New PsychoactIve Substances - Evidence Review

This paper summarises the key information currently available on New Psychoactive Substances (NPS) and evidence gaps. Data on Scotland is presented in the context of UK and international evidence.


1. ACMD (2011) - Advisory Council on the Misuse of Drugs (ACMD): Consideration of Novel Psychoactive Substances, ('Legal Highs'), 2011

2. Archer et al (2012) - Analysis of pooled anonymous urine from a nightclub, Archer et al, 2012

3. Corazza et al (2013) - Promoting innovation and excellence to face the rapid diffusion of Novel Psychoactive Substances in the EU: the outcomes of the ReDNet project. Human Psychopharmacology: Clinical and Experimental. Volume 28, Issue 4, pages 317-323, July 2013

4. Corkery, J.M. (2013) - New Psychoactive Substances in the UK - analysing the adverse health Consequences

5. Corkery et al (2013) - National Programme on Substance Abuse Deaths Annual Report 2012

6. EMCDDA (2011) - Drugs in focus: Responding to new psychoactive substances, EMCDDA 2011

7. EMCDDA (2012) - The European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction Annual Report 2012: The State of the Drugs Problem in Europe (2012)

8. EMCDDA (2013a) - The EU Drug Markets Report: A Strategic Analysis (2013)

9.EMCDDA (2013b) - New Drugs in Europe. EMCDDA-Europol 2012 Annual Report on the implementation of Council Decision 2005/387/JHA

10. EMCDDA (2014) - European Drug Report: Trends and Developments 2014

11. European Commission (2011) - Flash Eurobarometer, Youth Attitudes on Drugs, Eurobarometer survey

12. Hallam, C; Bewley-Talyor, D; Jelsma, M (2014) - Scheduling in the international drug control system. Transnational institute, Series on Legislative Reform of Drug Policies No. 25, June 2014.

13. Home Office (2012) - Annual Report on the Home Office Forensic Early Warning System (FEWS): A System to Identify New Psychoactive Substances in the UK

14. Home Office (2014a) - Drug Misuse: Findings from the 2013 to 2014 Crime Survey for England and Wales

15. Home Office (2014b) - Circular 008/2014. A Change to the Misuse of Drugs Act 1971: control of NBOMe and benzofuran compounds, lisdexamphetamine, zopiclone, zaleplon, tramadol and reclassification of ketamine.

16. ISD (2013) - Scottish Drug Misuse Database: Overview of individuals assessed in 2011/12

17. ISD (2014) - National Drug Related Deaths Database (Scotland) Report: Analysis of Deaths Occurring in 2012

18. Office of National Statistics (2013) - Deaths Related to Drug Poisoning in England and Wales, 2012.

19. NACD (2012) - Drug Use in Ireland and Northern Ireland 2010/11

20. NIHR (2013) - National Institute for Health Research call for research proposals on NPS

21. NRS (2013) - Drug Related Deaths in Scotland 2012, NRS

22. National Treatment Agency, (2012) - Club drugs: emerging trends and risks, National Treatment Agency, NHS, 2012

23. Public Health England (2013a) - UK Focal Point on Drugs 2012 Annual Report (2013)

24. Public Health England (2013b) - Shooting Up: Infections among people who inject drugs in the UK 2012

25. Public Health England (2013c) - UK Focal Point on Drugs 2013 Report (2013)

26. Scottish Government (2011) - Scottish Schools Adolescent Lifestyle and Substance Use Survey (SALSUS) 2010

27. Scottish Government (2014) - Scottish Crime and Justice Survey 2012/13: Drug Use

28. Scottish Government (2013) - Drug Seizures in Scotland 2012/13

29. UNODC (2013a) - United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) The challenge of New Psychoactive substances 2013

30. UNODC (2013b) - The United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) World Drug Report 2013

31. UNODC (2014a) - Global Synthetic Drugs Assessment - Amphetamine type stimulants and New Psychoactive Substances

32. UNODC (2014b) - UNODC Early Warning Advisory on New Psychoactive Substances (NPS)

33. Welsh Government (2013) - Working together to reduce harm: Substance Misuse Strategy Annual Report 2013, Welsh Government

34. Wilkins, C; Sheridan, J; Adams, P; Russell, B; Ram, S; Newcombe, D. (2013) - The New Psychoactive Substances Regime in New Zealand: a different approach to regulation. Journal of Psychopharmacology, 2013 27:584.

35. Wilkins (2014) - A critical first assessment of the new pre-market approval regime for new psychoactive substances (NPS) in New Zealand, Addiction, 12484.

36. Winstock, A. (2014) - Global Drugs Survey

37. Wood, Hunter, Measham and Darghan, (2012) - Use of novel psychoactive substances in South London nightclubs, Wood, Hunter, Measham and Dargan, 2012


Email: Fiona Fraser

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