# National Standardised Assessments for Scotland: national report 2022 to 2023

Summary of outcomes at a national level on the 'Scottish National Standardised Assessments' (SNSA) and ‘Measaidhean Coitcheann Nàiseanta airson Foghlam tron Ghàidhlig’ (MCNG) (collectively known as NSA) in the 2022 to 2023 academic year.

## 2 Numeracy

### 2.1 The scope of the numeracy assessment

#### 2.1.1 Numeracy for P1, P4, P7 and S3

For both SNSA and MCNG, there were separate assessments of numeracy for P1, P4, P7 and S3 (though assessment data shows that Gaelic Medium learners tend to take the SNSA Numeracy assessment at S3)). The same set of organisers was used for each of the assessments, with the proportion of items in each organiser varying by stage to reflect the change in emphasis on each area within Curriculum for Excellence (CfE).

#### 2.1.2 A note on contexts used in the numeracy NSA

For numeracy assessments within NSA, a wide variety of simple contexts was used. Typically, items were short and discrete, so contexts were relatively straightforward in nature, covering a mix of everyday life and the school environment.

All items were reviewed by Education Scotland for their appropriateness to the Scottish context, prior to inclusion in the assessments.

MCNG items are written by Gaelic Medium Education practitioners and quality assured by a panel, chaired by Education Scotland. MCNG items also follow the same trialling process as SNSA items.

### 2.2 Coverage of Curriculum for Excellence

NSA is just one part of the range of assessments that teachers use in making their evaluations of children's and young people's learning. It has been possible to assess most areas of the numeracy Experiences and Outcomes within this standardised assessment, using closed response items that can be automatically marked. The assessments comprise between 27 and 30 items per learner, according to stage. Due to the adaptive nature of the assessments, there will be variation in specific areas assessed in different assessments, according to the learner’s individual pathway. The assessment items for the NSA reflect the knowledge, skills understanding, and standards embedded within the Curriculum for Excellence *Experiences and Outcomes* for reading, writing and numeracy across the CfE Levels, in accordance with the most up to date Education Scotland advice and curricular guidance on experiences and outcomes and Benchmarks. To note: although mathematics Experiences and Outcomes are included within the Curriculum for Excellence document Benchmarks: Numeracy and Mathematics*,* these are not assessed within NSA, since the numeracy assessment only assesses the numeracy Experiences and Outcomes.

All four organisers were represented in the P1, P4, P7 and S3 numeracy assessments, with different proportions across the stages. In the reports provided to schools, teachers received information about the outcomes of the learner at the organiser level, if the learner was presented with at least five items from that organiser. Similarly, in this report, outcomes for organisers that were addressed by at least five items in each learner's assessment are analysed.

The information in sections 2.2.1 - 2.2.4 apply to SNSA. MCNG examples and descriptions can be found in sections 2.2.5 - 2.2.8 of this report.

#### 2.2.1 SNSA Number

The main focus of this organiser is understanding the properties of numbers and the ability to use the four basic number operations. It included items that asked about estimating and rounding; number and number processes; addition, subtraction, multiplication and division; and place value. In P7 and S3, negative numbers were also assessed. This organiser could be regarded as containing some of the basic building blocks of numeracy: the ability to engage with content in the other organisers is dependent to some extent upon the ability to understand place value and properties of number, as well as being able to understand and use the four basic operations of addition, subtraction, multiplication and division.

Please note that the item included in Figure 3 and all subsequent figures throughout this report are not included in any of the current assessments for the 2023 to 2024 academic year, and they will not be included in any future SNSA.

Figure 3 shows a Number item from the S3 numeracy assessment for the academic year 2022 to 2023.

In this item, learners solve an addition problem working with decimal fractions to two and three decimal places, without the use of context. It builds on young people's existing knowledge of place value in whole numbers to assess their understanding of place value in decimal numbers. This item comes from the middle of the item difficulty range for the S3 numeracy assessment.

#### 2.2.2 SNSA Fractions, decimal fractions and percentages

The main focus of this organiser is on the ability to recognise and work with fractions, decimal fractions and percentages. At P1, this involves sharing objects into equal sets and recognising representations of halves. By P4, children were asked to recognise standard fraction notation for common fractions, order fractions by size, and recognise pictorial representations of fractions. In the P7 assessment, children were also assessed on their current capacity to work with decimal fractions and percentages, recognise equivalent values in the different forms, and find fractions and percentages of a quantity. At S3, young people were also assessed on their current capacity to work with ratios.

In the assessments for the later stages, there was an increase in the number of items assessing this organiser. This shift in the assessments' weightings reflects learners' increasing familiarity with whole numbers, and the transition to applying their understanding of how to calculate with whole numbers to their growing understanding of Fractions, decimal fractions and percentages.

Figure 4 shows a difficult Fractions, decimal fractions and percentages item focusing on percentages from the P7 numeracy assessment for the academic year 2022 to 2023.

This item asks children to calculate a given percentage of an amount. The use of 5% as the percentage in the question prompt enables children to use a variety of approaches to solving the problem. The most likely strategy would be the standard approach of dividing by 100 and then multiplying by five; alternatively, children may make use of known facts to divide by 10 and then halve. The use of vinegar as a context enables children to demonstrate that they are able to apply their knowledge to situations where they may not have previously worked with percentages.

Figure 5 shows a Fractions, decimal fractions and percentages item from the S3 numeracy assessment for the academic year 2022 to 2023.

This item asks young people to calculate a new total after a given percentage increase, in the context of capacity. The wrong answers represent the ways in which the learners could miscalculate the change in total. This item would be above average difficulty for the S3 numeracy assessment.

#### 2.2.3 SNSA Measurement, time and money

This organiser draws together the numeracy Benchmarks that cover measurement, time and money. The measurement strand of SNSA progresses from comparing and ordering, and the use of non-standard units of measure at P1, to the use of standard units, reading scales and estimation, and calculating areas by counting squares or other methods at P4. At P7, children are expected to be estimating using standard units of measures and calculate areas of squares, rectangles and right-angled triangles. By S3, young people were asked to demonstrate that they could calculate other areas and volumes and convert between standard units of measure. Money at P1 and P4 focused on the recognition of coin values and calculating change, with P4 additionally covering accurate use of pounds and pence notation. At P7 and S3, budgeting, calculating profit and loss, and currency conversion also featured. Time covered areas such as reading clock times, interpreting timetables, calculating time durations and speed/distance/time calculations, as appropriate for each stage.

Figure 6 shows an item from the middle of the difficulty range for the P4 numeracy assessment for the academic year 2022 to 2023, reflecting the measurement aspect of the organiser.

The focus of this item is on converting hour and minutes to minutes only. This looks to identify if learners are able to identify the number of minutes in an hour and use this to complete a calculation. This is from the upper end of the difficulty scale for P4.

Figure 7 shows a typical P1 numeracy item, reflecting the time aspect of the organiser.

This item is designed to assess children's ability to read o'clock times on analogue clocks. In this instance, children were asked to select the analogue clock from a given time. Typically, in SNSA and other assessments for this age group, learners’ understanding of analogue clocks correlates less well with overall capacity in numeracy than is the case for many other aspects of numeracy. As such, typically, there is less of a difference in outcomes for learners working across the capacity range than for other areas of numeracy. This may be due to experiences outside of school that affect children's understanding of this aspect more than in other areas of numeracy.

Figure 8 shows an item reflecting the money aspect of the organiser.

This item is designed to assess recognition of coin values with the context of a calculation. Retaining and processing both pieces of information in a two-step problem adds an additional level of challenge. Coin recognition is a skill which P1 learners seem to find more challenging, especially below £1.

#### 2.2.4 SNSA Information handling

The main focus of this organiser is on data and analysis. It involves the use and interpretation of a wide range of increasingly complex tables, charts and graphs. At P1, this begins with sorting and categorising objects according to specified criteria. Forms of data presentation that are assessed include Venn and Carroll diagrams, tally charts, tables, block graphs, bar graphs, line graphs and pie charts; types of charts that are covered vary according to stage. Scales on the charts progress in complexity from those numbered in ones to having scales where not all values are marked. From P4 onwards, elements of probability, as detailed in the 'chance and uncertainty' Benchmarks, are also assessed. This includes the language of chance and also the use of the 0 to 1 probability scale.

Figure 9 shows an item from the lower end of the difficulty range for the P7 numeracy assessment for the academic year 2022 to 2023, reflecting the data and analysis aspect of the organiser.

This item shows a simple column graph where the scale is numbered in fives and three tally charts of data. From these, the learner must select the correct tally chart which was used to create the graph.

#### 2.2.5 – MCNG Number

The main focus of this organiser is understanding the properties of numbers and the ability to use the four basic number operations. It included items that asked about estimating and rounding; number and number processes; addition, subtraction, multiplication and division; and place value. In P7 and S3, negative numbers were also assessed. This organiser could be regarded as containing some of the basic building blocks of numeracy: the ability to engage with content in the other organisers is dependent to some extent upon the ability to understand place value and properties of number, as well as being able to understand and use the four basic operations of addition, subtraction, multiplication and division.

Figure 10 shows an example item from P1 Number.

This item is designed to assess a learner’s ability to subtract one number from another and identify the correct answer. This item has audio support for the learners, as well as visual support.

Figure 11 is another example of a P1 Number item which assesses basic counting skills.

This item asks learners to count the number of apples and oranges on the plate.

#### 2.2.6 – MCNG Fractions, decimal fractions and percentages

The main focus of this organiser is on the ability to recognise and work with fractions, decimal fractions and percentages. At P1, this involves sharing objects into equal sets and recognising representations of halves. By P4, children were asked to recognise standard fraction notation for common fractions, order fractions by size, and recognise pictorial representations of fractions. In the P7 assessment, children were also assessed on their current capacity to work with decimal fractions and percentages, recognise equivalent values in the different forms, and find fractions and percentages of a quantity. At S3, young people were also assessed on their current capacity to work with ratios.

In the assessments for the higher stages, there was an increase in the number of items assessing this organiser. This shift in the assessments' weightings reflects learners' increasing familiarity with whole numbers, and the transition to applying their understanding of how to calculate with whole numbers to their growing understanding of Fractions, decimal fractions and percentages.

Figure 12 asks learners to work with fractions to calculate how many of an item are left after 35% of them have been sold.

This item asks learners to calculate how many apples are left after a percentage of the original have been sold.

Figure 13 shows an example item from an S3 Fractions, decimal fractions and percentages assessment.

This multi-step item assesses learners’ ability to calculate a number based on a fraction and then subtract that number from a total. Although this is a multi-step item, it is an easier item for S3 Fractions, decimal fractions and percentages.

#### 2.2.7 – MCNG Measurement, time and money

This organiser draws together the numeracy Benchmarks that cover measurement, time and money. The measurement strand of MCNG progresses from comparing and ordering, and the use of non-standard units of measure at P1, to the use of standard units, reading scales and estimation, and calculating areas by counting squares or other methods at P4. At P7, children are expected to be estimating using standard units of measures and calculate areas of squares, rectangles and right-angled triangles. By S3, young people were asked to demonstrate that they could calculate other areas and volumes and convert between standard units of measure. Money at P1 and P4 focused on the recognition of coin values and calculating change, with P4 additionally covering accurate use of pounds and pence notation. At P7 and S3, budgeting, calculating profit and loss, and currency conversion also featured. Time covered areas such as reading clock times, interpreting timetables, calculating time durations and speed/distance/time calculations, as appropriate for each stage.

Figure 14 shows an example item from a P4 assessment which assesses the learners’ ability to add time intervals.

This item asks learners to add 65 minutes to a starting time, assessing their ability to add time in increments of more than one hour. This type of item would be towards the harder end of difficulty for P4.

#### 2.2.8 – MCNG Information handling

The main focus of this organiser is on data and analysis. It involves the use and interpretation of a wide range of increasingly complex tables, charts and graphs. At P1, this begins with sorting and categorising objects according to specified criteria. Forms of data presentation that are assessed include Venn and Carroll diagrams, tally charts, tables, block graphs, bar graphs, line graphs and pie charts; types of charts that are covered vary according to stage. Scales on the charts progress in complexity from those numbered in ones to having scales where not all values are marked. From P4 onwards, elements of probability, as detailed in the 'chance and uncertainty' Benchmarks, are also assessed. This includes the language of chance and also the use of the 0 to 1 probability scale.

Figure 15 shows an example probability item from a P4 assessment.

This item asks learners what the probability of throwing a six with a six-sided dice is. This item would be a difficult item for P4 learners.

### 2.3 SNSA National outcomes for numeracy^{[7]}

#### 2.3.1 Overall outcomes

Charts 1a to 1d show, for each stage (P1, P4, P7 and S3), the overall outcomes of all learners for numeracy. These charts also show the outcomes of all learners categorised by each of the four organisers: Number (NUM); Fractions, decimal fractions and percentages (FDP); Measurement, time and money (MTM); and Information handling (IH) where learners were presented with more than 5 items from that organiser. The bars show outcomes across the six capacity bands that are specific to each stage, in line with SNSA reports for the academic year 2022 to 2023.

At P1, the majority of learners achieved outcomes in the upper two bands whilst at P4, P7 and S3, the majority of learners achieved outcomes in the middle two bands.

Please note that a ‘notable difference’ refers to a difference of 10% or more.

Overall, for P1, the band achieved by the largest proportion of learners was 6, and the band achieved by the second largest proportion was 4. Overall, 80% of learners achieved bands 4, 5 or 6 with very few learners having outcomes in the two lowest bands.

For the organiser ‘Money, time and measurement’, 66% of learners achieved bands 4, 5 or 6 and for the organiser ‘Number’, 54% of learners achieved bands 5 or 6 and 76% of learners achieved bands 4, 5 or 6.

Note that for the organisers ‘Fractions, decimal fractions and percentages’ and ‘Information handling’, learners at this stage were not presented with more than five items so reports on outcomes are not available.

Overall, for P4, the band achieved by the largest proportion of learners was 7, and the band achieved by the second largest proportion was 6. Overall, 70% of learners achieved bands 6, 7 or 8 and 93% of learners achieved bands 5, 6, 7, 8 or 9.

For the organiser ‘Fractions, decimal fractions and percentages’, 57% of learners achieved bands 6, 7 or 8 and 89% of learners achieved bands 5, 6, 7, 8 or 9.

For the organiser ‘Information handling’, 56% of learners achieved bands 6, 7 or 8 and 90% of learners achieved bands 5, 6, 7, 8 or 9.

For the organiser ‘Money, time and measurement’, 65% of learners achieved bands 6, 7 or 8 and 88% of learners achieved bands 5, 6, 7, 8 or 9. This organiser did not have the largest proportion of learners achieving outcomes in band 7, instead the largest proportion of learners are in band 6.

For the organiser ‘Number’, 66% of learners achieved bands 6, 7 or 8 and 94% of learners achieved bands 5, 6, 7, 8 or 9.

Overall, for P7, the band achieved by the largest proportion of learners was 9, and the band achieved by the second largest proportion was 8. Overall, 65% of learners achieved bands 8, 9 or 10 and 93% of learners achieved bands 7, 8, 9, 10 or 11.

For the organiser ‘Fractions, decimal fractions and percentages’, 53% of learners achieved bands 8, 9 or 10 and 88% of learners achieved bands 7, 8, 9, 10 or 11. This organiser did not have the largest proportion of learners achieving outcomes in band 9, instead the largest proportion of learners are in band 11.

For the organiser ‘Information handling’, 63% of learners achieved bands 8, 9 or 10 and 92% of learners achieved bands 7, 8, 9, 10 or 11.

For the organiser ‘Money, time and measurement’, 57% of learners achieved bands 8, 9 or 10 and 91% of learners achieved bands 7, 8, 9, 10 or 11.

For the organiser ‘Number’, 64% of learners achieved bands 8, 9 or 10 and 92% of learners achieved bands 7, 8, 9, 10 or 11.

Overall, for S3, the band achieved by the largest proportion of learners was 10, and the band achieved by the second largest proportion was 9. Overall, 68% of learners achieved bands 9, 10 or 11 and 94% of learners achieved bands 8, 9, 10, 11 or 12.

For the organiser ‘Fractions, decimal fractions and percentages’, 55% of learners achieved bands 9, 10 or 11 and 93% of learners achieved bands 8, 9, 10, 11 or 12. This organiser did not have the largest proportion of learners achieving outcomes in band 10, instead the largest proportion of learners are in band 12.

For the organiser ‘Information handling’, 62% of learners achieved bands 9, 10 or 11 and 89% of learners achieved bands 8, 9, 10, 11 or 12.

For the organiser ‘Money, time and measurement’, 63% of learners achieved bands 9, 10 or 11 and 94% of learners achieved bands 8, 9, 10, 11 or 12.

For the organiser ‘Number’, 67% of learners achieved bands 9, 10 or 11 and 93% of learners achieved bands 8, 9, 10, 11 or 12.

#### 2.3.2 Sex

Charts 2a to 2d show numeracy outcomes for male and female children and young people for each stage. Outcomes are given for numeracy overall and also by organiser where learners were presented with more than 5 items from that organiser.

There were no notable differences between the proportion of females and males achieving outcomes in each band overall and for each organiser. There were, however, small differences, with proportionally more males than females achieving outcomes in Band 6 for the ‘Number’ organiser.

There were no notable differences between the proportion of females and males achieving outcomes in each band overall and for each organiser. There were small differences in outcomes, with proportionally, more male than female learners achieving outcomes in Band 9 across each of the organisers.

Overall, there were no notable differences between the proportion of females and males achieving outcomes in each band. There were, proportionally, more male than female learners who achieved outcomes in Bands 10 and 11 but there were similar proportions of male and female learners who achieved outcomes in Bands 6 and below.

For the organiser ‘Fractions, decimal fractions and percentages’, there were differences between the proportion of females and males achieving outcomes in band 11 but there was no notable difference for all other bands.

There were no notable differences between outcomes for male and female learners in the other organisers.

Overall, there were no notable differences between the proportion of females and males achieving outcomes in each band. There were, proportionally, more male than female learners who achieved outcomes in Bands 11 and 12 but there were similar proportions of male and female learners who achieved outcomes in Bands 7 and below.

For the organisers ‘Fractions, decimal fractions and percentages’ and ‘Money, time and measurement’, there were differences between the proportion of females and males achieving outcomes in band 12. There was no notable difference for all other bands.

For the organisers ‘Information handling’ and ‘Number’, there were no notable differences between the proportion of females and males achieving outcomes in each band.

#### 2.3.3 Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation

This section reviews the distribution of learners for all stages across categories that reflect the Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation (SIMD). To simplify the display of outcomes and aid their interpretation, we have divided the original 20 categories (vigintiles) into three combined categories of socio-economic background. These combined categories are: SIMD 1–4, indicating the lowest socio-economic quintile (that is, the most deprived children and young people, those in vigintiles 1 to 4); SIMD 5–16, indicating the three middle quintiles (vigintiles 5 to 16); and SIMD 17–20, indicating the highest socio-economic quintile (that is the least deprived children and young people, those in vigintiles 17 to 20).

Charts 3a to 3d show the proportions of numeracy outcomes by capacity band for learners within these SIMD categories for all stages. Outcomes are presented for numeracy overall and grouped by organiser.

At each stage, the proportion of learners with outcomes in the upper capacity band was noticeably larger among learners in the least deprived group (SIMD 17–20). The same was true, though to a lesser extent, in the next highest capacity band. There were relatively larger proportions of learners with outcomes in the two lowest capacity bands among learners in the most deprived group (SIMD 1–4). This pattern was present across all stages, both for numeracy overall and for outcomes grouped by organiser.

The charts illustrate that the difference in numeracy outcomes between learners from the most deprived and least deprived groups (lowest quintile and the highest quintile) was relatively smaller among children in P1, while it was more pronounced among learners at P4 and P7, and largest among those enrolled in S3.

At P1, across all SIMD groupings, the majority of children achieved outcomes in the top two capacity bands. Across other stages, here were higher proportions of learners with outcomes in the two upper capacity bands among learners in the least deprived group (SIMD 17–20). Similarly, for P4, P7 and S3, there were noticeably lower proportions of learners from the least deprived group (SIMD 17–20) in the lowest two bands, compared to other learners.

Whilst there were no notable differences between the proportion of 1-4 and 17-20 achieving outcomes in each band overall and for each organiser, a greater proportion of SIMD 17-20 learners achieved outcomes in the top two bands.

Overall, there was a notable difference in the proportions of learners in SIMD quintile 1-4 and quintile 17-20 achieving outcomes in the upper two bands with, proportionally, more learners from SIMD 17-20 achieving outcomes in the upper two bands than those from SIMD 1-4.

There is also a notable difference in the proportions of learners in SIMD quintile 1-4 and quintile 17-20 achieving outcomes in the lower two bands, with, proportionally, more learners from quintile 1-4 achieving outcomes in the lower two bands.

This pattern was replicated in all of the organisers.

Overall, there was a notable difference between the proportions of learners in SIMD quintile 1-4 and 17-20 in bands 7 and 11.

There was also a notable difference between the proportions of learners in SIMD quintile 1-4 and quintiles 5-16 in bands 7 and 11 and between the proportions of learners in SIMD quintiles 5-16 and quintile 17-20 in bands 7 and 11.

Overall, there was a notable difference between the proportions of learners in SIMD quintile 1-4 and 17-20 in bands 9, 11 and 12

There was also a difference between the proportions of learners in SIMD quintile 1-4 and quintiles 5-16 in bands 9, 11 and 12 and between the proportions of learners in SIMD quintiles 5-16 and quintile 17-20 in bands 9, 11 and 12.

#### 2.3.4 Ethnic background

This section looks at differences in outcomes between learners from 'White Scottish' and other ethnic backgrounds. Charts 4a to 4d show the percentages of learners in these two groups.

The outcomes show that, generally, there were only relatively small differences across the two comparison groups, both in terms of overall numeracy outcomes and when considering assessment outcomes regarding each of the organisers.

At P1, among children from a 'White Scottish' background, there were slightly higher proportions of children with outcomes in the top two bands than for children from other backgrounds. For learners in P4, outcomes for those with a ‘White Scottish’ background and those from other ethnic backgrounds were comparable. However, among learners enrolled in the upper stages (P7 and S3), both for numeracy overall and by organiser, there were slightly larger proportions with outcomes in the two upper capacity bands among learners from other ethnic backgrounds than among those from a 'White Scottish' background.

A slightly higher, though not notable, proportion of learners with a ‘White Scottish’ background achieved outcomes in the top two bands.

There were no notable differences between the proportion of learners of other ethnicities and ‘White Scottish’ background achieving outcomes in each band overall and for each organiser.

There were some slight differences in outcomes for learners from a ‘White Scottish’ background and those from other ethnic backgrounds with, proportionally, more learners from other ethnic backgrounds achieving outcomes in the upper band.

There were some slight differences in outcomes for learners from a ‘White Scottish’ background and those from other ethnic backgrounds with, proportionally, more learners from other ethnic backgrounds achieving outcomes in the upper band.

#### 2.3.5 Free School Meal Entitlement

Charts 5a to 5d show the numeracy outcomes of learners according to entitlement to free school meals (FME). These charts distinguish those with entitlement from all other learners.

At each stage, there were notably larger proportions with outcomes in the upper two capacity bands among learners not entitled to free school meals than among those with FME. There were correspondingly higher proportions of outcomes in the lower two capacity bands among learners with FME. This pattern was similar across all stages, both for numeracy overall and by organiser.

At P1, about 60% of learners without FME had outcomes corresponding to the two upper bands compared with just over 40% of learners with FME. For the other stages, fewer learners without FME had outcomes in the two upper bands, while about half of the learners achieved outcomes corresponding to the two middle bands in both groups. Differences between the FME / not FME groups were roughly similar for each organiser at each stage.

A bar chart showing the overall outcomes for SNSA P1 Numeracy and the organisers where learners were presented with more than 5 items from that organiser distributed by ethnic background.

#### 2.3.6 Additional Support Needs

Charts 6a to 6d show the distributions of learners according to whether or not learners were registered as learners with Additional Support Needs (ASN).

For all stages, the proportions of learners in the two upper bands were notably larger among learners without ASN. Similarly, there were relatively larger proportions of learners with ASN in the two lower bands.

While in P1, differences between the proportions of learners with and without ASN in the two lower bands were somewhat less pronounced, at P4, P7 and S3, there tended to be just under a third of learners with ASN in the two lower bands, compared to less than a fifth of learners without ASN. These differences were similar for numeracy overall as well as when considering each organiser separately.

#### 2.3.7 Looked After Children

Charts 7a to 7c compare learners who were classified as Looked After Children (LAC) either at Home or Away from Home, with all other learners. The information was taken from the national database, SEEMiS. In line with ONS guidelines the data for P1 is not reported in order to avoid identifying individual learners.

Across all stages, among learners classified as Looked After Children, notably smaller proportions achieved outcomes in the two upper capacity bands, compared to other learners without these classifications. This was most pronounced at Stage S3. Similarly, among learners classified as Looked After Children, there were higher proportions with outcomes in the two lower bands than among other learners. This pattern was similar across all stages.

#### 2.3.8 English as an Additional Language

Charts 8a to 8d compare learners by language background: English as an Additional Language (EAL) compared with all other learners. The category 'EAL' refers to those learners who are recorded in SEEMiS as having English as an additional language. The 'Not EAL' category comprises both learners who were recorded as not having EAL and those for whom there was no entry in this field.

When comparing learners for whom English is an Additional Language (EAL) and those for whom English is their first language at P4, P7 and S3, we observed only relatively small differences in the proportion of learners achieving outcomes in the highest two capacity bands.

At P1, differences between the two groups were larger than for the other stages. When comparing proportions in bands for each organiser, we observed very similar outcomes between the two groups, with only slightly larger proportions of learners who do not have English as their first language having outcomes in the highest two bands at P4, P7 and S3.

A bar chart showing the overall outcomes for SNSA P1 Numeracy and the organisers where learners were presented with more than 5 items from that organiser distributed by EAL.

### 2.4 MCNG National outcomes for numeracy

#### 2.4.1 Overall outcomes

Charts 9a and 9b show the overall outcomes of all learners for numeracy at P4 and P7. There were no learners who undertook S3 numeracy assessments and in line with ONS guidelines the data for P1 is not reported in order to avoid identifying individual learners. These charts also show the outcomes of all learners categorised by each of the four organisers: Number (NUM); Fractions, decimal fractions and percentages (FDP); Measurement, time and money (MTM); and Information handling (IH) where learners were presented with more than 5 items from that organiser. The bars show outcomes across the six capacity bands that are specific to each stage, in line with MCNG reports for the academic year 2022 to 2023.

At P4, the majority of the learners achieved outcomes in the upper two capacity bands and at P7 the majority of learners achieved outcomes in the middle two capacity bands.

Please note that a ‘notable difference’ refers to a difference of 10% or more.

Overall, for P4, the band achieved by the largest proportion of learners was 9, and the band achieved by the second largest proportion was 7. Overall, 63% of learners achieved bands 7, 8 or 9 and 79% of learners achieved bands 6, 7, 8 or 9.

For the organiser ‘Fractions, decimal fractions and percentages’, 51% of learners achieved bands 6, 7, 8 or 9 and 76% of learners achieved bands 5, 6, 7, 8 or 9. This organiser did not have the largest proportion of learners achieving outcomes in band 9, instead the largest proportion of learners are in band 5.

For the organiser ‘Information handling’, 60% of learners achieved bands 6 and 93% of learners achieved bands 7, 8 or 9.

For the organiser ‘Money, time and measurement’, 59% of learners achieved bands 7, 8 or 9 and 76% of learners achieved bands 6, 7, 8 or 9. This organiser did not have the largest proportion of learners achieving outcomes in band 9, instead the largest proportion of learners are in band 7.

For the organiser ‘Number’, 64% of learners achieved bands 7, 8 or 9 and 78% of learners achieved bands 6, 7, 8 or 9.

Overall, for P7, the band achieved by the largest proportion of learners was 9, and the band achieved by the second largest proportion was 8. Overall, 53% of learners achieved bands 9, 10 or 11 and 87% of learners achieved bands 7, 8, 9, 10 or 11.

For the organiser ‘Fractions, decimal fractions and percentages’, 59% of learners achieved bands 8, 9, 10 or 11 and 79% of learners achieved bands 7, 8, 9, 10 or 11. This organiser did not have the largest proportion of learners achieving outcomes in band 9, instead the largest proportion of learners are in band 7.

For the organiser ‘Information handling’, 74% of learners achieved bands 1 or 2 and 84% of learners achieved bands 9, 10 or 11.

For the organiser ‘Money, time and measurement’, 50% of learners achieved bands 9, 10 or 11 and 85% of learners achieved bands 7, 8, 9, 10 or 11.

For the organiser ‘Number’, 60% of learners achieved bands 9, 10 or 11 and 90% of learners achieved bands 7, 8, 9, 10 or 11.

#### 2.4.2 Sex

Charts 10a and 10b show numeracy outcomes for boys and girls for each stage. Outcomes are given for numeracy overall and also by organiser. There were no learners who undertook S3 numeracy assessments and in line with ONS guidelines the data for P1 is not reported in order to avoid identifying individual learners. At P4, most male and female learners had assessment outcomes corresponding to the two top capacity bands. At P7, most male and female learners achieved outcomes in the two middle capacity bands.

#### 2.4.3 Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation

There were no learners who undertook S3 numeracy assessments and in line with ONS guidelines the data for P1, P4 and P7 is not reported in order to avoid identifying individual learners.

#### 2.4.4 Ethnic background

This section looks at differences in outcomes between learners from 'White Scottish' and other ethnic backgrounds. Chart 11 shows the percentages of learners in these two groups for P4. There were no learners who undertook S3 numeracy assessments and in line with ONS guidelines the data for P1 and P7 is not reported in order to avoid identifying individual learners.

The outcomes show that, generally, there were some differences across the two comparison groups, both in terms of overall numeracy outcomes and when considering assessment outcomes regarding each of the organisers.

At P4, among children from a 'White Scottish' background, there were slightly higher proportions of children with outcomes in the top two bands than for children from other backgrounds.

#### 2.4.5 Free School Meal Entitlement

Chart 12 shows the numeracy outcomes of learners according to entitlement to free school meals (FME) for P4. This chart distinguishes those with entitlement from all other learners. There were no learners who undertook S3 numeracy assessments and in line with ONS guidelines the data for P1 and P7 is not reported in order to avoid identifying individual learners.

At P4 there were almost identical outcomes for learners entitled to FME and those who were not across all bands.

#### 2.4.6 Additional Support Needs

Charts 13a and 13b show the distributions of learners according to whether or not learners were registered as learners with Additional Support Needs (ASN). There were no learners who undertook S3 numeracy assessments and in line with ONS guidelines the data for P1 is not reported in order to avoid identifying individual learners.

At P4 and P7, the proportions of learners in the two upper bands were larger among learners with no ASN though this was more pronounced at P4 and minimal at P7.

#### 2.4.7 Looked After Children

There were no learners who undertook S3 numeracy assessments and in line with ONS guidelines the data for P1, P4 and P7 is not reported in order to avoid identifying individual learners.

#### 2.4.8 English as an Additional Language

There were no learners who undertook S3 numeracy assessments and in line with ONS guidelines the data for P1, P4 and P7 is not reported in order to avoid identifying individual learners.

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