Publication - Advice and guidance

A National Strategy for Public Space CCTV in Scotland

Published: 18 Mar 2011
Part of:
Law and order
ISBN:
9781780450131

A national strategy for public space CCTV in Scotland

53 page PDF

1.0 MB

53 page PDF

1.0 MB

Contents
A National Strategy for Public Space CCTV in Scotland
Chapter 1: A National Strategy for CCTV in Scotland

53 page PDF

1.0 MB

Chapter 1: A National Strategy for CCTV in Scotland

1.1 It is a well-known fact that Scotland is now a safer place to live, with recorded crime at its lowest levels since 1978, and public perceptions of crime and disorder now lower than in previous years. Public space CCTV plays a significant role in the prevention, detection and prosecution of crime on a daily basis, whilst reassuring our communities that crime is being detected, and criminals are being prosecuted.

1.2 CCTV has played an important role in making our streets safer, tackling crime and antisocial behaviour in our communities and reducing the fear of crime as part of a wider package of measures delivered locally and in partnership with community safety stakeholders. But for far too long, CCTV has built up in an ad hoc way and been maintained for reasons which may have changed over time. And while much good practice exists across Scotland, it is crucial that we continue to improve the way CCTV is commissioned, managed and monitored to evidence its contribution to the wider efforts to reduce crime.

1.3 One of the key issues arising from consultation was the need to reorganise the disjointed landscape in which CCTV currently operates. By providing general principles that can be followed by everyone, CCTV throughout Scotland will become more structured, more efficient and more able to meet the needs of our communities. Investment in, and the maintenance of CCTV is not a cheap option and we need to exploit every opportunity to make the most out of our investments for the good of our communities.

1.4 There are already many good examples of partnership working and sharing of resources and information between CCTV user groups throughout Scotland. This helps to deliver, even more effectively, the positive contribution that CCTV makes to community safety and public perceptions of crime and disorder in their regions. That does not mean that more cannot be done to make things better and we hope that this Strategy will play a valuable role in supporting all those who work in and with CCTV.

1.5 We very much welcome this strategy and we are grateful to the National CCTV Steering Group for their efforts along with all those who participated in the public consultation and in producing this significant document, which will help to promote safer and stronger communities, helping local communities to flourish and offering improved opportunities and a better quality of life.

FERGUS EWING

FERGUS EWING MSP
Minister for Community Safety

HARRY McGUIGAN

Councillor HARRY McGUIGAN
COSLA Spokesperson for Community Wellbeing and Safety

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

2.1 The purpose of this strategy is to help partners deliver more effectively around the existing legal framework for CCTV. The aim of this strategy is to facilitate a more strategic approach to CCTV development and management, so as to deliver safer communities more efficiently.

2.2 This strategy recognises that the extent of CCTV provision across Scotland varies with local authorities having anything from camera numbers in single figures to camera numbers in the region of several hundreds and similarly many uses, e.g. from protecting public assets to providing public reassurance. Despite this, the strategy acknowledges that there is much good practice among CCTV practitioners, managers and operators in Scotland. Much of what this strategy proposes is being implemented already by many local authority and police CCTV providers, and that the picture nationwide is generally a positive one with high levels of commitment and support. The strategy seeks to build upon the existing best practice and ensure a more structured and interactive approach to CCTV operations. This can facilitate better partnership working and deliver even more effectively the positive contribution that CCTV can make to community safety and wellbeing.

2.3 The strategy recognises that the benefits of CCTV are not confined to a single partner. As well as helping local authorities achieve community safety outcomes, which is its primary aim, CCTV provides the police with effective information in relation criminal and other activity; and provides the Crown Office and Procurator Fiscal Service ( COPFS) with evidence in relation to prosecutions which can help secure early guilty pleas. Through this, CCTV can also help reduce costs and increase efficiencies around trials, so benefitting the Scottish Court Service as well.

2.4 The current economic environment within which we find ourselves means that the time is right for this strategy to provide a focus for consideration of - and debate around - the place of CCTV within a shared services context, and considering how local partners can achieve Best Value through being more efficient and more effective.

2.5 The key partners involved in the production of this strategy are the Scottish Government; the Convention of Scottish Local Authorities ( COSLA); the Association of Chief Police Officers Scotland ( ACPOS); the Crown Office and Procurator Fiscals Service ( COPFS); and the Chief Fire Officers Association Scotland ( CFOAS). The Scottish Court Service ( SCS) has also been in attendance on a number of occasions.

2.6 The strategy recognises that the way public space CCTV looks today is often the result of problems that were faced yesterday. The strategy suggests that local authorities would benefit from carrying out a local partnership review of current service provision, employing a methodology that looks at the demand placed on the existing infrastructure. This could assist local service providers - and other agencies and organisations - to recognise and address changed circumstances.

2.7 Taking such a strategic needs assessment approach would also help identify which camera positions are essential to the provision of safety services and others that may no longer be meeting the problems and needs of the local community. Opportunities exist to develop more efficient service provision, which is justified by the evidenced needs within communities, and delivers Best Value. In providing a partnership service that has a strong justification, systems will have greater compliance with the Information Commissioners' CCTV Code of Practice ( www.ico.gov.uk).

2.8 The adoption of the guidance on standards contained within this strategy will lead to greater consistency nationally, and help providers ensure that their systems are operated fairly and within the law. There are further opportunities which could also be explored in this regard, such as shared services.

2.9 The strategy recognises that all partners are striving for the provision of a service that has the ability to meet both national and local need, based on sound evidence across partnerships and focussed on better outcomes for communities.

2.10 The strategy further recognises that a wider debate may develop around the specific regulation of the use of CCTV, in particular with the publication of the Home Office consultation on a Code of Practice for CCTV and ANPR ( www.homeoffice.gov.uk).

2.11 Chapter 2 of this strategy provides a guide to the steps that CCTV managers and operators should consider, and is based on best practice already in place across many local authorities in Scotland today. It was compiled with the assistance of the West of Scotland CCTV Users Group, to whom we are grateful.

PURPOSE OF THE NATIONAL STRATEGY

3.1 This National Strategy for CCTV in Scotland sets out to provide assistance and guidance to local partners - predominantly local authorities but others also - who own, operate or manage public space CCTV systems. It does not seek to impose requirements on anyone but recognises that the current CCTV landscape is cluttered and therefore seeks to provide advice, guidance and clarity to local partners as and when they make decisions on developing their CCTV systems.

3.2 It recognises that local partners are best placed to decide the level of investment in CCTV systems. The strategy should be read within the context that CCTV is not the "silver bullet" to tackling all problems; it is simply one of a number of tools available to local partners to help them to address local community safety issues and it is local partners that must decide whether or not CCTV would be the most effective of those tools in any given situation.

3.3 This strategy helps inform what issues should be considered in the managing and operating of CCTV systems and - equally importantly - how to achieve best value for money from their existing systems through the provision of an evaluation tool to enable evidenced and informed decisions to be made. It can also be a costly solution and therefore the implications for sustaining it need to be carefully considered in advance of any commitment to install.

NATIONAL OUTCOMES

4.1 The Scottish Government has a unifying Purpose: to focus Government and public services on creating a more successful country with opportunities for all of Scotland to flourish through increasing sustainable economic growth. Everything that the Government does, or supports others in doing, should contribute directly to this purpose. Our purpose, introduced by the Government's Economic Strategy in November 2007, is underpinned by five strategic objectives - to make Scotland wealthier and fairer; smarter; healthier; safer and stronger; and greener.

4.2 A safer and stronger Scotland for our families and communities will be a more successful Scotland. We want communities to thrive, becoming better, healthier places to live and work, contributing to a more economically cohesive Scotland, higher rates of labour market participation and sustainable economic growth. By making our communities safer and stronger for those who live there, we will also increase the attractiveness of Scotland as a place to live and work. This will improve our quality of life, create strong communities that we are proud and happy to be a part of, help us to increase Scotland's population and allow us all to fulfil our potential.

4.3 CCTV is an integral part of community safety and therefore this national CCTV strategy contributes primarily to national outcomes numbers 9 and 11, these being "we live our lives safe from crime, disorder and danger"; and "we have strong resilient and supportive communities where people take responsibility for their own actions and how they affect others".

4.4 Additionally, with the provision of an evaluation tool as part of this strategy, it also contributes to national outcome 15 "our public services are high quality, continually improving, efficient and responsive to local people's needs". Together, these three national outcomes underpin the contribution of this strategy to a Safer and Stronger Scotland.

Shared Services

5.1 Increasingly, and in particular given the current financial context, local authorities are considering consolidation through the shared services agenda, and the potential for savings to be made, e.g. through co-location of staff and services. This is in evidence already in CCTV, where local partners have co-located emergency alarm systems for vulnerable members of the community; and out of hours call centres within the CCTV centre, providing real value to communities.

5.2 This strategy recognises that CCTV cannot simply be considered in isolation, it is part of a range of tools at the disposal of local partners. However, it is a tool that comes with particular obligations and requirements and it is important that these are fully considered. The strategy therefore seeks to encourage the provision of CCTV as being as effective and efficient as possible, while recognising that it may be one part of a larger community service solution.

CONTEXT OF THE NATIONAL STRATEGY

Evolution of Public Space CCTV in Scotland

6.1 Public Space CCTV has developed since the 1990s. There are now just over 2,500 public space cameras across Scotland with a concentration in major cities and towns across the Central belt.

Development Issues

6.2 The growing public perception that CCTV is the panacea to the management of crime and disorder, is at odds with Community Safety practitioners who recognise CCTV as simply a tool to be used as part of an integrated problem-solving approach.

6.3 In reflecting on the ad-hoc development there is now a growing number of issues surrounding the sustainability, ongoing management, future development and coordination of public space CCTV and related image capture, storage and sharing of data. This is compounded by a lack of common national standards which has led to a wide range of systems being introduced with differing standards and technologies and little in the way of consistent governance of systems.

The Current Position

6.4 This strategy recognises that while there is a wide divergence of systems in place in Scotland, there is much good practice to be proud of, and indeed many of the public space CCTV providers across Scotland already have robust measures and procedures in place to support their CCTV operations. This strategy will therefore help them consolidate, and put their CCTV systems on a sound footing for the future. Part of this strategy - in particular Chapter 2 which was very kindly produced by the West of Scotland CCTV Users Group on behalf of the national steering group - is about sharing that good practice more widely across the country and allowing all partners to benefit and a set of shared standards to develop.

Previous Funding

6.5 In the past, Central Government Grant initiatives funded an increase in the number of fixed site cameras, but cognisance was not always taken of the impact that year-on-year maintenance would have on revenue budgets after the assets were purchased.

Current Funding Situation

6.6 The vast majority of the funding, including funding for community safety, will be provided by means of a block grant. It is the responsibility of each local authority, in conjunction with their Community Planning Partners, to allocate funding on the basis of their local needs and priorities - having first fulfilled their statutory obligations and the jointly agreed set of national and local priorities, including the Scottish Government's key strategic objectives and manifesto commitments. The Government will continue to set the direction of national policy and ensure through national and local outcome agreements that these priorities are being delivered.

REVIEW OF PUBLIC SPACE CCTV

Fiscal constraints

7.1 Against a backdrop of emerging budgetary pressures and constraints, CCTV system owners began to face increasing challenges in relation to the ongoing maintenance of ageing systems and no long term support strategy in place for year on year revenue funding. The current financial situation brings this into sharper focus and this strategy recognises that difficult decisions have to be made. While decisions around funding are for local partners to make, the strategy provides the support to local partners through the provision of an evaluation tool to provide the evidence and guidance needed to make those decisions.

A Review of Changing Circumstances

7.2 Between 2005 and 2009 there was a growing awareness of the issues and challenges faced in the use of public space CCTV, both at strategic and operational partnership levels, as a consequence of the nature of development of Public Space CCTV. The need for a review was evident and led to the Government commissioning the following reports:-

  • The Effectiveness of Public Space CCTV: A review of recent published evidence regarding the impact of CCTV on crime - Justice Analytical Services, Ian Johnston and Lisa Malcolm - August 2008 ( www.scotland.gov.uk)
  • Strategic Report on Improving the Efficiency and Effectiveness of Public Space CCTV in Scotland - Justice Analytical Services, Ian Johnston and Frank McFadden - November 2009 ( www.scotland.gov.uk)
  • Public Space CCTV in Scotland - Results of a National Survey of Local Authorities - Bannister, Mackenzie and Norris - December 2009 ( www.sccjr.ac.uk)

National Coordination

7.3 As a consequence of the publication of these reports the Minister for Community Safety, Fergus Ewing MSP, asked that a national partnership group be created to consider and progress key recommendations from the reports. The National Steering Group for CCTV and Digital Image Transfer was formed and its first meeting was held in February 2010, under the chairmanship of ACC Ruaraidh Nicolson from the Association of Chief Police Officers (Scotland) ( ACPOS).

National CCTV & Digital Image Transfer Steering Group

8.1 The Steering Group comprised membership from the Scottish Government ( SG); Convention of Scottish Local Authorities ( COSLA); Society of Local Authority Chief Executives ( SOLACE); Association of Chief Police Officers Scotland ( ACPOS); Chief Fire Officers Association Scotland ( CFOAS); the Crown Office and Procurator Fiscal Service ( COPFS); and the West of Scotland CCTV User Group. The Scottish Court Service ( SCS) also attended on a number of occasions.

Terms of Reference

8.2 In March 2010, the Terms of Reference for the Steering Group were agreed as:-

  • To c onsider recommendations within recently published CCTV research reports commissioned by the Scottish Government and subsequently report to the Minister for Community Safety on maximising the effectiveness and efficiency of CCTV as a key community safety resource.
  • To consider and agree with other national agencies and interested bodies, an incremental approach to developing and improving CCTV data capture, for use as evidence in criminal prosecution; and which will assist in preventing and detecting crime, antisocial behaviour, manage environmental issues and instances of danger to the public thereby providing greater community wellbeing and public support.
  • Provide direction, support and guidance to CCTV users through the development and implementation of a National CCTV Strategy for Scotland.
  • Through effective research work in partnership at both strategic and tactical levels, identify appropriate standards and protocols to maximise the quality of CCTV products which helps users and victims of crime gain maximum benefit from the use of CCTV imaging in the criminal justice arena.
  • To maximise the positive outcomes from CCTV to realise increasing economic benefits, public confidence and encourage investment in a Safer and Vibrant Scotland.
  • To jointly identify, monitor and analyse current and emerging technologies and influence where appropriate future investment in CCTV development in Scotland.

Initial Consultation

8.3 Between March and May 2010, following the establishment and early deliberations of the National CCTV Steering Group, initial targeted consultation took place amongst key CCTV stakeholders. This included interviews and the circulation of a consultation questionnaire to 65 primary stakeholders; benchmarking visits to CCTV Trusts and Local Authorities; consultation with practitioner user groups; and examination of identified good practice across the UK, through local workshops on digital image capture.

Future Development

8.4 The various stages or aspirations for future development have been highlighted within this strategy over a three year period. The Strategy also takes cognisance of the current and significant demand for change in public services, therefore progress and investment in these areas can only be determined by system owners as their local priorities and resources permit.

8.5 It is also acknowledged that the main partners in the delivery of Public Space CCTV are local authorities, with wider beneficiaries amongst both police, other criminal justice partners and ultimately the community at large. The strategy seeks to offer advice and support to the partnerships involved and to maximise the benefits for the wider community. Through setting common standards and signposting to legislative compliance, it is intended to drive up standards across the board as systems develop and to influence systems in private use as well as those in public ownership.

LEGISLATIVE CONTEXT

Compliance and the Protection of Privacy

9.1 The use of CCTV in public spaces limits the control that the public have over whether or not their images are captured and stored. It is therefore incumbent upon those operating such systems to ensure that they comply fully with all legislative requirements relative to the use of CCTV and that it enjoys the widest possible public support and confidence.

9.2 Public authorities and organisations wishing to operate CCTV functions within a public space are required to observe the obligations imposed by the Human Rights Act 1998, the Data Protection Act 1998 ( DPA), and the Regulation of Investigatory Powers (Scotland) Act 2000 ( RIP(S)A). Consideration must be given to whether the use of CCTV within their area is necessary, proportionate and compliant with legislative requirements, in both its purpose and application.

9.3 The Data Protection Act assumes that the collection of data has been lawfully achieved. RIP(S)A controls the use of covert surveillance, and while it is recognised that public space CCTV systems are not routinely used in this manner, it should be noted that the specific use the system is put to, not whether cameras are visible, is the key issue in determining whether their use is covert.

9.4 While CCTV systems are not directly regulated as such, the personal information contained in the images captured by them is regulated by the Data Protection Act ( DPA). The Information Commissioner is the regulator for the DPA, and as such published the latest version of the Code of Practice on CCTV in 2008. Further reference to RIP(S)A, the CCTV Code of Practice and the DPA can be found within Chapter 2 of the strategy.

AREAS FOR FUTURE DEVELOPMENT

Investigation of Crime

10.1 The use of CCTV images in police enquiries is common place, and has become a standard feature of many serious crime and major incidents. The benefits of digital images to an enquiry are well documented, however so too are the challenges faced by the police in engaging with technology which abounds in a myriad of formats.

10.2 Whilst one Police Force has responded to the digital era by establishing a Digital Media Investigation Unit ( DMIU), the issue does not respect Force boundaries, and there is a demand for a similar level of engagement across the country. The time may be right for the Scottish Police Service to consider its ability to engage with this increasing demand and to consider what the best method for future service delivery in this area might look like.

10.3 Possibilities for collaborative working arrangements and shared services amongst the 8 Scottish Forces should be examined to identify the most efficient model.

National Automatic Number Plate Recognition ( ANPR) Provision and Mobile Criminals

10.4 As enquiries into serious crime increasingly feature vehicles crossing Force, local authority and national boundaries, ANPR is a tool that can assist police to detect, deter and disrupt such criminality. Through the application of linked response strategies the police can reduce the harm to communities. ANPR can provide the police with live information on criminals' movements, and allow them to respond accordingly, or allow them to investigate criminals' prior movements.

10.5 It is recognised that generally a linked police response to operating this technology is crucial. It may therefore be prudent to any future development of this technology, that the agencies involved consider a more focussed and collaborative approach and how it can contribute to mitigating emerging threats from both serious and organised crime and terrorism.

SUMMARY OF RECOMMENDATIONS

Short Term - (Year 1)

Strategic Level

11.1 All public space CCTV providers should consider carrying out a review of CCTV services, in collaboration with appropriate partners, assessing current infrastructure against demands and outputs.

11.2 By carrying out a review of current CCTV services, service providers will be able to establish a baseline for measuring future performance, identifying changing circumstances and reviewing trend analysis.

11.3 A National Steering Group for CCTV was set up at the request of the Minister for Community Safety (and first met in February 2010) and a National Practitioners Users Group will be proposed to foster effective communication and dissemination of 'good practice' at a strategic and tactical level and assist in the implementation of the National Strategy.

11.4 The Steering Group has asked the SCSN to facilitate the creation of the National Practitioners User Group which it is anticipated would be open to all public space CCTV operators to join. The National Practitioners User Group will develop a standard partnership information sharing protocol template, to be consulted on and published, on approval of the National Steering Group. Reporting of progress will be to the National Community Safety Strategic Group ( NCSSG).

11.5 Current legislative requirements and the code of practice on standards should be actively promoted amongst system owners and users.

11.6 CCTV owners and operators are encouraged to adopt the standards contained within 'Chapter 2 - Standards and Regulatory Framework for CCTV in Scotland'.

11.7 CCTV operators will be encouraged to establish a standard set of performance information, which they should hold and regularly update to allow for service monitoring and performance reporting. Performance data should be accessible to partners and the wider community. This performance information will enable monitoring against local outcomes such as crime reduction, safer trading areas and other outcomes.

11.8 A Communications strategy will be linked to the launch of the National Strategy for CCTV in Scotland. A credible national lead and strategic leads from key stakeholders will be identified.

Managerial Level

11.9 Public Space CCTV provision should be regarded as part of a wide range of community safety services and included within the wider public consultation and audit on community safety issues. Where appropriate, existing community safety structures could be used to allow the community to engage on CCTV issues, with a view to influencing effective service provision.

11.10 As part of their statutory responsibilities service providers should engage with other regulatory bodies to address any Data Protection Act ( DPA) compliance issues .

11.11 Where there is the provision of emergency service Airwave radios, procedures for CCTV staff vetting will be standardised in order to meet Non Police Personnel Vetting ( NPPV) requirements.

11.12 A COPFS Secure Disclosure Website for disclosure of material, including CCTV material, to defence agents has been piloted and has now been launched nationally.

Operational Level

11.13 The police service should better communicate to local partners the capabilities of CCTV as a tactical option and should integrate public space CCTV into partnership Tasking and Co-ordinating processes. However, the strategy also recognises that communication is a two way process and seeks to encourage collaboration between police and CCTV providers so as to ensure that the added value of CCTV is being maximised for all partners.

11.14 Local police operational liaison and briefing for CCTV operators should be reviewed and where appropriate improved and standardised for consistency purposes.

Medium Term (Years 1-2)

Strategic Level

11.15 All new CCTV deployments or installations should be considered within the context of a strategic needs assessment consistent with a local strategic assessment and in line with an operational partnership requirement, which recognises CCTV as a tactical option and not an end in itself.

11.16 Engagement with accrediting bodies, such as Skills for Security, should be encouraged to take place, to ensure nationally accredited training or training of an equivalent level is available at all levels for responsible staff if necessary. This should be done initially by Scottish Government with a view to coordinating through the SCSN and the National Practitioner User Group. The strategy recognises that the legal requirement for accreditation at the moment is dependent on the type of organisation providing the CCTV service and that many local authorities across Scotland have already made such investments in staff, to maximise the benefit to the organisation, despite not being legally required to do so.

11.17 Current local capital and revenue funding requirements should be reviewed regularly and other service delivery options such as shared services, if examined, may in turn drive opportunities for efficiencies and rationalisation of infrastructure. Other possible external sources for future funding should also be considered, including opportunities for businesses, possibly through Business Improvement Districts ( BIDs), where the benefits of CCTV are greater for those organisations.

11.18 A common format for submission to COPFS has been agreed and is covered under the "Recorded Material - Guiding Principles" section later in this strategy. The ability for CCTV systems to output to a data standard acceptable for presentation of digital evidence in court will be promoted as best practice, across both public space and privately owned CCTV systems.

11.19 Actions are currently ongoing between COPFS and Scottish Court Service in relation to the transfer and presentation of digital evidence in court.

11.20 With the increasing demand for CCTV images both ACPOS and COPFS recognise that there are financial consequences to an increasing widespread demand for production of CCTV images (in the prosecution of offenders) and are actively considering what the impact of that might be.

Managerial Level

11.21 Partner agencies involved in this strategy should between them review communications and operating protocols at a tactical level, to ensure that all public space CCTV control rooms have, where possible, access to emergency services Airwave radio as a minimum communications requirement.

Long Term (Year 2 Onward)

Strategic Level

11.22 The continued facilitation and coordination by the SCSN between training providers, organisations such as Skills for Security, and operators will take place to ensure the continued availability of training and learning from best practice.

11.23 In recognising elements of serious and organised crime, provision of ANPRCCTV coverage and related technologies should be reviewed by ACPOS, recognising current and emerging threat landscape and response capabilities.

12. MAP OF CURRENT POSITION OF PUBLIC SPACE CCTV IN SCOTLAND

Local Authority

No. of Public Space CCTV Cameras

Aberdeen City

70

Aberdeenshire

9

Angus

51

Argyll & Bute

44

Clackmannanshire

59

Dumfries & Galloway

58

Dundee City

81

East Ayrshire

52

East Dunbartonshire

55

East Lothian

64

East Renfrewshire

66

Edinburgh City

203

Eilean Siar

15

Falkirk

88

Fife

101

Glasgow City

442

Highland

113

Inverclyde

49

Midlothian

41

Moray

23

North Ayrshire

36

North Lanarkshire

270

Orkney Islands

16

Perth & Kinross

35

Renfrewshire

38

Scottish Borders

62

Shetland Islands

14

South Ayrshire

108

South Lanarkshire

115

Stirling

61

West Dunbartonshire

103

West Lothian

29

Total

2571


13. NATIONAL STRATEGY - IMPLEMENTATION YEARS 1 - 3

Purpose & Business Case

Issues/ Challenges

Responses

Outcomes

Timescale

Owner

Variable justification and business case for current public space CCTV systems.

Partnership demands varied greatly at a local level, making 'like-for-like' comparisons difficult.

All public space CCTV providers will be encouraged to carry out a review of current provision in collaboration with partners, assessing current infrastructure against demands and outputs.

All new deployments or installations of CCTV should be consistent with a strategic needs assessment, which recognises CCTV as a tactical option and not an end in itself.

A National Users Group will be formed to allow communication and dissemination of good practice at a strategic and tactical level and to assist in the implementation of the National Strategy.

Public Space CCTV providers and the communities they serve will have a better understanding of whether their current infrastructure meets their needs and whether efficiencies and rationalisation are possible.

As future CCTV deployments will be based on evidenced need and focussed on outcomes, communities and partners will have a greater confidence in CCTV as a problem-solving tool.

The formation of national fora facilitated by the Scottish Community Safety Network will improve communication between stakeholders and improve opportunities for shared services and future planning.

6 months-1 year

Public space CCTV providers.

Community Planning partners as appropriate

Scottish Community Safety Network

Ownership

Issues/ Challenges

Responses

Outcomes

Timescale

Owner

Ownership of current public space CCTV provision is unclear, both within local authorities and for the wider community.

The lines of accountability for current CCTV provision are unclear, making engagement by the wider community difficult.

End-to-end management and operational processes vary from locality to locality.

Local authorities - the main providers - and other public space CCTV providers will be encouraged to identify the owner of these services and make that information publicly available.

CCTV providers should publish annual reports detailing performance in a publicly accessible format.

CCTV service providers should map their processes from end-to-end as part of a review, focussed on the provision of identified outcomes and end users of digital images.

There will be clear understanding of where public space CCTV services sit within the wider local authority landscape, leading to better use of current services and more accessibility for communities.

The publishing of transparent annual reports will provide clear accountability and increased confidence.

By process mapping service providers will have a greater focus on outcomes and increased efficiency.

6 months-1 year

Public space CCTV providers.

Management

Issues/ Challenges

Responses

Outcomes

Timescale

Owner

Service providers have differing management structures.

Service delivery varies by locality.

Community engagement varies by locality.

Protocols for information sharing vary by locality.

Levels of resources are variable.

Vetting of personnel is inconsistent.

Nationally accredited CCTV training is limited.

Local authorities and other public space CCTV providers should map and/or disseminate current service provision; including management structures.

Public Space CCTV provision should be regarded as part of wider community safety services and included within wider public consultation/audit on community safety issues.

A standard template for information sharing protocols nationwide will be developed.

Staff vetting will be standardised to meet NPIA requirements where there is emergency service Airwave radios.

Engagement with accrediting bodies such as Skills for Security will take place, to ensure nationally accredited training is available at all levels.

Mapping of service provision will help allow for the targeting of resources accordingly.

Mainstreaming of public space CCTV provision and better community engagement will lead to increased public confidence and wider understanding of how CCTV is being utilised.

Information sharing protocols will be standardised across Scotland .

Staff vetting will be standardised across Scotland where this is required.

Nationally accredited training courses will be available for operators and managers to be used if necessary.

1 year

Public space CCTV providers.

Local Authorities

National CCTV Steering Group

National Practitioners User group

Community Planning Partners as appropriate

Scottish Government

SCSN

Funding

Issues/ Challenges

Responses

Outcomes

Timescale

Owner

Funding historically allocated on a short-term, capital basis.

Current financial challenges lessen opportunities for revenue budgets.

Variable funding arrangements for CCTV.

Opportunities for support from private business to be explored.

Age of current systems- many cameras approaching obsolescence.

Some funding provided by police forces.

No sustainable funding strategy in place.

Current capital and revenue funding requirements should be identified.

Opportunities for efficiencies, rationalisation of infrastructure and shared services should be examined and acted upon where appropriate.

Examine opportunities for efficiencies, rationalisation of infrastructure and shared services.

Identify savings where CCTV has contributed to reducing police and public court attendance times

Further funding sources to be explored - perhaps through BIDS.

A clearer picture of the true funding requirements for public space CCTV will emerge.

Funding sources will be identified, which supports the provision of appropriate CCTV services.

Where there are opportunities to deliver services more efficiently, eliminate waste and share services with other providers exist, these can be exploited.

2 years

Local Authorities

Public space CCTV providers.

Community Planning partners as appropriate

Scottish Government

Criminal Justice partners

Business

Standards

Issues/ Challenges

Responses

Outcomes

Timescale

Owner

No national standard exists for:

  • technical standards
  • service standards
  • operational process
  • specification

Lack of confidence amongst some public space CCTV providers around Data Protection Act ( DPA) compliance exists.

The standards contained within 'Chapter 2 Standards and Regulatory Framework for CCTV in Scotland' should be encouraged nationally.

Service providers should engage with regulatory bodies to address DPA compliance issues.

National common standards will lead to far greater consistency in all aspects of CCTV provision. The adoption of these standards where possible within public space CCTV and other CCTV under the control of public bodies should drive up demand for systems which meet these standards.

Better engagement between public space CCTV providers and regulators will lead to greater confidence and better legislative compliance.

1 year

Scottish Government

Public space CCTV providers

Local Authorities

Community Planning partners as appropriate

Performance

Issues/ Challenges

Responses

Outcomes

Timescale

Owner

Lack of a baseline against which to assess performance and continuous improvement.

No performance framework or methodology for measuring performance.

Ad-hoc reporting on performance of public space CCTV providers.

No comparison or peer review of performance for public space CCTV.

Variations exist in method and extent of incident recording by public space CCTV providers.

By carrying out a review of current CCTV infrastructure public space providers will establish a baseline for measuring future performance.

Performance data should be connected to delivering Best Value and wider, agreed, community safety outcomes. This data should be accessible to partners and the wider community.

Public space CCTV providers are encouraged to store data in a computerised format that supports the ease of retrieval of performance data.

The setting of a baseline will allow for performance and ongoing improvement to be monitored and the ongoing efficiency of systems to be assessed

The capture and dissemination of a standard set of performance data will reduce anomalies, increase confidence and highlight opportunities for efficiencies and the sharing of good practice.

Thorough incident logging which supports the performance framework will further professionalise the delivery of service.

1 year

Local Authorities

Community Planning Partners as appropriate

Scottish Government

Communication

Issues/ Challenges

Responses

Outcomes

Timescale

Owner

Lack of understanding of what public space CCTV provides coupled with heavy public expectation.

Lack of professional users network at a strategic/tactical/

Operational level.

Ad-hoc processes for community engagement.

Changing police structures have challenged communication between CCTV operators and police responders.

A Communications strategy will be linked to the launch of the National Strategy for CCTV in Scotland.

A sustainable user network for CCTV professionals at the requisite levels should be established.

Use existing community safety structures to allow the community to engage on CCTV issues.

Review communications and operating protocols between partners at a tactical level to ensure all public space CCTV control rooms, where possible or necessary, have access to Airwave radio.

A better understanding of the purpose and performance of CCTV and addressing some of the common myths around CCTV.

The dissemination of good practice and the ongoing support for public space CCTV providers.

More efficient communications and linked response strategies amongst local partners.

National leadership on the use of CCTV and 'buy-in' from stakeholders.

6 months -1 year

Scottish Government

National CCTV Steering Group

National Practitioners User Group

Primary Stakeholders/Community Planning partners as appropriate

Regulation & Inspection

Issues/ Challenges

Responses

Outcomes

Timescale

Owner

To maintain the integrity of the use of CCTV, systems must be compliant with relevant legislation (e.g. the Data Protection Act) and be encouraged to meet the standards set in the National Strategy for CCTV in Scotland.

While the Information Commissioner has responsibility for DPA compliance, no single system for the regulation of public space CCTV is in place.

It would be desirable to identify who will be responsible for maintaining the common national standards.

A wider public debate is likely with the publication of the Home Office consultation on a Code of Practice for CCTV and ANPR.

Current legislative requirements and the code of practice on standards should be actively promoted.

The use of CCTV should be seen to be evidence based, legislatively compliant and open to scrutiny.

Legislative requirements are met and standards adhered to.

1 year-

18 months

Scottish Government

COSLA

Public Space CCTV providers

Primary Stakeholders/Community Planning partners as appropriate

National Practitioners User group

Engagement by Police

Issues/ Challenges

Responses

Outcomes

Timescale

Owner

CCTV largely unrecognised within Police National Intelligence Model ( NIM) processes.

Lack of consistent recognition of CCTV as a tactical option to address local problems.

Inconsistencies exist in the briefing and tasking of CCTV operators.

Public space CCTV is not always fully considered in partnership problem-solving teams.

Opportunities for post-incident review of evidence captured by systems not fully explored.

Opportunities for early review of digital image evidence in criminal cases by prosecutors and defence agents not fully exploited.

Possible benefits of ANPR and public space technology interfaces not fully explored.

The police service should mainstream public space CCTV into partnership local Tasking and Co-ordinating processes.

The police service should better communicate the capabilities of CCTV as a tactical option.

Briefing for CCTV operators by police forces should be standardised.

Better processes for digital image transfer between criminal justice partners should be established to allow for early access to CCTV images.

Review provision of ANPR coverage and linked response within Scotland, recognising current and emerging threat landscape and response capabilities.

More frequent, intelligence-led use of systems will maximise the use of and increase public and political confidence in current systems.

Better understanding of the capabilities and results of using CCTV will lead to systems being better utilised and supported.

Better quality of briefings will make CCTV operators more efficient and engage them more fully in delivering outcomes.

Earlier access to images could lead to shorter criminal justice court processes.

ANPR provision that reflects current threats and provides a linked response.

2 year

Police Forces.

Crown Office and Procurators Fiscal Service.

Primary Stakeholders/Community Planning partners as appropriate

Criminal Justice Digital Image Transfer

Issues/ Challenges

Responses

Outcomes

Timescale

Owner

Lack of a standard format for digital images.

Inconsistent process for image transfer.

Lack of supporting infrastructure for the presentation of digital image evidence.

Inconsistent management of disclosure of digital evidence to defence agents.

Increasing volume of digital evidence and costs relative to the seriousness of offences.

A common format for submission to COPFS has been agreed. A standard process for digital image transfer requires to be agreed.

A review of requirements for the transfer and presentation of digital evidence in court will be carried out and funding options explored.

COPFS Secure Disclosure Website for disclosure of all material to defence agents will be launched.

ACPOS and COPFS recognise the financial impact of any increased demand for production of CCTV images and the full implications are to be identified and discussed.

The ability for CCTV systems to output to the data standard for presentation of digital evidence in court will be promoted as best practice, across both public space and where possible CCTV systems in private ownership.

The proliferation of a common standard and process will increase the efficiency of digital image transfer.

The requirements for presentation in court will be fully scoped and the supporting infrastructure put in place.

A manageable process for disclosure will be identified.

Clear management processes need to be in place to take account of impacts.

Standardised outputs will mean better and more efficient access to digital evidence.

2 year

Crown Office and Procurators Fiscal service.

Police Forces.

Primary Stakeholders/Community Planning partners as appropriate

Technology

Issues/ Challenges

Responses

Outcomes

Timescale

Owner

Some systems have been driven by technical capabilities as opposed to operational requirements.

There is a variable understanding of emerging technology in the field of CCTV amongst practitioners and stakeholders.

A lack of consultation with industry of the requirements of stakeholders exists.

Opportunities to maximise the use of technology within the current and future infrastructure are not being fully exploited.

All system specifiers will have their own requirements prior to installation or deployment of cameras. Consideration should be given to including the ability to engage with cross-boundary enquiries and major incidents.

An examination of related technology for future development of public space CCTV and ANPR systems should take place.

Systems will be installed with a focus on outcomes as opposed to technological capability.

Increased abilities to use CCTV technology amongst key stakeholders which contributes to the overall management and response in major incidents.

2 year

Scottish Government

Police Forces

CCTV operators / owners

Implementation Road Map