Publication - Research and analysis
Growing Up in Scotland: changes in language ability over the primary school years
This report investigates the improvement of language ability during the primary school years and identifies factors which appear to help and hinder improvement over this period.
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71 page PDF
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Appendix C: Multivariable analysis results
Description of the analysis undertaken
Linear regression analysis
Many of the factors we are interested in are related to each other as well as being related to cognitive ability. For example, parents on lower incomes are also more likely to have lower levels of education and to live in areas of high deprivation. Simple analysis may identify a relationship between income and language ability. However, this relationship may be occurring because of the underlying association between income and education. Thus, it may be the lower level of education among lower-income parents which is associated with a greater likelihood of lower language ability in their children rather than the fact that they are poor. To avoid this difficulty, multivariable regression analysis was used. This analysis allows the examination of the relationships between a dependent (outcome) variable and multiple independent (explanatory) variables whilst controlling for the inter-relationships between each of the independent variables. This means it is possible to identify an independent relationship between any single explanatory variable and the outcome variable; to show, for example, that there is a relationship between income and language ability that does not simply occur because parental education and income are related.
The regression models developed for this report were fitted with standardised WIAT-II vocabulary score (z score) measured when the child was in Primary 6 as the dependent variable. Standardised BAS-II vocabulary score (z score) measured at age 5 was included as an independent variable. Measures of social background characteristics and demographics, and various additional factors identified from the literature were also added as independent variables. By including a measure of ability at age 5, the results of this analysis identify characteristics which are associated with a relative change in assessment score between age 5 and Primary 6, after controlling for other, potentially confounding, characteristics. Note, though, that the identification of associations between one or more independent variables and a dependent variable does not necessarily imply that the independent variable(s) causes the dependent variable (the outcome).
The characteristics, experiences and circumstances considered in the analysis are outlined in Table 4-1. Readers should note that to ensure consistency in the analysis, for variables with a high number of cases with missing values (e.g. income), a separate category ('No information') was created. For cases with smaller numbers of missing cases (~<100), cases with missing values were added to the modal (most common) category. Further details are provided in Appendix A.
Note also that only children with valid vocabulary scores at both time points were included in the analysis (36 children with a valid vocabulary score at age 5/Primary 1 were excluded from the analysis because there was no valid vocabulary score at Primary 6). Furthermore, data were weighted using the GUS longitudinal survey weight, meaning that only cases which have taken part in every face-to-face sweep of GUS up to and including sweep 8 were included. In total, 2726 children were included in the analysis.
The regression analysis was carried out in four stages:
- Stage 1: Univariate linear regression models (Tables C-1 to C-24)
- To examine the relationship between the two standardised vocabulary scores used in the analysis, first, a univariate linear regression model was fitted with standardised expressive vocabulary score at Primary 6 as the dependent variable and standardised expressive vocabulary score at Primary 1 as the only independent variable.
- Individual linear regression models were then fitted for each of the factors outlined in Table A. In each of these models standardised expressive vocabulary score at Primary 6 was the dependent variable, and standardised expressive vocabulary score at Primary 1 was included as a covariate.
- Stage 2: Multivariable model with Stage 1 significant factors (Table C-25)
- The next stage of analysis involved entering the factors which were significant at the 90% level into a single regression model. In so doing, this analysis explored the extent to which each factor remained independently associated with a relative improvement or decline in language ability over the primary school period once controlling for the influence of other factors, including social background.
- Stage 3: Multivariable model with Stage 2 significant factors (Table C-26)
- In the third stage of the analysis, a final model was created including only those factors which were significant at the 90% level in the stage 2 model. This is referred to as the 'final model'.
- Stage 4: Stage 3 multivariable model with interaction effects (Table C-27)
- To explore whether associations differed according to parental education, interaction effects were fitted to the stage 3 model (the 'final model') between parental education and each of the independent variables except for Primary 1 vocabulary score.
Interpreting the tables
The weighted sample size for each category is provided in the 'Weighted base' column. The sample size given in the top row for each variable is the sample size for the reference category, which is given in brackets.
All figures quoted in this report have a margin of error because they are estimates based on a sample of children, rather than all children. The p-value is an estimation of how likely it is that we would find a relationship in our sample of children if there was no actual relationship in the population (i.e., broadly speaking, among children in Scotland who are the same age as the GUS children but who are not part of GUS). Thus, the smaller the p-value (p<0.05), the more confident we can be that our results are likely to apply to children in Scotland more widely.
For continuous independent variables (covariates) the regression coefficient ('Coeff') illustrates the relative level of change (positive or negative) in language ability score at P6 if score at P1 is increased by 1 unit. A significant (p<0.05) positive coefficient denotes a relative improvement in ability score and a significant negative coefficient denotes a relative decline in ability score for every one-unit increase in P1 score.
For categorical independent variables (factors) the regression coefficient ('Coeff') illustrates the relative level of difference (positive or negative) in language ability for each sub-group as compared with the reference sub-group. A significant (p<0.05) positive coefficient denotes a higher ability score and a significant negative coefficient denotes a lower ability score when compared with the reference sub-group. The reference sub-group is indicated in brackets.
The 95% confidence interval is an indication of the level of uncertainty in the coefficient estimate.
Table C‑1 Linear regression model predicting standardised expressive vocabulary score at P6, by standardised expressive vocabulary score at P1
Weighted base | p-value | Coeff | 95% Confidence interval | ||
---|---|---|---|---|---|
Standardised vocabulary score (P1) | 2698 | .000 | 0.431 | 0.385 | 0.476 |
R squared | 0.172 | ||||
Total N (unweighted) | 2726 | ||||
Total N (weighted) | 2698 |
Table C‑2 Linear regression model predicting standardised expressive vocabulary score at P6, by standardised expressive vocabulary score at P1 and child's gender
Weighted base | p-value | Coeff | 95% confidence interval | ||
---|---|---|---|---|---|
Standardised vocabulary score (P1) | 2698 | .000 | .432 | .386 | .478 |
Child's gender | |||||
Male | 1374 | .365 | .035 | -.042 | .112 |
Female (ref) | 1324 | - | - | - | - |
R Squared | 0.172 | ||||
Total N (unweighted) | 2726 | ||||
Total N (weighted) | 2698 |
Table C‑3 Linear regression model predicting standardised expressive vocabulary score at P6, by standardised expressive vocabulary score at P1 and equivalised annual household income
Weighted base | p-value | Coeff | 95% confidence interval | ||
---|---|---|---|---|---|
Standardised vocabulary score (P1) | 2698 | .000 | .411 | .363 | .459 |
Equivalised annual household Income | .025 | ||||
No Information | 160 | .803 | .027 | -.189 | .243 |
Top Quintile (>=£37,857) | 358 | .001 | .244 | .099 | .389 |
4^{th} Quintile (>=£29,126<£37,857) | 525 | .041 | .150 | .007 | .293 |
3^{rd} Quintile (>=£19,643<£29,126) | 430 | .035 | .175 | .012 | .337 |
2^{nd} Quintile (>=£12,217<£19,643) | 605 | .132 | .097 | -.030 | .225 |
Lowest Quintile (<£12,217) (ref) | 620 | - | - | - | - |
R Squared | 0.178 | ||||
Total N (unweighted) | 2726 | ||||
Total N (weighted) | 2698 |
Table C‑4 Linear regression model predicting standardised expressive vocabulary score at P6, by standardised expressive vocabulary score at P1 and level of area deprivation (SIMD)
Weighted base | p-value | Coeff | 95% confidence interval | ||
---|---|---|---|---|---|
Standardised vocabulary score (P1) | 2698 | .000 | .419 | .373 | .466 |
Area Deprivation (SIMD) | .049 | ||||
Least Deprived Quintile | 523 | .029 | .153 | .016 | .290 |
4^{th} Quintile | 556 | .026 | .153 | .019 | .286 |
3^{rd} Quintile | 510 | .002 | .222 | .085 | .358 |
2^{nd} Quintile | 508 | .078 | .122 | -.014 | .259 |
Most Deprived Quintile (ref) | 602 | - | - | - | - |
R Squared | 0.178 | ||||
Total N (unweighted) | 2726 | ||||
Total N (weighted) | 2698 |
Table C‑5 Linear regression model predicting standardised expressive vocabulary score at P6, by standardised expressive vocabulary score at P1 and parental education
Weighted base | p-value | Coeff | 95% confidence interval | ||
---|---|---|---|---|---|
Standardised vocabulary score (P1) | 2698 | .000 | .411 | .364 | .458 |
Highest level of parental education | |||||
Degree level or above | 964 | .000 | .180 | .100 | .260 |
Below degree (incl. missing) (ref) | 1734 | - | - | - | - |
R Squared | 0.179 | ||||
Total N (unweighted) | 2726 | ||||
Total N (weighted) | 2698 |
Table C‑6 Linear regression model predicting standardised expressive vocabulary score at P6, by standardised expressive vocabulary score at P1 and urban/small town or rural location
Weighted base | p-value | Coeff | 95% confidence interval | ||
---|---|---|---|---|---|
Standardised vocabulary score (P1) | 2698 | .000 | .424 | .379 | .469 |
Urban/rural location | |||||
Small town or rural | 852 | .005 | .139 | .045 | .233 |
Urban (incl. missing) (ref) | 1846 | - | - | - | - |
R Squared | 0.176 | ||||
Total N (unweighted) | 2726 | ||||
Total N (weighted) | 2698 |
Table C‑7 Linear regression model predicting standardised expressive vocabulary score at P6, by standardised expressive vocabulary score at P1 and languages spoken in the household
Weighted base | p-value | Coeff | 95% confidence interval | ||
---|---|---|---|---|---|
Standardised vocabulary score (P1) | 2698 | .000 | .434 | .387 | .481 |
Languages spoken in household | |||||
Other language(s) spoken | 141 | .120 | .133 | -.036 | .302 |
English only (incl. missing) (ref) | 2558 | - | - | - | - |
R Squared | 0.173 | ||||
Total N (unweighted) | 2726 | ||||
Total N (weighted) | 2698 |
Table C‑8 Linear regression model predicting standardised expressive vocabulary score at P6, by standardised expressive vocabulary score at P1 and parent literacy issues
Weighted base | p-value | Coeff | 95% confidence interval | ||
---|---|---|---|---|---|
Standardised vocabulary score (P1) | 2698 | .000 | .430 | .384 | .477 |
Parent literacy issues | |||||
One or more literacy issues | 338 | .866 | -.013 | -.171 | .145 |
No literacy issues (incl. missing) (ref) | 2361 | - | - | - | - |
R Squared | 0.172 | ||||
Total N (unweighted) | 2726 | ||||
Total N (weighted) | 2698 |
Table C‑9 Linear regression model predicting standardised expressive vocabulary score at P6, by standardised expressive vocabulary score at P1 and parent mental wellbeing
Weighted base | p-value | Coeff | 95% confidence interval | ||
---|---|---|---|---|---|
Standardised vocabulary score (P1) | 2698 | .000 | .433 | .386 | .480 |
Parent mental wellbeing | |||||
Below average at sweep 5 and/or sweep 8 | 632 | .456 | .036 | -.060 | .132 |
Average or above at both sweeps (incl. missing) (ref) | 2066 | - | - | - | - |
R Squared | 0.172 | ||||
Total N (unweighted) | 2726 | ||||
Total N (weighted) | 2698 |
Table C‑10 Linear regression model predicting standardised expressive vocabulary score at P6, by standardised expressive vocabulary score at P1 and whether parent has limiting health problem
Weighted base | p-value | Coeff | 95% confidence interval | ||
---|---|---|---|---|---|
Standardised vocabulary score (P1) | 2698 | .000 | .431 | .385 | .478 |
Parent limiting long-term health problem | |||||
Parent had limiting health problem at sweep 5 and/or sweep 8 | 356 | .370 | .056 | -.068 | .179 |
Parent had no limiting health problem (incl. missing) (ref) | 2342 | - | - | - | - |
R Squared | 0.172 | ||||
Total N (unweighted) | 2726 | ||||
Total N (weighted) | 2698 |
Table C‑11 Linear regression model predicting standardised expressive vocabulary score at P6, by standardised expressive vocabulary score at P1 and whether child has a limiting health problem
Weighted base | p-value | Coeff | 95% confidence interval | ||
---|---|---|---|---|---|
Standardised vocabulary score (P1) | 2698 | .000 | .430 | .384 | .477 |
Child limiting long-term health problem | |||||
Child had limiting health problem at sweep 5 and/or sweep 8 | 269 | .937 | -.007 | -.174 | .161 |
Child had no limiting health problem (incl. missing) (ref) | 2429 | - | - | - | - |
R Squared | 0.172 | ||||
Total N (unweighted) | 2726 | ||||
Total N (weighted) | 2698 |
Table C‑12 Linear regression model predicting standardised expressive vocabulary score at P6, by standardised expressive vocabulary score at P1 and whether child had above average levels of social, emotional and behavioural difficulties
Weighted base | p-value | Coeff | 95% confidence interval | ||
---|---|---|---|---|---|
Standardised vocabulary score (P1) | 2698 | .000 | .418 | .371 | .465 |
Child's social, emotional & behavioural difficulties | |||||
Above average difficulties at sweep 5 and/or sweep 8 | 433 | .001 | -.198 | -.310 | -.087 |
Average levels of difficulties at both sweeps (incl. missing) (ref) | 2264 | - | - | - | - |
R Squared | 0.177 | ||||
Total N (unweighted) | 2726 | ||||
Total N (weighted) | 2698 |
Table C‑13 Linear regression model predicting standardised expressive vocabulary score at P6, by standardised expressive vocabulary score at P1 and whether child experienced parental separation or re-partnering
Weighted base | p-value | Coeff | 95% confidence interval | ||
---|---|---|---|---|---|
Standardised vocabulary score (P1) | 2698 | .000 | .430 | .384 | .475 |
Parental separation/re-partnering | |||||
Change in family type | 432 | .600 | -.036 | -.171 | .100 |
Stable family type (incl. missing) (ref) | 2266 | - | - | - | - |
R Squared | 0.172 | ||||
Total N (unweighted) | 2726 | ||||
Total N (weighted) | 2698 |
Table C‑14 Linear regression model predicting standardised expressive vocabulary score at P6, by standardised expressive vocabulary score at P1 and whether child changed school
Weighted base | p-value | Coeff | 95% confidence interval | ||
---|---|---|---|---|---|
Standardised vocabulary score (P1) | 2698 | .000 | .429 | .383 | .475 |
Whether child changed school | |||||
Changed school | 419 | .279 | -.063 | -.180 | .053 |
Did not change school (incl. did not attend school and missing) (ref) | 2280 | - | - | - | - |
R Squared | 0.173 | ||||
Total N (unweighted) | 2726 | ||||
Total N (weighted) | 2698 |
Table C‑15 Linear regression model predicting standardised expressive vocabulary score at P6, by standardised expressive vocabulary score at P1 and whether child experienced significant adverse life event
Weighted base | p-value | Coeff | 95% confidence interval | ||
---|---|---|---|---|---|
Standardised vocabulary score (P1) | 2698 | .000 | .431 | .385 | .476 |
Whether child experienced significant adverse life event | |||||
Significant adverse event occurred | 327 | .818 | .015 | -.116 | .147 |
No significant adverse event (incl. missing) (ref) | 2371 | - | - | - | - |
R Squared | 0.172 | ||||
Total N (unweighted) | 2698 | ||||
Total N (weighted) | 2726 |
Table C-16 Linear regression model predicting standardised expressive vocabulary score at P6, by standardised expressive vocabulary score at P1 and child's feelings about school
Weighted base | p-value | Coeff | 95% confidence interval | ||
---|---|---|---|---|---|
Standardised vocabulary score (P1) | 2698 | .000 | .431 | .385 | .477 |
Child's feelings about school | |||||
Highly positive | 824 | .335 | .042 | -.044 | .128 |
Less positive (incl. missing) (ref) | 1874 | - | - | - | - |
R Squared | 0.172 | ||||
Total N (unweighted) | 2698 | ||||
Total N (weighted) | 2726 |
Table C‑17 Linear regression model predicting standardised expressive vocabulary score at P6, by standardised expressive vocabulary score at P1 and size of P1 school
Weighted base | p-value | Coeff | 95% confidence interval | ||
---|---|---|---|---|---|
Standardised vocabulary score (P1) | 2698 | .000 | .431 | .384 | .478 |
Number of pupils in P1 School | .228 | ||||
No information | 205 | .445 | .075 | -.121 | .271 |
0-100 | 215 | .538 | .057 | -.127 | .240 |
101-200 | 629 | .495 | .058 | -.111 | .227 |
201-300 | 678 | .619 | -.043 | -.214 | .129 |
301-400 | 688 | .390 | -.065 | -.215 | .085 |
More than 400 (ref) | 284 | - | - | - | - |
R Squared | 0.175 | ||||
Total N (unweighted) | 2698 | ||||
Total N (weighted) | 2726 |
Table C‑18 Linear regression model predicting standardised expressive vocabulary score at P6, by standardised expressive vocabulary score at P1 and whether P1 school denominational
Weighted base | p-value | Coeff | 95% confidence interval | ||
---|---|---|---|---|---|
Standardised vocabulary score (P1) | 2698 | .000 | .431 | .385 | .477 |
Whether P1 school a denominational school | |||||
Non-denominational (incl. no information) | 2011 | .613 | -.024 | -.121 | .072 |
Denominational (any religion) (ref) | 687 | - | - | - | - |
R Squared | 0.172 | ||||
Total N (unweighted) | 2698 | ||||
Total N (weighted) | 2726 |
Table C‑19 Linear regression model predicting standardised expressive vocabulary score at P6, by standardised expressive vocabulary score at P1 and % of children at P1 school registered for free school meals
Weighted base | p-value | Coeff | 95% confidence interval | ||
---|---|---|---|---|---|
Standardised vocabulary score (P1) | 2698 | .000 | .422 | .375 | .470 |
% of pupils in P1 school registered for FSM | .095 | ||||
No information | 205 | .464 | .057 | -.098 | .213 |
More than 25% | 633 | .068 | -.113 | -.236 | .009 |
25% or less (ref) | 1860 | - | - | - | - |
R Squared | 0.175 | ||||
Total N (unweighted) | 2698 | ||||
Total N (weighted) | 2726 |
Table C‑20 Linear regression model predicting standardised expressive vocabulary score at P6, by standardised expressive vocabulary score at P1 and warmth of parent-child relationship
Weighted base | p-value | Coeff | 95% confidence interval | ||
---|---|---|---|---|---|
Standardised vocabulary score (P1) | 2698 | .000 | .430 | .384 | .476 |
Parent-child warmth | |||||
High level of warmth | 916 | .440 | .028 | -.044 | .101 |
Lower level of warmth (incl. missing) (ref) | 1782 | - | - | - | - |
R Squared | 0.172 | ||||
Total N (unweighted) | 2698 | ||||
Total N (weighted) | 2726 |
Table C‑21 Linear regression model predicting standardised expressive vocabulary score at P6, by standardised expressive vocabulary score at P1 and parental interactions with child's school
Weighted base | p-value | Coeff | 95% confidence interval | ||
---|---|---|---|---|---|
Standardised vocabulary score (P1) | 2698 | .000 | .425 | .379 | .470 |
Parent interactions with child's school | |||||
High (7-10 interactions) | 510 | .005 | .112 | .036 | .189 |
Low-Medium (0-6 interactions) (incl. missing) (ref) | 2189 | - | - | - | - |
R Squared | 0.174 | ||||
Total N (unweighted) | 2698 | ||||
Total N (weighted) | 2726 |
Table C‑22 Linear regression model predicting standardised expressive vocabulary score at P6, by standardised expressive vocabulary score at P1 and how often parent helps child look for school-related information
Weighted base | p-value | Coeff | 95% confidence interval | ||
---|---|---|---|---|---|
Standardised vocabulary score (P1) | 2698 | .000 | .430 | .384 | .476 |
How often parent helps child look for school-related information | |||||
Most days | 493 | .333 | -.059 | -.180 | .062 |
Less often (incl. missing) | 2205 | - | - | - | - |
R Squared | .173 | ||||
Total N (unweighted) | 2698 | ||||
Total N (weighted) | 2726 |
Table C‑23 Linear regression model predicting standardised expressive vocabulary score at P6, by standardised expressive vocabulary score at P1 and home reading
Weighted base | p-value | Coeff | 95% confidence interval | ||
---|---|---|---|---|---|
Standardised vocabulary score (P1) | 2698 | .000 | .420 | .372 | .468 |
Home reading in last week | |||||
Most days (6-7 days) (incl. missing) | 1557 | .002 | .139 | .053 | .225 |
5 days or less (ref) | 1141 | - | - | - | - |
R Squared | .177 | ||||
Total N (unweighted) | 2698 | ||||
Total N (weighted) | 2726 |
Table C‑24 Linear regression model predicting standardised expressive vocabulary score at P6, by standardised expressive vocabulary score at P1 and parental belief they can influence child's achievements at school
Weighted base | p-value | Coeff | 95% confidence interval | ||
---|---|---|---|---|---|
Standardised vocabulary score (P1) | 2698 | .000 | .427 | .381 | .473 |
Parent belief they can influence child's achievements at school | |||||
Highly positive (strongly agree) | 1116 | .089 | .066 | -.010 | .143 |
Less positive (incl. missing) (ref) | 1582 | - | - | - | - |
R Squared | .173 | ||||
Total N (unweighted) | 2698 | ||||
Total N (weighted) | 2726 |
Table C‑25 Linear regression model predicting standardised expressive vocabulary score at P6 - by factors individually associated with change in univariate analysis
Weighted base | p-value | Coeff | 95% confidence interval | ||
---|---|---|---|---|---|
Standardised vocabulary score (P1) | 2698 | .000 | .384 | .335 | .433 |
Child's gender | |||||
Boy | 1374 | .122 | .060 | -.017 | .137 |
Girl (ref) | 1324 | - | - | - | - |
Area deprivation (SIMD) | .224 | ||||
Least deprived quintile | 523 | .884 | -.012 | -.175 | .151 |
4^{th} quintile | 556 | .938 | -.006 | -.162 | .150 |
3^{rd} quintile | 510 | .157 | .103 | -.041 | .248 |
2^{nd} quintile | 508 | .445 | .052 | -.084 | .189 |
Most deprived quintile (ref) | 602 | - | - | - | - |
Equivalised annual household Income | .555 | ||||
No information | 160 | .748 | -.034 | -.242 | .174 |
Top quintile (>=£37,857) | 358 | .126 | .128 | -.037 | .293 |
4^{th} quintile (>=£29,126<£37,857) | 525 | .591 | .042 | -.112 | .195 |
3^{rd} quintile (>=£19,643<£29,126) | 430 | .188 | .103 | -.052 | .258 |
2^{nd} quintile (>=£12,217<£19,643) | 605 | .435 | .052 | -.080 | .184 |
Lowest quintile (<£12,217) (ref) | 620 | - | - | - | - |
Highest level of parental education | |||||
Degree level or above | 964 | .012 | .118 | .026 | .209 |
Below degree (incl. missing) (ref) | 1734 | - | - | - | - |
Urban/small town or rural location | |||||
Small town or rural | 852 | .021 | .118 | .018 | .218 |
Urban (incl. missing) (ref) | 1846 | - | - | - | - |
% of pupils in P1 school registered for free school meals | .799 | ||||
No information | 205 | .508 | .051 | -.101 | .202 |
More than 25% | 633 | .908 | .008 | -.130 | .146 |
25% or less (ref) | 1860 | - | - | - | - |
Child's social, emotional and behavioural difficulties | |||||
Above average difficulties at sweep 5 and/or sweep 8 | 433 | .011 | -.163 | -.286 | -.039 |
Average levels of difficulties at both sweeps (incl. missing) (ref) | 2265 | - | - | - | - |
Home reading in last week | |||||
Most days (6-7 days) (incl. missing) | 1557 | .023 | .107 | .015 | .200 |
5 days or less (ref) | 1141 | - | - | - | - |
Parent interactions with child's school | |||||
High (7-10 interactions) | 510 | .340 | .035 | -.038 | .109 |
Low-Medium (0-6 interactions) (incl. missing) (ref) | 2189 | - | - | - | - |
Parent belief they can influence child's achievements at school | |||||
Highly positive (strongly agree) | 1116 | .453 | .029 | -.047 | .105 |
Less positive (incl. missing) (ref) | 1582 | - | - | - | - |
R Squared | 0.195 | ||||
Total N (unweighted) | 2726 | ||||
Total N (weighted) | 2698 |
Table C‑26 Linear regression model predicting standardised expressive vocabulary score at P6 - final model
Weighted base | p-value | Coeff | 95% confidence interval | ||
---|---|---|---|---|---|
Standardised vocabulary score (P1) | 2698 | .000 | .391 | .342 | .440 |
Child's gender | |||||
Boy | 1374 | .119 | .063 | -.017 | .142 |
Girl (ref) | 1324 | - | - | - | - |
Highest level of parental education | |||||
Degree level or above | 964 | .001 | .143 | .061 | .225 |
Below degree (incl. missing) (ref) | 1734 | - | - | - | - |
Urban/small town or rural location | |||||
Small town or rural | 852 | .013 | .124 | .027 | .220 |
Urban (incl. missing) (ref) | 1846 | - | - | - | - |
Child social, emotional & behavioural difficulties | |||||
Above average difficulties at sweep 5 and/or sweep 8 | 433 | .002 | -.179 | -.290 | -.068 |
Average levels of difficulties at both sweeps (incl. missing) (ref) | 2265 | - | - | - | - |
Home reading in last week | |||||
Most days (6-7 days) (incl. missing) | 1557 | .012 | .118 | .027 | .209 |
5 days or less (ref) | 1141 | - | - | - | - |
R Squared | .191 | ||||
Total N (unweighted) | 2726 | ||||
Total N (weighted) | 2698 |
Table C‑27 Linear regression model predicting standardised expressive vocabulary score at P6 - final model with interaction effects
Weighted base | p-value | Regression coefficient | 95% confidence interval | ||
---|---|---|---|---|---|
Standardised vocabulary score (P1) | 2698 | .000 | .391 | .342 | .440 |
Child's gender | .060 | ||||
Boy | 1374 | .713 | .019 | -.085 | .124 |
Girl (ref) | 1324 | - | - | - | - |
Highest level of parental education | .138 | ||||
Degree level or above | 964 | .566 | .047 | -.116 | .210 |
Below degree (incl. missing) (ref) | 1734 | - | - | - | - |
Urban/small town or rural location | .017 | ||||
Small town or rural | 852 | .015 | .153 | .031 | .275 |
Urban (incl. missing) (ref) | 1846 | - | - | - | - |
Child social, emotional & behavioural difficulties | .004 | ||||
Above average difficulties at sweep 5 and/or sweep 8 | 433 | .021 | -.167 | -.307 | -.026 |
Average levels of difficulties at both sweeps (incl. missing) (ref) | 2265 | - | - | - | - |
Home reading in last week | .003 | ||||
Most days (6-7 days) (incl. missing) | 1557 | .208 | .079 | -.045 | .204 |
5 days or less (ref) | 1141 | - | - | - | - |
Interaction effects | |||||
Parental education* Child's gender | - | .156 | - | - | - |
Parental education * Urban/small town or rural location | - | .376 | - | - | - |
Parental education * Child social, emotional and behavioural difficulties | - | .850 | - | - | - |
Parental education * How often parent reads with child | - | .223 | - | - | - |
R Squared | .192 | ||||
Total N (unweighted) | 2726 | ||||
Total N (weighted) | 2698 |
Contact
Email: GUS@gov.scot