Local Heat and Energy Efficiency Strategy pilots: phase 3 - evaluation

Evaluation of the third, and final, phase of Local Heat and Energy Efficiency Strategy (LHEES) pilots, which involved nine local authorities and took place between November 2019 and April 2021.



The reduction of carbon dioxide emissions through the use of low carbon energy generation, energy efficiency retrofitting of buildings and low carbon technologies.

Distribution Network Operator (DNO)

The company that owns and operates the distribution network (the power lines and infrastructure that bring electricity from the national transmission network to homes and businesses). There are two DNOs operating in Scotland: SP Energy Networks serve central and southern Scotland, and Scottish and Southern Electricity Networks (SSEN) serve the north of Scotland.

District Heating

Distribution of thermal energy in the form of steam or hot water from a central source of production through a network of pipes to multiple buildings or sites for use in space heating or process heating, or hot water.

This can also take the form of a communal heat network where the energy centre supplies heat and hot water to one building.

Energy Efficiency

The goal to reduce the amount of energy required to provide products and services. This can mean different things for different sectors but in relation to buildings this means reducing the amount of heat or cooling needed to maintain a comfortable temperature within a building through measures such as insulation, more efficient heating technologies and building management systems.

Energy Service Company (ESCo)

A business that provides a broad range of energy solutions including design and implementation of energy savings projects, retrofitting, energy conservation, energy infrastructure outsourcing, power generation and energy supply, and risk management.

Energy Performance Certificate (EPC)

Certificate awarded to buildings to be sold, let or to be constructed which determine on a scale from A to G how energy efficient a building is; A being the most efficient building. EPCs are a legal requirement for all buildings in the UK.

Fuel Poverty

Fuel poverty refers to the inability to meet fundamental energy needs such as heating, cooling, cooking and lighting, at an affordable cost. In Scotland, the official definition is set out in the Fuel Poverty (Targets, Definition and Strategy) (Scotland) Act 2019, which defines a household as fuel poor if:

  • after housing costs have been deducted, more than 10% (20% for extreme fuel poverty) of their net income is required to pay for their reasonable fuel needs; and
  • after further adjustments are made to deduct childcare costs and any benefits received for a disability or care need, their remaining income is insufficient to maintain an acceptable standard of living, defined as being at least 90% of the UK Minimum Income Standard (MIS).

Heat Map

A data visualisation technique that shows magnitude of a heat phenomenon such as 'demand' as colour in two dimensions. The variation in colour may be by hue or intensity, giving obvious visual cues to the reader about how the phenomenon is clustered or varies over space. There are two fundamentally different categories of heat maps: the cluster heat map and the spatial heat map.

Heat Networks and District Heating

A heat network is the system of insulated pipes which transports heat from a source (or multiple sources) to more than one end user. The UK government has stated that heat networks will be used more frequently to heat our homes and businesses. In short, heat networks form part of new energy infrastructure, vital in supporting the move to a low carbon energy system.

District Heating refers to the distribution of thermal energy in the form of steam or hot water from a central source of production through a network of pipes to multiple buildings or sites for use in space heating or process heating, or hot water.

This can also take the form of a communal heat network where the energy centre supplies heat and hot water to one building.

Heat Pumps

A heat pump is a device used to warm and/or cool buildings by transferring thermal energy by transferring and concentrating thermal energy using heat exchanger technology similar to that used in refrigeration.

Home Analytics

A dataset developed by the Energy Saving Trust and used by government, local authorities, housing associations and commercial businesses to assist them in developing, targeting and delivering their schemes, programmes and products.


Local Heat and Energy Efficiency Strategy. LHEES are intended to establish local authority plans for systematically improving the energy efficiency of all buildings and decarbonising heat.

Low Carbon Infrastructure Transition Programme (LCITP)

The Low Carbon Infrastructure Transition Programme (LCITP) was launched in March 2015, in partnership with Scottish Enterprise, Highlands and Islands Enterprise, Scottish Futures Trust and sector specialists. The LCITP aims to support Scotland's transition to a low-carbon economy. Its main focus is assisting projects to develop investment-grade business cases that will help secure public and private capital finance to demonstrate innovative low-carbon technologies in Scotland

Off Gas

Buildings which are not connected to a natural gas network for heating provision.


Conducting energy efficiency upgrades to existing domestic and non- domestic buildings such as upgrades to the fabric of the building including the walls, roof, floors, windows and doors; strategies for ventilation, heating efficiency and cooling in the summer months. This can also include implementing low carbon heat provision.

Scottish Government's Excel procurement framework

The service is designed to help councils meet the challenge of reducing budgets whilst meeting growing demand for services. It offers collaborative procurement that saves money for local authorities.

Statutory Duty

A duty imposed through legislation. If LHEES were to become a statutory duty this would mean that developing and reporting on LHEES would be a legal requirement on local government.


A zoned approach to heat and energy efficiency takes a view of local opportunities and limitations. It considers the most appropriate heat decarbonisation and energy efficiency solutions for that area in consultation with local stakeholders. This supports the 'zoning' of a local area for active deployment of a particular solution.


Email: heatinbuildings@gov.scot

Back to top