Grouse Moor Management Group: report

Report to the Scottish Government from the independent Grouse Moor Management Group which looks at the environmental impact of grouse moor management practices and advises on the option of licensing grouse shooting businesses.

Annex 1: List of published sources

Background, Terms of Reference and Context

Brooker, R., Thomson, S., Matthews, K., Hester, A., Newey, S., Pakeman, R., Miller, D., Mell, V., Aalders, I., McMorran, R. & Glass, J. (2018). Socioeconomic and biodiversity impacts of driven grouse moors in Scotland: Summary Report. Scottish Government.

Elliot, A., Watt, J., Cooke, I. & Tabor, P. (2014). The land of Scotland and the common good. Report of the Land Reform Review Group presented to Scottish Ministers.

Fraser of Allander Institute (2010). An economic study of grouse moors. A report to the Game & Wildlife Conservation Trust, Scotland.

Higgins, P., MacMillan, D. & Whitman, A. (2002). Sporting estates and recreational land use in the highlands and islands of Scotland. Economic and Social Science Research Council, Swindon.

Joint Nature Conservation Committee (2006). Common standards monitoring guidelines for upland habitats, Peterborough.

Matthews, K., Miller, D., Mell, V. & Aalders, I. (2018). Socio-economic and biodiversity impacts of driven grouse moors in Scotland: Part 3. Use of GIS/remote sensing to identify areas of grouse moors, and to assess potential for alternative land uses. Scottish Government.

McMorran, R. (2009). Red grouse and the Tomintoul and Strathdon communities – The benefits and impacts of the grouse shooting industry from the rural community perspective; a case study of Strathdon and Tomintoul communities in the Cairngorm National Park. The Scottish Countryside Alliance Educational Trust, Commissioned report.

Mustin, K., Newey, S. & Slee, B. (2017). Towards the construction of a typology of management models of shooting opportunities in Scotland. Scottish Geographical Journal, 133(3-4), 214-232.

Scotland’s Moorland Forum (2011). The upland solution project final report. Scotland’s Moorland Forum, Locherbie.

Thomson, S., McMorran, R. & Glass, J. (2018). Socioeconomic and biodiversity impacts of driven grouse moors in Scotland: Part 1 Socio-economic impacts of driven grouse moors in Scotland. Scottish Government.

Tingay, R. & Wightman, A. (2018). A case for reforming Scotland’s driven grouse moors. Revive coalition.

Wightman, A. & Tingay, R.E. (2015). The intensification of grouse moor management in Scotland. League Against Cruel Sports.

Options for regulation

Austin, L. (2019) Grouse moor licensing in Scotland: Where next? Report for RSPB Scotland, Edinburgh.

McCarthy, D. & Morling, P. (2015). Using regulation as a last resort: Assessing the performance of voluntary approaches. Royal Society for the Protection of Birds: Sandy, Bedfordshire.

Pillai, A. & Turner, A. (2017). A Review of Game Bird Law and Licensing in Selected European Countries. Scottish Natural Heritage Commissioned Report No. 942. Scottish Natural Heritage.

Reid, C.T. (2009). Nature Conservation Law (3rd edn). W Green, Edinburgh.

Scottish Government (2015). Report of Wildlife Crime Penalties (Poustie) Review Group.

Raptor persecution and predation

Amar, A., Court, I., Davison, M., Downing, S., Grimshaw, T., Pickford, T. & Raw, D. (2012). Linking life histories, remotely sensed land use data and wildlife crime records to explore the impact of grouse moor management on Peregrine Falcon populations. Biological Conservation, 145, 86-94.

Baines, D. & Richardson, M. (2013). Hen Harriers on a Scottish grouse moor: multiple factors predict breeding density and productivity. Journal of Applied Ecology, 50, 1397-1405.

Balmer, D.L., Gillings, S., Caffrey, B.J., Swann, B., Downie, I.S. & Fuller, R.J. (2013). Bird Atlas 2007-11: The Breeding and Wintering Birds of Britain and Ireland. BTO Books, Thetford.

Banks, A.N., Crick, H.Q.P., Coombes. R., Benn, S, Ratcliffe, D.A. & Humphreys, E.M. (2010). The breeding status of Peregrine Falcons Falco peregrinus in the UK and Isle of Man in 2002. Bird Study 57: 421-36.

Barker, A.W., Poxton, I.R. & Heavisides, A. (2017). Where have all the Merlins gone? A lament for the Lammermuirs. Scottish Birds, 37, 244-50.

Bibby, C. (1986). Merlins in Wales: site occupancy and breeding in relation to vegetation. Journal of Applied Ecology, 23, 1-12.

Bibby, C.J. & Etheridge, B. (1993). Status of the Hen Harrier Circus cyaneus in Scotland in 1988-89. Bird Study, 40, 1-11.

Bunnefeld, N., Redpath, S. & Irvine, J. (2015). A review of approaches to adaptive management. Scottish Natural Heritage Commissioned Report No. 795. Scottish Natural Heritage.

Etheridge, B. & Summers, R.W. (2006). Movements of British Hen Harriers Circus cyaneus outside the breeding season. Bird Study, 23, 6-14.

Etheridge, B., Summers, R.W. & Green, R.E. (1997). The effects of illegal killing and destruction of nests by humans on the population dynamics of the Hen Harrier Circus cyaneus in Scotland. Journal of Applied Ecology, 34 1081-1105.

Evans, R.J., O’Toole, L. & Whitfield, D.P. (2012). The history of eagles in Britain and Ireland: an ecological review of place name and documentary evidence from the last 1500 years. Bird Study, 59, 335-49.

Ewing, S.R., Rebecca, G.W., Heavisides, A., Court, I.R., Lindley, P. Rudduck, M., Cohen, S. & Eaton, M.A. (2011). Breeding status of Merlins Falco columbarius in the UK in 2008. Bird Study, 58, 379-89.

Fielding, A., Haworth, P., Whitfield, P., McLeod, D. & Riley, H. (2011). A Conservation Framework for Hen Harriers in the United Kingdom. JNCC Report 441. Joint Nature Conservation Committee, Peterborough.

Fletcher, K., Aebischer, N., Baines, D., Foster, R. & Hoodless, A. (2010). Changes in breeding success and abundance of ground nesting moorland birds in relation to the experimental deployment of legal predator control. Journal of Applied Ecology, 47, 263-273.

Francksen, R.M., Whittingham, M.J., Ludwig, S.C., Roos, S. & Baines, D. (2017). Numerical and functional responses of Common Buzzard Buteo buteo on a Scottish grouse moor. Ibis, 159, 541-553

Francksen, R.M., Whittingham, M.J. & Baines, D. (2016a). Assessing prey provisioned to Common Buzzard Buteo buteo chicks: a comparison of methods. Bird Study, 63, 303-10.

Francksen, R.M., Whittingham, M.J., Ludwig, S. & Baines, D. (2016b). Winter diet of Common Buzzards on a Scottish grouse moor. Bird Study, 63, 525-32.

Hardey, J., Rollie, C.J. & Stirling-Aird, P.K. (2003). Variation in breeding success of inland Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus) in three regions of Scotland, 1991-2000. In Thompson, D.B.A., Redpath, S.M., Fielding, A.H., Marquiss, M. & Galbraith, C.A. (eds). Birds of Prey in a Changing Environment. pp. 99-109. The Stationery Office, Edinburgh.

Hayhow, D.B., Benn, S., Stevenson, A., Stirling-Aird, P.K. & Eaton, M.A. (2017). Status of Golden Eagle Aquila chrysaetos in Britain in 2015. Bird Study, 64, 281-94.

Hayhow, D.B., Eaton, M.A., Bladwell, S., Etheridge, B., Ewing, S., Ruddock, M., Saunders, R., Sharpe, C., Sim, I.M.W. & Stevenson, A. (2013). The status of the Hen Harrier, Circus cyaneus, in the UK and Isle of Man in 2010. Bird Study, 60, 446-458.

Hodgson, I.D., Redpath, S.M., Fischer, A. & Young, J. (2018). Fighting talk: Organisational discourses of the conflict over raptors and grouse moor management in Scotland. Land Use Policy, 77, 332-343.

Kenward, R. (2006). The Goshawk. T. & A. D. Poyser, London.

Langholm Moor Demonstration Project, Langholm (2014). The Langholm Moor Demonstration Project: seven year review, Published by Langholm Moor Demonstration Project Ltd.

Langholm Moor Demonstration Project Board (2019) Managing Moorland for Birds of Prey and Red Grouse: The Final Report of the Project Langholm Moor Demonstration Project Partners 2008-2017. ISBN: 978-1-901369-35-9.

Lovegrove, R. (2007). Silent fields: The long decline of a nation’s wildlife. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Ludwig, S., Roos, S., Bubb, D. & Baines, D. (2017). Long-term trends in abundance and breeding success of Red Grouse and Hen Harriers in relation to changing management of a Scottish grouse moor. Wildlife Biology doi: 10.2981/wlb. 00246.

Ludwig, S. & Baines, D. (2013). Langholm Moor Demonstration Project: year five. Game & Wildlife Conservation Trust.

Ludwig, S.C., Aebischer, N.J., Bubb, D., Richardson, M., Roos, S., Wilson, J.D. & Baines, D. (2018). Population responses of red grouse Lagopus scotica to expansion of heather Calluna vulgaris on a Scottish grouse moor. Avian conservation and Ecology, 13(2), 14.

Ludwig, S.C., Aebischer, N.J., Bubb, D., Roos, S. & Baines, D. (2018). Survival of chicks and adults explains variation in population growth in a recovering red grouse Lagopus lagopus scotica population. Wildlife Biology doi:10.2981/wlb.00430.

Ludwig, S.C., McCluskie, A., Keane, P., Barlow, C., Francksen, R.M., Bubb, D., Roos, S., Aebischer, N.J., & Baines, D. (2018). Diversionary feeding and nestling diet of Hen Harriers Circus cyaneus . Bird Study, 65, 431-443.

Marquiss, M. (1980). Habitat and diet of male and female Hen Harriers in Scotland in winter. British Birds, 73, 555-560.

Marquiss, M. (1981). The Goshawk in Britain – its provenance and current status. in Kenward, R. E. & Lindsay, I. M. (eds.) Understanding the Goshawk. pp. 43-57, International Association for Falconry and Conservation of Birds of Prey. Oxford.

Marquiss, M. & Newton, I. (1982). The Goshawk in Britain. British Birds, 75, 243-260.

Marquiss, M., Petty, S.J., Anderson, D.I.K. & Legge, G. (2003). Contrasting population trends of the Northern Goshawk (Accipiter gentilis) in the Scottish /English Borders and north-east Scotland. in Thompson, D.B.A., Redpath, S.M., Fielding, A.H., Marquiss, M. & Galbraith, C.A. (eds.) Birds of Prey in a changing environment, pp. 143-148. Scottish Natural Heritage/The Stationary Office, Edinburgh.

Mearns, R. & Newton, I. (1984). Turnover and dispersal in a Peregrine Falco peregrinus population. Ibis, 126, 347-355.

Melling, T., Thomas, M., Price, M. & Roos, S. (2018). Raptor persecution in the Peak District National Park. British Birds, 1112, 275-90.

Milner, J.M. & Redpath, S.M. (2013). Building an evidence base for managing species conflict in Scotland. Scottish Natural Heritage Commissioned Report No. 611. Scottish Natural Heritage.

Molenaar, F.M., Jaffe, J.E., Carter, I., Barnett, E.A., Shore, R.F., Rowcliffe, J.M. & Sainsbury, A.W. (2017). Poisoning of reintroduced Red Kites (Milvus milvus) in England. European Journal of Wildlife Research, 63(6), 94. DOI: 10.1007/s10344-017-1152-z.

Murgatroyd, M., Redpath, S.M., Murphy, S.G., Douglas, D.J.T., Saunders, R. & Amar, A. (2019). Revealing patterns of wildlife crime using satellite tags: a case study of hen harriers Circus cyaneus in the UK. Nature Communications, 10, 1094.

Musgrove, A., Aebischer, N., Eaton, M., Hearn, R., Newson, S., Noble, D., Parsons, M., Risely, K. & Stroud, D. (2013). Population estimates of birds in Great Britain and the United Kingdom. British Birds, 106, 64-100.

Newton, I. (1979). Population Ecology of Raptors. T. & A. D. Poyser, Berkhamsted.

Newton, I. (1998). Population limitation in birds. Academic Press, London:

Newton, I., Meek, E. & Little, B. (1986). Population and breeding of Northumbrian Merlins. British Birds, 79, 155-170.

Ratcliffe, D.A. (1993). The Peregrine. T. & A. D. Poyser, Calton.

Redpath, S.M. & Thirgood, S.J. (1997). Birds of prey and Red Grouse. Stationery Office, London.

Redpath, S.M & Thirgood, S.J. (1999). Numerical and functional responses in generalist predators: Hen Harriers and Peregrines on Scottish grouse moors. Journal of Animal Ecology, 68, 879-892.

Redpath, S.M., Thirgood, S.J. & Leckie, F.M. (2001). Does supplementary feeding reduce predation of Red Grouse by Hen Harriers? Journal of Applied Ecology, 38, 1157-68.

Redpath, S.M., Thirgood, S.J., Rothery, P. & Aebischer, N.J. (2000). Raptor predation and population limitation in Red Grouse. Journal of Animal Ecology, 69, 504-516.

Redpath, S., Amar, A., Madders, M., Leckie, F. & Thirgood, S. (2002). Hen harrier foraging success in relation to land use in Scotland. Animal Conservation, 5, 113-118.

Roos, S., Dobson, A., Noble, D., Haworth, P., Fielding, A., Carrington-Cotton, A., Etheridge, B. & Wernham, C. (2015). Raptors in Scotland – a methodology for developing trends and indicators. Scottish Natural Heritage Commissioned Report No. 542. Scottish Natural Heritage.

The Royal Society for the Protection of Birds (2018). The illegal killing of birds of prey in Scotland 2015- 2017. Royal Society for the Protection of Birds, Sandy.

The Royal Society for the Protection of Birds (2017) Birdcrime report, Royal Society for the Protection of Birds, Sandy.

The Royal Society for the Protection of Birds (2018) Birdcrime report, Royal Society for the Protection of Birds, Sandy.

Sansom, A., Etheridge, B., Smart, J. & Roos, S. (2016). Population modelling of North Scotland Red Kites in relation to the cumulative impacts of wildlife crime and wind farm mortality. Scottish Natural Heritage Commissioned Report No. 904. Scottish Natural Heritage.

Scotland’s Moorland Forum (2016) Understanding predation, summary report, Scotland’s Moorland Forum,

Sim, I.M.W., Gibbons, D.W., Bainbridge, I.P. & Mattingley, W.A. (2001). Status of the Hen Harrier Circus Cyaneus in the UK and the Isle of Man in 1998. Bird Study, 48, 341-53.

Sim, I.M.W., Dillon, I.A., Eaton, M.A., Etheridge, B., Lindley, P., Riley, H., Saunders, R., Sharpe, C. & Tickner, M. (2007). Status of the Hen Harrier Circus cyaneus in the UK and Isle of Man in 2004, and a comparison with the 1988/89 and 1998 surveys. Bird Study, 54, 256-267.

Smart, J., Amar, A., Sim, I.M.W., Etheridge, B., Cameron, D., Christie, G. & Wilson, J.D. (2010). Illegal killing slows population recovery of a re-introduced raptor of high conservation concern – The Red Kite Milvus milvus. Biology Conservation, 143, 1278-1286.

Smith, G.D., Murillo-Garcia, O.E., Hostetler, J.A., Mearns, R., Newton, I., McGrady, M.J. & Oli, M.K. (2015). Demography of population recovery: survival and fidelity of Peregrine Falcons at various stages of population recovery. Oecologia, 178, 391-401.

Thompson, D.B.A., Roos, S., Bubb, D. & Ludwig, S.C. (2016) Hen Harrier. In Gaywood, M.J., Boon, P.J., Thompson D.B.A., Strachan, I.M. (eds), pp. 355-365. The Species Action Framework Handbook. Scottish Natural Heritage, Battleby, Perth.

Thirgood, S.J. & Redpath, S M. (2008). Hen harriers and red grouse: science, politics and human wildlife conflict. Journal of Applied Ecology, 45, 1550-54.

Warren, P. & Baines, D. (2012). Changes in upland bird numbers and distribution in the Berwyn Special Protection Area, North Wales between 1983 and 2012. Game & Wildlife Conservation Trust.

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Whitehead, S., Hesford, N. & Baines, D. (2018). Changes in the abundance of some ground-nesting birds on moorland in South West Scotland. Game & Wildlife Conservation Trust.

Whitfield, D.P., Fielding, A.H., McLeod, D.R.A. & Haworth, P.F. (2003). The association of grouse moor in Scotland with the illegal use of poisons to control predators. Biological Conservation, 114, 157-163.

Whitfield, D.P., Fielding, A.H., McLeod, D.R.A. & Haworth, P.F. (2004). The effects of persecution on age of breeding and territory occupation in Golden Eagles in Scotland. Biological Conservation, 118, 249-259.

Whitfield, D.P., Fielding, A.H., McLeod, D.R.A. & Haworth, P.F. (2004b). Modelling the effects of persecution on the population dynamics of Golden Eagles in Scotland. Biological Conservation, 119, 319-333.

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Albertson, K., Aylen, J., Cavan, G. & McMorrow, J. (2009). Forecasting the outbreak of moorland wildfires in the English Peak District. Journal of Environmental Management, 90, 2642-2651.

Albertson, K., Aylen, J., Cavan, G. & McMorrow, J. (2010). Climate change and the future occurrence of moorland wildfires in the Peak District of the UK. Climate Research, 45, 105-118.

Alday, J.G., Santana, V.M., Lee, H., Allen, K. & Marrs, R.H. (2015). Above-ground biomass accumulation patterns in moorlands after prescribed burning and low-intensity grazing. Perspectives in Plant Ecology Evolution and Systematics, 17, 388-396.

Allen, K.A., Denelle, P., Ruiz, F.M.S., Santana, V.M. & Marrs, R.H. (2016). Prescribed moorland burning meets good practice guidelines: A monitoring case study using aerial photography in the Peak District, UK. Ecological Indicators, 62, 76-85.

Allen, K.A., Harris, M.P.K. & Marrs, R.H. (2013). Matrix modelling of prescribed burning in Calluna vulgaris-dominated moorland: short burning rotations minimize carbon loss at increased wildfire frequencies. Journal of Applied Ecology, 50, 614-624.

Ashby, M.A. & Heinemeyer, A. (2019). Prescribed burning impacts on ecosystem services in the British Uplands: A methodological critique of the EMBER project. Journal of Applied Ecology.

Barker, C.G., Power, S.A., Bell, J.N.B. & Orme, C.D.L. (2004). Effects of habitat management on heathland response to atmospheric nitrogen deposition. Biological Conservation, 120, 41-52.

Brooker, R., Hester, A.J., Newey, S. & Pakeman, R. (2018). Socio-economic and biodiversity impacts of driven grouse moors in Scotland: Part 2. Biodiversity impacts of driven grouse moors in Scotland. Scottish Government.

Brown, L.E., Holden, J. & Palmer, S.M. (2014). Effects of moorland burning on the ecohydrology of river basins. Key findings from the EMBER project, University of Leeds.

Brown, L.E., Holden, J. & Palmer, S.M. (2016). Moorland vegetation burning debates should avoid contextomy and anachronism: a comment on Davies et al., Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B-Biological Sciences, 371, 20160432.

Brown, L.E., Holden, J., Palmer, S.M., Johnston, K., Ramchunder, S.J. & Grayson, R. (2015). Effects of fire on the hydrology, biogeochemistry, and ecology of peatland river systems. Freshwater Science, 34, 1406-1425.

Brown, L.E., Johnston K., Palmer, S.M., Aspray, K.L. & Holden, J. (2013). River Ecosystem Response to Prescribed Vegetation Burning on Blanket peatland. PLoS ONE, 8(11).

Brown, L.E., Palmer, S.M., Johnstone, K. & Holden, J. (2015). Vegetation management with fire modifies peatland soil thermal regime. Journal of Environmental Management, 154, 166-176.

Brown, L.E. & Holden, J. (2019). Contextualising UK moorland burning studies: geographical versus potential sponsorship-bias effects on research conclusions. bioRxiv,

Buchanan, G.M., Grant, M.C., Sanderson, R.A. & Pearce-Higgins, J.W. (2006). The contribution of invertebrate taxa to moorland bird diets and the potential implications of land-use management. Ibis, 148, 615-628.

Buchanan, G.M., Pearce-Higgins, J.W., Douglas, D.J.T. & Grant, M.C. (2017). Quantifying the importance of multi-scale management and environmental variables on moorland bird abundance. Ibis, 159, 744-756.

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Calladine, J., Critchley, C.N.R., Baker, D., Towers, J. & Thiel, A. (2014). Conservation management of moorland: a case study of the effectiveness of a combined suite of management prescriptions which aim to enhance breeding bird populations. Bird Study, 61, 56-72.

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Chambers, F., Crowle, A., Daniell, J., Mauquoy, D., McCarroll, J., Sanderson, N., Thom, T., Toms, P. & Webb, J. (2017). Ascertaining the nature and timing of mire degradation: using palaeoecology to assist future conservation management in Northern England. Aims Environmental Science, 4, 54-82.

Chapman, D.S., Termansen, M., Quinn, C.H., Jin, N., Bonn, A., Cornell, S.J., Fraser, E.D.G., Hubacek, K., Kunin, W. & Reed, M.S. (2009). Modelling the coupled dynamics of moorland management and upland vegetation. Journal of Applied Ecology, 46, 278-288.

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Clay, G.D. & Worrall, F. (2011). Charcoal production in a UK moorland wildfire – How important is it? Journal of Environmental Management, 92, 676-682.

Clay, G.D., Worrall, F. & Aebischer, N.J. (2012). Does prescribed burning on peat soils influence DOC concentrations in soil and runoff waters? Results from a 10 year chronosequence. Journal of Hydrology, 448, 139-148.

Clay, G.D., Worrall, F. & Aebischer, N.J. (2015). Carbon stocks and carbon fluxes from a 10-year prescribed burning chronosequence on a UK blanket peat. Soil Use and Management, 31, 39-51.

Clay, G.D., Worral, F., Clark, E. & Fraser, E.D.G. (2009). Hydrological responses to managed burning and grazing in an upland blanket bog. Journal of Hydrology, 376(3-4), 486-495.

Clay, G.D., Worrall, F. & Fraser, E.D.G. (2009). Effects of managed burning upon dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in soil water and runoff water following a managed burn of a UK blanket bog. Journal of Hydrology, 367, 41-51.

Clay, G.D., Worrall, F. & Fraser, E.D.G. (2010). Compositional changes in soil water and runoff water following managed burning on a UK upland blanket bog. Journal of Hydrology, 380, 135-145.

Clay, G.D., Worrall, F. & Rose, R. (2010). Carbon budgets of an upland blanket bog managed by prescribed fire. Journal of Geophysical Research-Biogeosciences, 115, 04037.

Clutterbuck, B. & Yallop, A.R. (2010). Land management as a factor controlling dissolved organic carbon release from upland peat soils: 2 Changes in DOC productivity over four decades. Science of the Total Environment, 408, 6179-6191.

Davies, G.M., Domènech, R., Gray, A. & Johnson, P.C.D. (2016). Vegetation structure and fire weather influence variation in burn severity and fuel consumption during peatland wildfires. Biogeosciences, 13, 389-398.

Davies, G.M., Gray, A., Rein, G. & Legg, C.J. (2013). Peat consumption and carbon loss due to smouldering wildfire in a temperate peatland. Forest Ecology and Management, 308, 169-177.

Davies, G.M., Kettridge, N., Stoof, C.R., Gray, A., Ascoli, D., Fernandes, P.M., Marrs, R., Allen, K.A., Doerr, S.H., Clay, G.D., McMorrow, J. & Vandvik, V. (2016). The role of fire in UK peatland and moorland management: the need for informed, unbiased debate. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B-Biological Sciences, 371, 1696.

Davies, G.M., Kettridge, N., Stoof, C.R., Gray, A., Marrs, R., Ascoli, D., Fernandes, P.M., Allen, K.A., Doerr, S.H., Clay, G.D., McMorrow, J. & Vandvik, V. (2016). Informed debate on the use of fire for peatland management means acknowledging the complexity of socio-ecological systems. Nature Conservation-Bulgaria, 16, 59-77.

Davies, G.M., Kettridge, N., Stoof, C.R., Gray, A., Marrs, R., Ascoli, D., Fernandes, P.M., Allen, K.A., Doerr, S.H., Clay, G.D., McMorrow, J. & Vandvik, V. (2016). The peatland vegetation burning debate: keep scientific critique in perspective. A response to Brown et al. and Douglas et al. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B-Biological Sciences, 371, 20160434.

Davies, G.M. & Legg, C.J. (2008). The effect of traditional management burning on lichen diversity. Applied Vegetation Science, 11, 529-538.

Davies, G.M. & Legg, C.J. (2011). Fuel Moisture Thresholds in the Flammability of Calluna vulgaris. Fire Technology, 47, 421-436.

Davies, G.M. & Legg, C.J. (2016). Regional variation in fire weather controls the reported occurrence of Scottish wildfires. Peerj, 4, e2649.

Davies, G.M., Legg, C.L., O’Hara, R., MacDonald, A.J. & Smith, A.A. (2010). Winter desiccation and rapid changes in the live fuel moisture content of Calluna vulgaris. Plant Ecology & Diversity, 3, 289-299.

Davies, G.M., Legg, C.J., Smith, A.A. & MacDonald, A.J. (2009). Rate of spread of fires in Calluna vulgaris-dominated moorlands. Journal of Applied Ecology, 46, 1054-1063.

Davies, G.M., Smith, A.A., MacDonald, A.J., Bakker, J.D. & Legg, C.J. (2010). Fire intensity, fire severity and ecosystem response in heathlands: factors affecting the regeneration of Calluna vulgaris. Journal of Applied Ecology, 47, 356-365.

Dick, J., Andrews, C., Beaumont, D.A., Benham, S., Dodd, N., Pallett, D., Rose, R., Scott, T., Smith, R., Schäfer, S.M., Turner, A. & Watson, H. (2016). Analysis of temporal change in delivery of ecosystem services over 20 years at long term monitoring sites of the UK Environmental Change Network. Ecological Indicators, 68, 115-125.

Douglas, D.J.T., Beresford, A., Selvidge, J., Garnett, S., Buchanan, G.M., Gullett, P. & Grant, M.C. (2017). Changes in upland bird abundances show associations with moorland management. Bird Study, 64, 242-254.

Douglas, D.J.T., Buchanan, G.M., Thompson, P., Amar, A., Fielding, D.A., Redpath, S.M., Wilson, J.D. (2015). Vegetation burning for game management in the UK uplands is increasing and overlaps spatially with soil carbon and protected areas. Biological Conservation, 191, 243-250.

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Mountain Hares

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