Human Trafficking and Exploitation Strategy: first annual progress report

The first annual progress report sets out the progress made during the first year of implementation of the Human Trafficking and Exploitation Strategy.

Section 6: Measures of progress

Measure Definition 2017/18 data

Identify victims and support them to safety and recovery

Number of potential victims identified

All victims (adults and children) who enter the NRM and (in due course) those identified through the ‘duty to notify’ process

Full 2017 annual report is published by the National Crime Agency, with a breakdown of referrals from Scotland (published March 2018);

Key figures for Scotland 2017:

Total referrals: 207 (38% increase on 2016)

Type Male adult Female adult Male minor Female minor Total
Domestic servitude 1 4 1 3 9
Labour exploitation 77 13 28 9 127
Sexual exploitation 2 43 2 8 55
Unknown 1 3 8 4 16
Total 81 63 39 24 207

The largest increase is in adult male victims of labour exploitation, which increased by 47% from 2016.

The most common nationality of victims was Vietnamese (89) and Chinese (32). The most common European nationality was Romanian (10), which increased significantly from 3 in 2016.

Number of adult victims provided with support

Reports from the support provider

TARA supported 69 women over the course of 2017/18. TARA provided 18 women with crisis accommodation and supported
9 repatriations in the period.

On the 01.02.18 TARA had:

38 open cases

5 cases where a positive conclusive grounds decision ( CG) has been made

7 cases where negative CG has been made

  • 1 negative CG – where immigration tribunal upheld trafficking aspect of case.
  • 3 negative CGs – support continues to be provided due to complex needs (terminal illness diagnosed, mental health, complex immigration/ NRM case).
  • 3 negative CGs – cases to be closed in next two weeks.

4 cases where a negative CG has been made but reconsideration requested or being actively considered by legal representative

22 cases with outstanding CGs and ongoing support needs.

The average length of time current cases have been in receipt of support is 13 months.

Migrant Help supported 167 cases in 2017/2018 including 116 referrals to the NRM.

6 cases where a positive CG was made
8 cases where a negative CG was made
18 cases where a negative reasonable grounds decision ( RG) was made
9 cases where clients decided to leave Scotland
6 cases where the NRMs were withdrawn
4 cases where clients absconded
2 cases where clients repatriated
45 cases where the CG is outstanding and support level is low (long-term cases)
69 cases where the CG is outstanding and support level is high

The average length of time current cases have been in receipt of support is 13 months.

Migrant Help also entered into a new partnership with Bright Work recruitment which provided potential employment opportunities for trafficking survivors.

Number of trafficked or exploited children supported through the child protection system

This will be based on the returns already provided to the Scottish Government by local authorities

The most recent figures published in March 2018 are for 2016/2017. The number for the new child trafficking indicator category is low and so this is grouped within the “Other Concerns” category in the publication. However, there was a rise in recording in the new category of child sexual exploitation from 12 to 52 (although we do not know whether there was any link to trafficking necessarily). This was matched by a decrease in recording under the wider child exploitation category.

We would note that this figure only relates to those children whose names were subsequently placed on the child protection register – it is possible that more children and young people were considered within child protection processes, but were not subsequently registered. This could be for a number of reasons. However we do note that registration most commonly takes place where there are thought to be continuing risks – if action has been taken to remove the child or young person from the situation, registration would not always be necessary.

Number of children who are allocated an independent child trafficking guardian ( ICTG)

Number of children who receive the support of an ICTG

A public consultation on ICTGs is planned for autumn 2018.

In the meantime, Scotland provides additional support for those children who have been trafficked, and for whom no-one in the UK holds parental responsibilities, through the Scottish Guardianship Service:

  • 60 new referrals in 2017 calendar year.
  • As at 16/04/2018: 148 young people being supported through the Scottish Guardianship Service – to date referrals have been received from 24 out of the 32 local authorities.
  • 25 new referrals between 01/01/2018 and 16/04/2018.

Identify perpetrators and disrupt their activity

Number of individuals convicted for the offences

Persons convicted in that year
under section 1 and section 4 of the Act and also under earlier legislation (section 22 of the the Criminal Justice (Scotland) Act 2003, section 4 of the Asylum and
(Treatment of Claimaints etc.) Act 2004 and section 47 of the Criminal Justice Licensing (Scotland) Act 2010

2 individuals convicted – verdict date 14/02/2018:

1 individual convicted of one charge in contravention of section 4(1) of the Human Trafficking and Exploitation (Scotland) Act 2015 and 1 charge in contravention of the Criminal Justice & Licensing (Scotland) Act 2010 47(1)(A)

1 individual convicted of one charge in contravention of section 4(1) of the Human Trafficking and Exploitation (Scotland) Act 2015

Number of individuals convicted of offences with a human trafficking background

Convictions using the aggravations set out in sections 5, 6 and 7 of the Act in that year


Number of orders made under Part 4 of the Act

Orders made in that year using the powers in Part 4 of the Act

Two Trafficking and Exploitation Prevention Orders imposed on 15 March 2018 relating to the above case

Address the conditions that foster trafficking and exploitations

Public awareness of the issue of human trafficking and exploitation

Questions in face-to-face

The research was conducted using a face-to-face, in-home, CAPI Omnibus survey – the Scottish Opinion Survey ( SOS) – as the method for data collection. Two waves of research have now been conducted:

  • Wave 1 (2017):
    A sample of 1,025 adults aged 16+ was interviewed across Scotland between 1 and 26 March 2017.
  • Wave 2 (2018):
    A sample of 1,008 adults aged 16+ was interviewed across Scotland between
    28 February and 2 April 2018.
Percentage of respondents stating that Human Trafficking is a problem ‘to a great extent’ in each area:
  2017 % 2018 %
Europe 53 59
Rest of the world (Europe) 63 69
The UK 30 34
Scotland 14 16
Your local area of Scotland 5 4

This suggests that awareness of human trafficking has increased at all levels except within local communities, so there is clearly more to be done to strengthen these messages.

When asked what they would do if they suspected someone had been trafficked or exploited, 87% of respondents said they would report it to the police, a significant increase from 80% the previous year, and the proportion who said they would tell friends or family went down significantly from 16% to 12%. This is a positive shift in awareness that concerns should be reported.

The 2018 survey asked whether respondents had seen or heard media activity relating to trafficking, and 40% said they had, with the most common sources being TV programmes and news. When shown images from the Scottish Government awareness raising campaign, 25% of adults in Scotland claimed to have seen the advertising.

The full report on the 2018 survey can be found at: /news/heightened-awareness-of-trafficking/

Infrastructure and partnership working

Numbers of statutory bodies that have specific referral mechanisms for human trafficking and exploitation within their organisation and using them

Self-reporting through the Strategy Implementation Group

Specific figures are not currently available. Police Scotland, Local Authorities and NHS boards have processes and training in place, and the Action Area 1 Implementation Group has been working to improve quality and consistency of these messages.

Number of organisations (statutory and
nonstatutory) within Scotland that have action plans or similar that contribute to delivering the overall aims of the Strategy

Self-reporting through the Stakeholder Forum arrangement

This data is not currently available. The corporate implementation group has recently been established and will look at what measures can be used to ensure wider delivery of meaningful Slavery and Human Trafficking Statements and appropriate policies, procedures and training.


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