An Evaluation of the Expansion of Nurse Prescribing in Scotland

Nurse prescribers in Scotland can now prescribe a range of controlled drugs for specific medical conditions. This research project which is summarised below provides an evaluation of the extension of nurse prescribing following the introduction of new legislation in 2001.


Allsop, A. Brooks, L. Bufton, L. (2005) Supplementary prescribing in mental health and learning disabilities. Nursing Standard 19(30): 56-58

Antrobus, S. (2004) Editorial. The Scottish Parliament. Journal of Nursing Management 12: 227-234

Avery, A.J. Pringle, M. (2005) Extended prescribing by UK nurses and pharmacists - with more evidence and strict safeguards, it could benefit patients. British Journal of Nursing 331: 1154

Baldridge, C. (2005) Which drug reactions should be reported? Practice Nursing 16(12): 584-589

Banning, M. (2004) Nurse Prescribing, nurse education and related research in the United Kingdom: a review of the literature. Nurse Education Today 24(6): 420-427

Barker, W (2006) Ask the experts; Non-medical prescribing. Nursing Older people 17(10): 14-15

Barret, D. (2004) Commentary on Latter, S. & Courtenay, M. (2004) Effectiveness of nurse prescribing: a review of the literature. Journal of Clinical Nursing 13: 776-778

Basford, L. Bowskill, D. (2001) Celebrating the present, challenging the future of nurse prescribing. British Journal of Community Nursing 6(9): 467-471

Berry, D. Courtenay, M. Bersellini, E. (2006) Attitude towards, and information needs in relation to, supplementary nurse prescribing in the UK: an empirical study. Journal of Clinical Nursing 15(1): 22-28

Boreham, N. (1977) The use of case histories to assess nurses' ability to solve clinical problems. Journal of Advanced Nursing 2: 57-66

Boreham, N. (1992) Harnessing implicit knowing to improve medical practice, Chapter 7. In Morris Baskett H.K. and Marsick V.J. (Eds) Professionals' Ways of Knowing: New Findings on How to Improve Professional Education, San Francisco (pp71-78) Jossey-Bass

Boreham, N. (1994) The dangerous practice of thinking. Medical Education 28: 172-179

Boreham, N. Foster, R. Mawer, G. (2000) Medical students' errors in pharmacotherapeutics. Medical Education 34(3): 188-192

Boreham, N. Shea, C.E. Mackway-Jones, K. (2000) Clinical risk and collective competence in the hospital emergency department in the UK. Social Science & Medicine 51(1): 83-91

Boreham, N. (2002) Professionalisation and work process knowledge in the UK's National Health Service. In Boreham, N. Samurcay, R. and Fischer, M. (Eds) Work Process Knowledge (pp171-182) Routledge, London.

Bradley, C.P. Taylor, R.J. Blenkinsopp, A. (1997) Primary care - opportunities and threats: developing prescribing in primary care. British Medical Journal 314: 744

Bradley, E (2006) Addressing the concerns of the trainee nurse prescriber. Nursing Times 102(11): 36-39

Bradley, E. Campbell, P. Nolan, P. (2005) Nurse Prescribers: who are they and how do they perceive their role? Journal of Advanced Nursing 55(5): 439-448

Brimblecombe, N. (2005) The changing relationship between mental health nurses and psychiatrists in the United Kingdom. Journal of Advanced Nursing 49(4): 344-353

Brooks, N. (2001) Nurse prescribing: what do patients think? Nursing Standard 15(17): 33-38

Campbell, P. (2004) N urse Prescribing for contraceptive care and sexual health. Journal of family planning & reproductive healthcare 30(4): 255-256

Caulfield, H. (2005) The Code of Conduct and Prescribing. Practice Nurse 29(4): 42-46

Clark, H. (2002) To prescribe or not to prescribe. Nursing Standard 14: 18-19

Courtenay, M. Carey N. and Burke, J. (2006) Independent extended and supplementary nurse prescribing practice in the UK: A national questionnaire survey. International Journal of Nursing Studies (article in press) DOI:

Courtenay, M. Carey, N. (2005) An evaluation of the role of the diabetes specialist nurse. Nurse Prescribing 3(4): 140

Cutcliffe, J. (2002) The beguiling effects of nurse-prescribing in mental health nursing: re-examining the debate. Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing 9: 369-375

Davies, J. (2005) Health Visitors' perceptions of nurse prescribing: a qualitative fieldwork study. Nurse Prescribing 3(4): 168-172

Department of Health (1989) Report of the Advisory Group on Nurse Prescribing. Crown Report DOH London.

Department of Health (1999) Review of Prescribing, Supply and Administration of Medicines. Final Report (Crown II) DoH, London

Department of Health (1997) Getting involved and making a difference purchasing and the professions allied to medicine, DoH, London

Department of Health (2000) The NHS Plan: A Plan for Investment, A Plan for Reform. DoH London

Department of Health (2001) Health and Social Care Act. DoH, London

Department of Health (2000) Consultation on proposals to extend nurse prescribing. DoH, London

Department of Health (2006) Improving Patients' Access to Medicines: A guide to implementing nurse and pharmacist prescribing within the NHS in England DoH, London

Department of Health and Social Security (1986) Neighbourhood Nursing: A focus for care (Cumberlege report)HMSO, London

Dimond, B. (2005) Prescription and medication records. British Journal of Nursing 14(22): 1203 -1205

Earwicker, S.C. (2005) Extended prescribing by UK nurses and pharmacists - Computer systems need to incorporate nurse prescribing. British Medical Journal 331: 1337

Finnie, A. Wilson, A. (2003) Development of a tissue viability nursing competency framework. British Journal of Nursing 12(6): S38-S44

Fisher, R. (2005) Relationships in nurse prescribing in district nursing practice in England: A preliminary investigation. International Journal of Nursing Practice 11:102-107

Fisher, R. (2004) District nurses: relationships in nurse prescribing. British Journal of Community Nursing 9(10): 416-419

Foss, T. (2005) Nurse prescribing is in dispute, but why, exactly? British Journal of Nursing 14(21): 1109

Fowler. J. (2006) The importance of reflective practice for nurse prescribers. Nurse Prescribing 4(3): 103 -106

Grandell-Niemi, H. Hupli, M. Leino-Kilpi, H. Puuka, P. (2005) Issues in Clinical Nursing - Finnish nurse and nursing student's pharmacological skills. Journal of Clinical Nursing 14(6): 685-694

"Greater Prescribing Powers" (2007) Comment - Greater prescribing powers make sense. Nursing Times. 103 (13): 17

Grundy, M. Vogel, S. (2005) Attitudes towards prescribing rights: a qualitative focus group study with UK osteopaths. International Journal of Osteopathic Medicine 8: 12-21

Hairon, N. (2002) 'Woeful funds' threatens nurse prescribing. Pulse news 3rd June: 8

Hall, J. Cantrill, J. Noyce, P. (2003) The information sources used by community nurse prescribers. British Journal of Nursing 12(13): 235-242

Hall, J. Cantrill, J. Noyce, P. (2006) Why don't trained community nurse prescribers prescribe? Journal of Clinical Nursing 15(4): 403-412

Hare, C. Davies, C. (2006) Safer medicine administration through the use of e-learning. Nursing Times 102(16): 25-27

Harniman, B. (2006) Supplementary Prescribing in the substance misuse field. Nursing Times 102(8): 30-32

Harris, J. Taylor, J. Mackie, C. (2004) Research Literature Review on Prescribing. University of Dundee and Medway School of Pharmacy, University of Kent

Harrison, S. (2003) What next for prescribing? Nursing Standard 17(48): 12-13

Hay, A. (2004) Supplementary nurse prescribing. Nursing Standard 18(41): 33-39

Hoban, V. (2005) Distance learning for prescribers is a success. Nursing Times 101(13): 49

Jones, A. Jones, M. (2005) Mental Health Nursing: issues for the UK. Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing 12: 527-535

Jones, A. (2006) Supplementary prescribing: potential ways to reform hospital psychiatric care. Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing 13: 132-138

Jones, M. (2004) Case Report. Nurse Prescribing: a case study in policy influence. Journal of Nursing Management 12: 266-272.

Jones, M. Miller, D. Lucas, B. Bennett, J. Gray, R. (2005) Extended prescribing by UK nurses and pharmacists - Supplementary prescribing by mental health nurses seems promising. British Medical Journal 331: 1337

Jones, M. (2002) Nurse Prescribing Role Expands. Retrieved 24th January 2005 from BBC News:

Jukes, M. Millard, J. Chessum, C. (2004) Nurse prescribing: a case for clinical supervision. British Journal of Community Nursing 9(7): 291- 297

Keenan, J. (2006) Nurse prescribing for patients with coronary heart disease. Nurse Prescribing 4(3): 92-97

King, R. L. (2004) Nurses' perceptions of their pharmacology educational needs. Journal of Advanced Nursing 45(4): 392-400

Lakasing, E. (2006) Medical mentors: finding and maintaining successful partnerships. Nurse Prescribing 4(2): 73-76

Lanyon, M. (2004) Nurse prescribing: current status and future developments. Nursing Times 100(17): 28-29

Latter, S. Courtenay, M (2004) Effectiveness of nurse prescribing: a review of the literature. Journal of Clinical Nursing 13: 26-32

Latter, S. Maben, J. Myall, M. Courtenay, M. Young, A. Dunn, N. An Evaluation of Extended Formulary Independent Nurse Prescribing - Executive Summary of Final Report. School of Nursing and Midwifery, University of Southampton

Lennox, S. (n.d.) An evaluation of the potential that exists for the nurse prescriber, specifically in relation to Learning Disability Nursing. Nursing Scotland: 17-19

Lewis-Evans, A. Jester, R. (2004) Nurse prescribers' experience of prescribing. Journal of Clinical Nursing 13: 796-805.

Liley, M, Marshall, J. McIntosh, N. Bisland, K. McNeil, E. Morton, E. (2005) Independent nurse prescribing in an acute hospital setting. Paediatric Nursing 17(4): 14-18

Lipley, N. (2002) Taking Ownership. Emergency Nurse 10(6): 2

Luker, K. Austin, L. Willcock, J. Ferguson, B. Smith, K. (1997) Nurses' and GPs' views on the nurse prescribers' formulary - evaluation of Nurse Prescribing. Nursing Standard 11(22): 33-38

Luker, K. Hogg, C. Austin, L. Ferguson, B. Smith, K. (1998a) Decision making: the context of nurse prescribing. Journal of Advanced Nursing 27(3):657-665.

Luker, K.A. Austin, L. Hogg, C. Ferguson, B. Smith, K (1998b) Nurse-patient relationships: the context of nurse prescribing. Journal of Advanced Nursing 28(2):235-242.

Martin, J. (2005) Tomorrow's NHS. Editorial; Practice Nursing 16(12): 577

Maw, J. (2004) Too much to handle? Occupational Health Feb, 56(2): 26-28

Maxwell, S.R.J. (2005) Evidence based prescribing. British Medical Journal 331: 247-248

McBeath, C. (1999) Implementation of nurse prescribing in Scotland. Nurse Prescriber/Community Nurse: 43-44

McKenna, H. Keeney, S. (2004) Community Nursing: health professional and public perceptions. Journal of Advanced Nursing 48(1):17-25

McKinnon, J. (2006) Antimicrobial resistance: a unique situation in therapeutics. Nurse Prescribing 4(6): 238-244

Mead, A. (2006) Better patient care in prescribing for diabetes. Practice Nursing 17(3): 116-124

Mula, C. (2005) Nurse Prescribing reaches new horizons. International Journal of Palliative nursing 12(2): 52

Mullally, S. Mason, C. Froggatt, J. (2003) The progress of nurse prescribing in the United Kingdom. Nurse Prescribing 1(3): 105-106

Murray, I. (1997) Problem-based Learning and the Integration of a Nursing Curriculum. Research and Development in PBL: Integrity Innovation Integration 1997: 4 PROBLARC Newcastle Australia

Murray, I. Savin-Baden, M. (2000) Staff Development and Problem-based Learning Teaching in Higher Education 5(1): 107-126

NMC (2002) Nurse Prescribing moves forward in Scotland. Retrieved 30th August 2004 from

NMC (2006) Standards of proficiency for nurse and midwife prescribers. Retrieved on 25th June from

Nolan, P. Haque, S. Badger, F. Dyke, R. Khan, I. (2001) Mental Health nurses' perceptions of nurse prescribing. Journal of Advanced Nursing 36(4): 527-534

Nolan, P. Bradley, E. Carr, N. (2005) Nurse Prescribing and the enhancement of mental health services. Nurse Prescriber 1(11): 1-9

O'Brien, S. J. (2005) Extended/supplementary prescribing: a public health perspective. In M. Courtenay, M. Griffiths (Eds) Independent and Supplementary Prescribing: An Essential Guide (pp 149-166) Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

O'Dowd, A (2006) Uncertain start for full prescribing. Nursing Times 102(12): 12-13

O'Dowd, A (2007) The Power to Prescribe. Nursing Times 103(3): 16-18

Picton, C. Granby, T. (2002) Maintaining and developing competencies in nurse prescribing. British Journal of Community Nursing 7(2): 810-818

Plastow, L. (2005) Prescribing Practice - how the NMC can support nurses and midwives.NMC News October: 10-11

Pollard, T. (2005) A bumper gift for community nursing. Editorial; British Journal of Community Nursing 10(12): 543

Pollock, L. (2006) Nurse Prescribing: A literature review. Scottish Primary Care: 10-11 Grey literature

Price D, Honeybourne D, Little P, Mayon-White R, Read RC, Wale M, Fitzgerald P, Weston AR (2004). Community-acquired pneumonia mortality: A potential link to antibiotic prescribing. Respiratory Medicine 98(1): 17-24

Prime, L. (2005) A breakthrough in nurse prescribing. Practice Nurse 30(9): 5

Richmond, S. (2005) Extended prescribing by UK nurses and pharmacists - Triumph of common sense. British Medical Journal 331: 1337

Robinson, F. (2005) Prescribing update; while the nurse prescribing update continues, one practice nurse has found a way forward. Practice Nurse 30(8): 14-16

Rodden, C. (2001) Nurse prescribing: views on autonomy and in dependence. British Journal of Community Nursing 6(7): 350-355

Ryan, C. (2004) Is the profession prepared for nurse prescribing in hospitals? Nursing Times 100(39): 26-28

Scottish Executive Health Department (2000) Our National Health: A Plan for Action Plan for Change. The Stationery Office, Edinburgh.

Scottish Executive Health Department (2001a) Caring for Scotland: The Strategy for Nursing and Midwifery in Scotland.SEHD Edinburgh

Scottish Executive Health Department (2001b) Nursing for Health: A review of the contribution of nurses, midwives and health visitors to improving the public's health in Scotland. SEHD Edinburgh

Scottish Executive Health Department (2005) Delivering for Health. The Stationery Office, Edinburgh.

Scottish Executive Health Department (2006) Non-medical prescribing: guidance for nurse independent prescribers. The Stationery Office, Edinburgh.

Scottish Executive Health Department (2006a) Delivering Care Enabling Health: Harnessing the Nursing, Midwifery. The Stationery Office, Edinburgh.

Scottish Executive Health Department (2006b) Visible, Accessible and Integrated Care: Report of the review of nursing in the community in Scotland The Stationery Office, Edinburgh.

Shuttleworth, A (2006) Prescriber: What makes the perfect mentor? Nursing Times 102(13): 52-53

Shuttleworth, A. (2006) Setting Standards for Nurse Prescribing. Nursing Times 102(22): 46-47

Skingsley, D, Bradley, E.J. & Nolan, P. (2006) Neuropharmacology and mental health nurse prescribers. Journal of Clinical Nursing 15: 989-977

Snowden, A (2006) Nurse Prescribing in mental health. Nursing Standard 20(29): 41-46

Sprague, D (2005) Nurse prescribing in primary care - when will IT happen? Practice Nurse 30(2): 20

Standing, J.F. (2005) Extended prescribing by UK nurses and pharmacists - Reference is interesting. British Medical Journal 331: 1338

Strachan-Bennett, S (2006) A Prescription for Success. Nursing Times 102(16): 12-13

Travers, J. (2005) Professional Issues for the future of Nurse Prescribing; a qualitative study. Nurse Prescribing 3(4): 164-167

UKCC (1992) The Scope of Professional Practice Central Council for Nursing, Midwifery and Health Visiting London, United Kingdom

Walsh (2006) Non-medical prescribing in nurse-led community leg ulcer clinics British Journal of Nursing 15 (11 suppl): S14-16

Watterson, A. (Ed) (2003). Pubic Health in Practice. Palgrave Macmillan, Basingstoke

While, A (2005) Nurse prescribing: a delightful surprise. British Journal of Community Nursing 10(12): 584

While, A. Rahul, S and Nathan. A. (2005) Interdisciplinary working between community pharmacists and community nurses the views of community pharmacists. Journal of Interprofessional Care 19(2): 164-170

While, A. (2005) Which way for nurse prescribing? British Journal of Community Nursing 10(9): 440

While, A.E. Biggs, K.S.M (2004) Benefits and challenges of nurse prescribing. Journal of Advanced Nursing 45(9): 559-567.

Wilhelmsson, S. Foldevi, M. (2003) Exploring views on Swedish district nurses' prescribing - a focus group study in primary health care. Journal of Clinical Nursing 12: 643-650.

Wilton P, Smith R, Coast J, Millar M. (2002) Strategies to contain the emergence of antimicrobial resistance: a systematic review of effectiveness and cost-effectiveness. Journal of Health Services Research and Policy 7(2):111-117

Young, F. (2006) Nurse Prescribing in family planning. Journal of family planning & reproductive healthcare 32(1): 45-46

Back to top