Pacific Islands. Climate Risk Management 33 100336. Doi: 10.1016/j. crm.2021.100336

McShane, K. (2017). Values and Harms in Loss and Damage. Ethics, Policy &Amp Environment, 20(2), 129–142.

Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MEA) (2005) Ecosystems and Human Wellbeing: Biodiversity Synthesis. Island Press.

Mechler, R. et al. (eds.) (2019) Chapter 1 Science for Loss and Damage. Findings and Propositions in Loss and Damage from Climate Change, Climate Risk Management, Policy and Governance,

Morrissey, J, and Oliver-Smith, A (2013) Perspectives on non-economic loss and damage: Understanding values at risk from climate change (working paper).

Oktari, R. S., Munadi, K. Idroes, R., and Sofyan, H. (2020) Knowledge management practices in disaster management: Systematic review, International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, Volume 51, 2020, 101881, ISSN 2212-4209.

Palinkas, L. A., & Wong, M. (2020). Global climate change and mental health. Current Opinion in Psychology, 32, 12–16.

Pill, M. (2021). Re-framing non-economic losses to non-economic impacts for effective policymaking: evidence from the Caribbean. Climate and Development, 14(8), 770–779.

Preston, C (2017) Challenges and Opportunities for Understanding Non-economic Loss and Damage. Ethics, Policy & Environment 20(2) 143–155.

van Schie, D., Ranon, R., Mirza, A., Anderson, S. (2022) Local responses to climate related non-economic losses and damages: a case study in Burigoalini and Gabura Union, southwest Bangladesh. IIED, London.

Serdeczny, O, Waters, E and Chan, S (2016): Non-economic loss and damage in the context of climate change: understanding the challenges, Discussion Paper, No. 3/2016, ISBN 978-3-88985-682-1, Deutsches Institut fürEntwicklungspolitik (DIE), Bonn

Serdeczny, O. (2019). Non-economic Loss and Damage and the Warsaw International Mechanism. In: Mechler, R., Bouwer, L., Schinko, T., Surminski, S., Linnerooth-Bayer, J. (eds) Loss and Damage from Climate Change. Climate Risk Management, Policy and Governance. Springer, Cham.

Shawoo, Z., Maltais, A., Bakhtaoui, I. and Kartha, S. (2021) Designing a fair and feasible loss and damage finance mechanism. SEI briefing paper. October, 2021.

Shawoo, Z. and Bakhtaoui, I. (2022) Operationalising finance for loss and damage: from principles to modalities, Stockholm Environment Institute.

Steadman, S., Gilmour, A., Colenbrander, S. and Watson, C. (2022) What do we have to lose? Understanding and responding to climate-induced loss and damage to cultural heritage. (

Tenzing, J. and Conway, D. (2022) Climate discourses as barriers to rights-based adaptive social protection: How historical politics shape Ethiopia's climate-smart safety net. Global Environmental Change, Volume 76, 2022, 102583, ISSN 0959-3780,

Thiault, L., S. D. Jupiter, J. E. Johnson, J. E. Cinner, R. M. Jarvis, S. F. Heron, J. M. Maina, N. A. Marshall, P. A. Marshall, and J. Claudet. 2021. Harnessing the potential of vulnerability assessments for managing social-ecological systems. Ecology and Society 26(2):1.

Tschakert, P., Barnett, J., Ellis, N., Lawrence, C., Tuana, N., New, M., . . . Pannell, D. (2017). Climate change and loss, as if people mattered: values, places, and experiences. WIREs Climate Change, 8(5).

Tschakert, P, Ellis, N, Anderson, C, Kelly, A and Obeng, J (2019) One thousand ways to experience loss: A systematic analysis of climate-related intangible harm from around the world. Global Environmental Change 55 58–72.

Wallimann-Helmer, I., Meyer, L., Mintz-Woo, K., Schinko, T., Serdeczny, O. (2018). The Ethical Challenges in the Context of Climate Loss and Damage. In: Mechler, R., Bouwer, L., Schinko, T., Surminski, S., Linnerooth-Bayer, J. (eds) Loss and Damage from Climate Change. Climate Risk Management, Policy and Governance. Springer, Cham.

Westoby, R., Clissold, R., McNamara, K.E. et al. Cascading loss and loss risk multipliers amid a changing climate in the Pacific Islands. Ambio 51, 1239–1246 (2022).



Back to top