Publication - Research and analysis

Fireworks legislation and impacts: international evidence review

Desk-based review of evidence on the impact of fireworks, in the context of international legislation and regulations.

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65 page PDF

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Contents
Fireworks legislation and impacts: international evidence review
Appendix A: Quality assessment of studies

65 page PDF

632.7 kB

Appendix A: Quality assessment of studies

Table 2: Quality Assessment of Studies

Author(s)

Year

Title

Location

Methods

Theme(s)

Limitations

Ahmad, Z.

2010

Playing with fire and getting burnt-a retrospective analysis of injuries presenting to the emergency department during 'firework season'

UK

Retrospective study in emergency departments

  • Injury
  • Only data from Exeter
  • Potentially outdated, data from October 2006 to January 2007
  • Small sample size n=18 so not generalisable
  • Emergency department records only

Ashcroft, A.

2018

"Remember, remember the fifth of November" - A time now to be forgot? The psychology and politics of remembering and forgetting, celebrating and commemorating

UK

Journal article

  • Culture/ cohesion
  • Theoretical only - not tested with data

Azhagurajan, A. and Selvakumar, N.

2014

Impact of nano particles on safety and environment for fireworks chemicals

India

Review

  • Environment
  • Limited studies reviewed
  • Unclear if applicable to UK

The British Association of Plastic Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons (BAPRAS)

2018

British public support plastic surgeons' call for government to introduce graphic warnings on all firework packaging

UK

Press release

  • Injuries
  • Regulations
  • Quality of YouGov poll unclear
  • No evidence to suggest approach would be effective

Baranyai, E., Simon, E., Braun, M., Tóthmérész, B., PostaIstván, J. and Fábián, I.

2015

The effect of a fireworks event on the amount and elemental concentration of deposited dust collected in the city of Debrecen, Hungary

Hungary

Dust samples

  • Environment
  • Data only from urban city Debrecen, Hungary
  • Potentially outdated and cannot be applied to other years, data only from 2011

Blackwell, E. J., Bradshaw, J. W. S., Casey, R. A.

2013

Fear responses to noises in domestic dogs: Prevalence, risk factors and co-occurrence with other fear related behaviour

UK

Structured interviews of pet owners

  • Animal welfare
  • Reliant on owners' recollections

Bolster, C.

2014

Fireworks are no fun for pets

UK

Feature article: review of fear of fireworks in animals and treatments

  • Animal welfare
  • No primary data collection

Camilleri, R., Vella, A.J.

2016

Emission Factors for Aerial Pyrotechnics and Use in Assessing Environmental Impact of Firework Displays: Case Study from Malta

Malta

Measurement of emission factors

  • Environment
  • Theoretical only - not tested with data

Canner, J. K., Haider, A. H., Selvarajah, S. et al.

2014

US emergency department visits for fireworks injuries, 2006-2010

US

2006-2010 Nationwide Emergency Department Sample

  • Injury
  • Data only from US
  • Potentially outdated, data from 2006 to 2010
  • Emergency department records only

Cao, X.Y., Zhang, X.L., Tong, D.Q., Chen, W.W., Zhang, S.C., Zhao, H.M., Xiu, A.J.

2018

Review on physicochemical properties of pollutants released from fireworks: environmental and health effects and prevention

Primarily Asia, also Europe and North America

Systematic international review

  • Environment
  • Health
  • Injury
  • Noise
  • Few studies from Europe so unclear how applicable to UK

Chan, W.C., Knox, F.A., McGinnity, F.G., Sharkey, J.A.

2004

Serious eye and adnexal injuries from fireworks in Northern Ireland before and after lifting of the firework ban-an ophthalmology unit's experience.

Northern Ireland

Analysis of injuries at Department of Ophthalmology in the Royal Victoria Hospital, Belfast

  • Injury
  • Data from Belfast only
  • Outdated, data from 1990 to 2001
  • Serious eye injuries only
  • Small sample size n=23 so not generalisable

Chang, I.T., Prendes, M.A., Tarbet, K.J., Amadi, A.J., Chang, S., Shaftel, S.S.

2016

Ocular injuries from fireworks: the 11-year experience of a US level I trauma center

US

Review of fireworks injuries

  • Injuries
  • Data only from Washington, US
  • Potentially outdated, data from 2003 to 2013
  • Trauma centre admission only
  • Eye injuries only

Clark, R.R. and Watson, S.B.

2006

Pollicisation of the index metacarpal based on the first dorsal metacarpal artery

UK

Case study of operations on two fireworks related injuries

  • Injuries
  • Case study so not generalisable

Crown Office and Procurator Fiscal Service

2019

Fireworks related charges between 2002/03 and 2018/19.

UK

COPFS data provided on request

  • Anti-social behaviour
  • Only captures cases proceeded against, so likely underestimates total incidence rates

Dale, A. R., Walker, J. K., Farnworth, M. J., Morrissey, S. V. and Waran, N. K.

2010

A survey of owners' perceptions of fear of fireworks in a sample of dogs and cats in New Zealand

New Zealand

Survey of pet owners

  • Animal welfare
  • Reliant on owners' recollections
  • Low response rate
  • Self-selecting sample so not generalisable
  • Unclear whether findings applicable to Scotland

Edwin, A., Cubiso, T., Pape, S.

2008

The impact of recent legislation on paediatric fireworks injuries in the Newcastle upon Tyne region

UK

Longitudinal review of fireworks injuries

  • Injuries
  • Impact of legislation
  • Data from Newcastle only
  • Outdated, data from 1998 to 2008
  • Children only

Ellis, L., McWhirter, C.

2015

Firework Sales Skyrocket as More States Lift Bans

US

News article

  • Environment
  • Impact of legislation
  • News article not peer reviewed
  • Unclear whether applicable to UK

Epstein, S., Lyons, T.W., Hintza, R., Keys, K.A.

2018

Fireworks Legislation and the Incidence of Severe Fireworks related Injuries in Washington State

US

Institutional fireworks injury database

  • Injuries
  • Impact of legislation
  • Potentially outdated, data from 2005 to 2015
  • Applies only to Washington, US
  • Level 1 trauma centre injuries only

Fulcher, J., Luttrell, H., Harvey, W., Ward, M.

2015

Misuse and Modification of Fireworks With Fatal Injury

US

Case study

  • Injuries
  • Case study cannot be generalised

Gahagan, P. and Wismer, T.

2012

Toxicology of explosives and fireworks in small animals

US

Review of different types of materials/chemicals, clinical signs of toxicosis, and their treatment

  • Animal welfare
  • No primary data collection - review of existing evidence

Gates, M. C., Zito, S., Walker, J. K. and Dale, A. R.

2019

Owner perceptions and management of the adverse behavioural effects of fireworks on companion animals: an update

New Zealand

Survey

  • Animal welfare
  • Reliant on owners' recollections

Gronqvist, G., Rogers, C. and Gee, R.

2016

The Management of Horses during Fireworks in New Zealand

New Zealand

Survey

  • Animal welfare
  • Reliant on owners' recollections

Hamad, S., Green, D., Heo, J.

2016

Evaluation of health risk associated with fireworks activity at central London

UK

Risk analysis

  • Environment
  • Health
  • Impact of legislation
  • Data from central London only
  • Potentially outdated, data from 2014 only
  • No year round data - 16th October 16 to
    16th November only

Hargrave, C.

2015

Helping companion animals with noise phobia

UK

Review of literature on companion animals and noise phobia

  • Animal welfare
  • No primary data collection - review of existing evidence
  • No quality assessment of studies used

Hlavaty, L., Kasper, W., Sung, L.

2019

Suicide by Detonation of Intraoral Firecracker Case Report and Review of the Literature

US

Case study and review of literature

  • Injuries
  • Suicide
  • Case study cannot be generalised

Hunthausen, W.

2009

Preventative behavioural medicine for dogs

UK

Book chapter

  • Animal welfare
  • No primary data collection - based on existing evidence

Information Services Division Scotland

2019

Emergency Hospital Admissions as a result of an Unintentional Injury from Firework (W39), Scotland, 2001/02 to 2016/17

UK

Analysis of FWRI in emergency hospital admissions

  • Injury
  • Emergency hospital admissions only
  • Listing object causing injury not mandatory on system so likely underestimate

Janagaraj, P.D.

2019

Fireworks related injury in the Northern Territory 2018

Australia

Analysis of FWRI between 30 June and 6 July 2018

  • Injuries
  • Data from Australia only
  • Applies from 30 June and 6 July 2018 only, not year round

Jeyabal, P., Davies, L., Rousselot, A. et al.

2019

Fireworks: boon or bane to our eyes'

International

Literature review

  • Injuries
  • Environment
  • Impact of legislation
  • Eye injuries only

Khanna, T.

2003

Bang goes my quiet night (fireworks)

UK

Review

  • Injuries
  • Noise
  • Only applies from 2002-2003, outdated

Knox, F.A., Chan, W.C., Jackson, A.J., Foot, B., Sharkey, J.A. and McGinnity, F.G.

2008

A British Ophthalmological Surveillance Unit study on serious ocular injuries from fireworks in the UK.

UK

Surveillance study of ocular injuries in UK

  • Injuries
  • Only applies to 2004-2006
  • Eye injuries only

Kukulski, B., Wszolek, T., Mleczko, D.

2018

The Impact of Fireworks Noise on the Acoustic Climate in Urban Areas

Poland

Assessment of noise during NYE 2016-17

  • Noise
  • Applies only to New Years 2016-2017
  • Data from Poland only

Landsberg, G. M. and Denenberg, S.

2009

Behaviour problems in the senior pet

UK

Book chapter

  • Animal welfare
  • No primary data collection - based on existing evidence

Levine, E.

2009

Sound sensitivities

UK

Book chapter

  • Animal welfare
  • No primary data collection - based on existing evidence

Levine, E. D., Ramos, D. and Mills, D. S.

2007

A prospective study of two self-help CD based desensitization and counter-conditioning programmes with the use of Dog Appeasing Pheromone for the treatment of firework fears in dogs (Canis familiaris)

UK

Intervention evaluation using owner reports and videos of behaviour

  • Animal welfare
  • Owner reports subject to bias
  • Significant attrition rate during study

Lin, C-C.

2016

A review of the impact of fireworks on particulate matter in ambient air

International

Evidence review

  • Environment
  • Health
  • Unclear how applicable to UK

Macneal, P., Torres-Grau, J., Atkins, J., Williams, G.

2018

High numbers of firework related injury referrals to the London Burns Service during the recent 'Bonfire night' period, is it time for new regulations?

UK

Analysis of FWRI referred to the London Burns Centre from 14th October to 12th November 2018

  • Injuries
  • Data from London only
  • Applies only from 14th October to 12th November 2018 only
  • Burns injuries only

Means, C.

2016

Illuminating the Toxicity of Fireworks

US

Guide to treating toxic fireworks ingredients in dogs

  • Animal welfare
  • Only covers dogs

Mills, D., Braem, D. M. and Zulch, H.

2013

Stress and Pheromonotherapy in Small Animal Clinical Behaviour

UK

Book based on authors' research experience

  • Animal welfare
  • No primary data collection - based on existing evidence

Molendijk, J., Vervloet, B., Wolvius, E.B., and Koudstaal, M.J.

2016

The Big Bang: Facial Trauma Caused by Recreational Fireworks

Netherlands

Case study

  • Injuries
  • Case studies cannot be generalised
  • Unclear whether applicable to the UK

Moore, J. X,, McGwin G. Jr., Griffin, R. L.

2014

The epidemiology of firework-related injuries in the United States: 2000-2010

US

Analysis of nat. rep. sample of FWRI

  • Injury
  • Potentially outdated, data from 2000 to 2010
  • Data from US only
  • Emergency department injuries only

Nizamoglu M, Frew Q, Tan A, Band H, Band B, Barnes D, et al.

2018

The Ten-Year Experience of Firework Injuries Treated at a UK Regional Burns & Plastic Surgery Unit

UK

Review of patients attending burns and plastic surgery unit

  • Injury
  • Impact of legislation
  • Data from Chelmsford only
  • Potentially outdated, data from 2004 to 2014
  • Cases referred to burns unit only

Pace, C. and Vella, A. J.

2019

Contamination of water resources of a small island state by fireworks-derived perchlorate: A case study from Malta

Malta

Water samples

  • Environment
  • Case study cannot be generalised

Palestrini, C.

2009

Situational sensitivities. In Canine and Feline Behavioural Medicine.

UK

Book chapter

  • Animal welfare
  • No primary data collection - based on existing evidence

Passos, R. S.,

Carvalho, A. P. O. and

Rocha, C. A. A. C.

2015

Exposure to firework noise in festivals

Portugal

Noise measurements at 5 events and survey

  • Noise
  • Health
  • Data from Portugal only
  • May not apply to years other than 2015
  • Survey not representative

Pringle E, Eckstein MB, Casswell AG, Hughes EH.

2012

New firework caused severe eye injuries at a public display

UK

Case study

  • Injury
  • Impact of legislation
  • Case study cannot be generalised

Read, D. J., Bradbury, R. and Yeboah, E.

2017

Firework-related injury in the Top End: a 16-year review

Australia

Audit of admitted patients with injury from fireworks

  • Injuries
  • Impact of legislation
  • May be outdated, data from 2000 to 2015
  • Data from Australia's Northern Territory only

Romolo, F., Aromatario, M., Bottoni, E. et al.

2014

Accidental death involving professional fireworks

Italy

Case study

  • Injury
  • Case studies cannot be generalised

Sandvall, B., Jacobson, L., Miller, E et al.

2017

Fireworks type, injury pattern, and permanent impairment following severe fireworks related injuries

US

Retrospective case series of patients with fireworks related injuries

  • Injury
  • Potentially outdated, data from 2005 to 2015
  • Level 1 trauma centre injuries only
  • Data from Washington, US only
  • Severe injuries only

Sandvall, B., Keys, K. A., Friedrich, J. B.

2017

Severe Hand Injuries From Fireworks: Injury Patterns, Outcomes and Fireworks Types

US

Retrospective cohort study

  • Injury
  • Potentially outdated, data from 2005 to 2015
  • Data from Washington, US only
  • Severe hand injuries only

Seidel, D.J., Birnbaum, A.N.

2015

Effects of Independence Day fireworks on atmospheric concentrations of fine particulate matter in the United States

US

Atmospheric measurements around July 4th from 315 sites across US

  • Environment
  • Data from US only
  • Potentially outdated, data from 1999 to 2013

Seksel, K.

2009

Preventative behavioural medicine for cats

UK

Book chapter

  • Animal welfare
  • No primary data collection - based on existing evidence

Shamoun-Baranes, J., Dokter, A. M., Gasteren, H., Loon, E. E., Leijnse, H. and Bouten, W.

2011

Birds flee en mass from New Year's Eve fireworks

Netherlands

Operational weather radar

  • Animal welfare
  • Data from Netherlands only
  • Potentially outdated, data from 2008

Sijimol, M. R. and Mohan, M.

2014

Environmental impacts of perchlorate with special reference to fireworks-a review

International

Review

  • Environment
  • Health
  • Impact of legislation
  • No studies from the UK found for review so unclear how applicable

Stanley, M. K., Kelers, K., Boller, E. and Boller, M.

2019

Acute barium poisoning in a dog after ingestion of handheld fireworks (party sparklers)

Australia

Case study

  • Animal welfare
  • Case study findings not generalisable

Storengen, L. M. and Lingaas, F.

2015

Noise sensitivity in 17 dog breeds: Prevalence, breed risk and correlation with fear in other situations

Norway

Survey

  • Animal welfare
  • Data only from Norway

Sun, Y., Han, Z., Du, Z., Li, Z., Cong, X.

2017

Preparation and performance of environmental friendly Sulphur-Free propellant for fireworks

China

Laboratory testing of new firework propellant

  • Environment
  • Impact of legislation
  • Not tested in realistic UK conditions so unclear how viable

Tadisina, K.K., Abcarian, A., and Omi, E.

2014

Facial Firework Injury: A Case Series

US

Case series

  • Injury
  • Impact of legislation
  • Case series not generalisable

Talamonti, Z., Cassis, C., Brambilla, P. G., Scarpa, P., Stefanello, D., Cannas, S., Minero, M. and Palestrini, C.

2015

Preliminary study of pet owner adherence in behaviour, cardiology, urology and oncology fields

Italy

Survey

  • Animal welfare
  • Questionnaires subject to response/desirability bias
  • Convenience sampling subject to sampling bias

Tanaka, T., Inaba, R., Aoyama, A.

2016

Noise and low-frequency sound levels due to aerial fireworks and prediction of the occupational exposure of pyrotechnicians to noise

Japan

Sound measurements 100m from the launch site of a firework display

  • Noise
  • Health
  • Impact of legislation
  • Data from one city in Japan only
  • Potentially outdated, data from 2013

ten Brink H, Otjes R, Weijers E, Henzing B.

2018

Visibility in the Netherlands during New Year's fireworks: The role of soot and salty aerosol products

Netherlands

Integrating Nephlometer to measure light-scattering

  • Environment
  • Unclear if applies to UK and its weather conditions

The NHS Information Centre, Community and Mental Health Team, Brugha, T. et al.

2012

Estimating the prevalence of autism spectrum conditions in adults: extending the 2007 Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey.

UK

Analysis of survey results

  • Noise
  • Health
  • Potentially outdated, data from 2007
  • Unclear if UK rate applies to Scotland

Under Age Sales

2016

An analysis of intended firework purchasing by young people celebrating Bonfire Night in 2016

UK

Survey

  • Underage sales
  • Small Scottish sample of young people intending to buy fireworks n=11
  • Only applies to 2016

Valentinuzzi, M. E.

2018

Fireworks, Autism, and Animals What "fun" noises do to sensitive humans and our beloved pets

Unclear

Journal article

  • Noise
  • Health
  • Animal welfare
  • Limited review of other studies
  • No empirical evidence to support theory

Vella, A.J., Chircop, C., Micallef, T. and Pace, C.

2015

Perchlorate in dust fall and indoor dust in Malta: An effect of fireworks

Malta

Dust samples analysed

  • Environment
  • Data from Malta only
  • Unclear to what extent applies to other urban areas

Watson, S., Dobby, J. and Ramsay, S.

2019

Incidence of Firework Related Injuries at Royal Hospital Children for Glasgow

UK

Analysis of firework related injuries from 2015-2018

  • Injury
  • Children's injuries only
  • Glasgow only
  • Small sample size n=30

Witsaman, R.J., Comstock, R.D., Smith, G.A.

2018

Pediatric fireworks related injuries in the United States: 1990-2003.

US

Analysis of fireworks related injuries

  • Injury
  • Data from US only
  • Outdated, data from 1990 to 2003
  • Children's injuries only

Young, T., Creighton, E., Smith, T. and Hosie, C.

2012

A novel scale of behavioural indicators of stress for use with domestic horses

UK

Testing of new scale for behavioural scores to assess stress in horses

  • Animal welfare
  • Stereotypical behaviours may confound self-soothing with lack of stress

Zwirner J, Bayer R, Japes A, Eplinius F, Dressler J, Ondruschka B.

2017

Suicide by the intraoral blast of firecrackers - experimental simulation using a skull simulant model

Switzerland

Case study and simulation

  • Injury
  • Suicide
  • Case studies cannot be generalised

Contact

Email: Socialresearch@gov.scot