Growing up in Scotland: health inequalities in the early years

This report investigates health inequalities in the early years in terms of risk factors and outcomes.

APPENDIX

The following table presents the full results of the logistic regression described in Section 4.6.2. For each variable included in the model a reference category was chosen against which the other categories were compared. The reference categories are shown below in brackets.

The regression results are presented as odds ratios for each category within an independent variable, all of which have a significance value and 95% confidence intervals attached. Odds ratios estimate the effect of each individual independent variable on the outcome variable, adjusted for all other independent variables in the regression model. For variables with categories, logistic regression compares the odds of a reference category (shown in the tables in brackets) with that of the other categories. An odds ratio of greater than one indicates that the group in question is more likely to demonstrate this characteristic than is the chosen reference category, an odds ratio of less than one means they are less likely. For example, in the second column of Table A.1, girls have an odds ratio of 1.49. This indicates that the odds of girls avoiding negative outcomes are 1.49 times greater than they are for boys (the reference category).

For continuous, scale variables, such as the first three shown in Table A1, the odds ratio shows the change in odds associated with a one unit change in the scale. For example, the odds of avoiding negative outcomes increase by 1.03 for each increase in the home learning environment scale.

The final column shows the significance value for each independent variable. Those with a value greater than 0.05 are not considered to be statistically significant.

Table A.1 Estimate odds ratios for avoiding negative outcomes by resilience measures and other associated risk factors

 Odds Ratio P value for each category 95% Conf. Interval P value for variable 1.10 0.012 1.02 - 1.19 0.012 1.01 0.480 0.99 - 1.02 0.480 1.03 0.000 1.02 - 1.04 0.000 0.686 1.13 0.650 0.66 - 1.92 0.84 0.447 0.52 - 1.33 1.07 0.726 0.72 - 1.61 0.076 0.80 0.571 0.36 - 1.76 1.12 0.673 0.66 - 1.89 0.62 0.015 0.42 - 0.91 1.05 0.900 0.46 - 2.39 0.413 0.72 0.092 0.49 - 1.06 0.82 0.438 0.50 - 1.36 0.95 0.790 0.64 - 1.41 0.715 1.55 0.279 0.70 - 3.46 1.22 0.409 0.75 - 1.99 1.67 0.263 0.67 - 4.14 1.17 0.541 0.70 - 1.94 0.006 1.49 0.006 1.12 - 1.97 0.199 1.38 0.199 0.84 - 2.28 0.355 0.93 0.764 0.57 - 1.51 1.21 0.253 0.87 - 1.69 0.017 1.51 0.017 1.08 - 2.12 0.881 0.99 0.944 0.70 - 1.40 0.91 0.631 0.61 - 1.36 0.529 0.90 0.529 0.65 - 1.25 0.023 1.40 0.065 0.98 - 2.01 1.95 0.007 1.21 - 3.14 0.102 0.98 0.917 0.62 - 1.54 1.40 0.054 0.99 - 1.97 0.49 0.181 0.17 - 1.41 0.892 0.97 0.891 0.62 - 1.53 0.594 1.10 0.594 0.77 - 1.57 0.937 0.99 0.979 0.67 - 1.49 0.88 0.588 0.55 - 1.40 0.90 0.634 0.59 - 1.39 0.910 0.82 0.494 0.45 - 1.47 1.01 0.963 0.61 - 1.66 0.90 0.639 0.59 - 1.38 0.70 0.402 0.31 - 1.62 0.221 1.21 0.221 0.89 - 1.65 0.277 1.10 0.631 0.73 - 1.66 1.37 0.229 0.82 - 2.29 1.54 0.167 0.83 - 2.86 0.048 1.59 0.006 1.15 - 2.21 1.04 0.860 0.66 - 1.63 1.23 0.281 0.84 - 1.80 0.019 2.03 0.010 1.19 - 3.45 1.14 0.604 0.69 - 1.86 0.572 1.14 0.483 0.79 - 1.64 1.24 0.298 0.83 - 1.85 0.937 0.95 0.817 0.63 - 1.43 0.88 0.553 0.58 - 1.34 0.91 0.682 0.56 - 1.47 0.644 1.28 0.286 0.81 - 2.01 1.24 0.387 0.76 - 2.02 0.96 0.862 0.59 - 1.56 0.235 1.55 0.043 1.01 - 2.38 1.20 0.361 0.80 - 1.80 1.14 0.566 0.72 - 1.80 0.369 0.88 0.369 0.67 - 1.16 0.188 0.96 0.856 0.65 - 1.43 1.29 0.142 0.92 - 1.80

Note p value for model = 0.048; weighted sample size: 1,278, unweighted sample size 1,071.
*The 5th (least deprived) SIMD quintile, 1st (highest) income quintile, and professional/managerial NS- SEC categories are missing as these cases were excluded from the analysis.