1. #ToxicTwitter – Violence and Abuse Against Women Online: https://www.amnesty.org/download/Documents/ACT3080702018ENGLISH.PDF
2. N Chakraborti and J Garland, Hate Crime (n 12) 9; Academic Report chapter 1
3. During the course of the review Alan McCloskey took over membership of the reference group from Susan Gallagher, Acting Chief Executive of Victim Support Scotland.
9. House of Lords Select Committee on Communications: Social media and Criminal Offences, First report of Session 2014-15, HL Paper 37.
10. N Chakraborti and J Garland, Hate Crime (n 12) 9; Academic Report chapter 1
11. Hansard, House of Lords, 12 February 1998, col 1305.
12. Scottish Ministers have considered abolishing the requirement of corroboration, and commissioned Lord Bonomy to carry out a review of the safeguards that might need to be put in place if this were to happen. Lord Bonomy and his reference group reported in April 2015. The question of whether corroboration should be abolished generally, and whether any safeguards would be needed if that were to happen, is currently with Ministers. Questions about whether baseline offences should require more than one source of evidence do not fall within the remit of this review.
14. Danner A.M., 'Bias crimes and crimes against humanity: culpability in context' (2002) 6 Buffalo Crim LR 389, 406.
15. Juridical Review, November 2016.
16. Tackling Religious Hatred: Report of Cross-Party Working Group on Religious Hatred, 5 December 2002
18. #ToxicTwitter – Violence and Abuse Against Women Online: https://www.amnesty.org/download/Documents/ACT3080702018ENGLISH.PDF
19. The Council of Europe Convention on Combating Violence Against Women and Domestic Violence.
21. R v Johnston, 05/08/03, Priestly J, HC Auckland, T023336
22. Nottingham Women's Centre has commissioned research to evaluate the success of the misogyny hate crime policy in Nottinghamshire, funded by Nottinghamshire PCC. The research is being led by Dr Loretta Trickett from Nottingham Trent University, with Professor Louise Mullany from the University of Nottingham and the research findings are expected to be launched in May 2018.
23. 5th Report 2017 (Session 5), SP Paper 185.
24.  2 AC 62.
26. Commission for Racial Equality v Dutton  QB 783.
27. O'Leary v Punch Retail, HHJ Goldstein, Westminster County Court, 29 August 2000; MacLennan v Gypsy Traveller Education and Information Project, Employment Tribunal, S/13291/07.
28.  2 AC 548
30. Waldron, The Harm in Hate Speech 154
31. For a fuller discussion of harm see Academic Report paras 6.2.1 – 6.2.3
35. See sections 29J and 29JA of the Public Order Act 1986.
36. Evangelical Alliance response to the consultation document.
37. Christian Institute response to the consultation document.
38. Ivanov v Russia (app. No. 35222/04)(Dec.) 20 February 2007; Paksas v Lithuania (2014) 59 EHRR 30 at 
39. e.g. Otto-Preminger-Institut v Austria 20/9/94, Series A no.295A, para ; Ginieswki v France (2007) 45 EHRR 589
40. Soulas v France 10 July 2008
41. Feret v Belgium (app. No. 15615/07) 16 July 2009
42. Vejdeland and others v Sweden (app. No. 1813/07) 9 February 2012
43. Law Commission, Hate Crime: Should the Current Offences be Extended? Law Com 348
44. The Framework Decision does not impose any legal obligations on the UK, but UK Government Ministers have indicated to Parliament that they intend to meet its requirements as a matter of policy: Hansard: House of Lords, 23 September 2013, col WA422.
45. Law Commission, Hate Crime: Should the Current Offences be Extended? Law Com 348. See also Academic Report para 6.4.5
46. The Red Lion Square Disorders of 15 June 1974: Report of Inquiry by the Rt Hon Lord Justice Scarman (Cmnd 5919: 1975 para 125; see Academic Report para 6.3.1
47. The term 'hate speech' is not used consistently in practice. Chapter 6 of the Academic Report gives some examples and notes the term is something of a misnomer as it can also include non-verbal communication, such as the publication of material online. In this chapter, I am using the term to refer to behaviour which expresses hatred in a way which has particular negative consequences, such as causing individuals fear or alarm, or stirring up hatred in others.
48. Bakalis, C. ,'Rethinking cyberhate laws', Information & Communications Technology Law, 27:1 (2018), p.p. 86-110.
49. Judgment and sentencing remarks may be found here: https://www.judiciary.gov.uk/judgments/r-v-viscount-st-davids/
50.  1 WLR 2223.
51.  EWHC 2157 (Admin).
52. As explained in chapter 5, that offence has now been repealed.
53. Sheppard and Whittle  EWCA Crim 824.
56.  EWCA Crim 824.
57. Macdonald, J.H.A., A practical treatise on the criminal law in Scotland (5 th edition), (Edinburgh: W. Green & Son, 1948),p. 191.
58. 1991 JC 62 at 73.
59. Abuse, hate and extremism online, interim report May 2017, paragraph 56.
62. Hansard, House of Lords, 12 February 1998, col 1308.
63. 2012 SLT 342.
64.  HCJAC 34.
65.  HCJAC 113.
66. Smith v Donnelly 2002 JC 65 at para .
67. Paterson v HM Advocate 2008 JC 327 at para ; Harris v HM Advocate 2010 JC 245 at para .
68. Montgomery v Harvie 2015 JC 223 LJC, (Carloway), delivering the opinion of the court at para .
69. Raffaeli v Heatly 1949 JC 101 per LJC (Thompson).
70. Wotherspoon v PF Glasgow 2017 SCCR 505;  HCJAC 69.
71. 2009 SCCR 711.
72. Terrorism Act 2000 s 3 and schedule 2
73. 2015 SCCR 214.
74. Halaka v PF Dundee 25 March 2011. The sheriff rejected the Crown contention that the singing of songs in support of the IRA came within section 74.
75. Tackling Religious Hatred: Report of Cross-Party Working Group on Religious Hatred, December 2002
76. Tackling Sectarianism and its Consequences in Scotland: Final Report of The Advisory Group on Tackling Sectarianism in Scotland – April 2015
79. A v British Broadcasting Corporation (Secretary of State or the Home Department intervening)  AC 588, Lord Reed JSC at paras 23 – 26
80. In Re Guardian News and Media Limited and others  2 AC 697 at para 26
81. Petition to the Nobile Officium by Mr A  HCJAC 91
89. Walters, Mark, Brown, Rupert and Wiedlitzka, Susann (2016) Preventing hate crime: emerging practices and recommendations for the effective management of criminal justice interventions. Project Report. Sussex Crime Research Centre, Sussex, UK: http://sro.sussex.ac.uk/64925/1/Interventions%20for%20Hate%20Crime%20-%20FINAL%20REPORT_2.pdf
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