Publication - Research and analysis

EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATION AND CARE PROVISION: INTERNATIONAL REVIEW OF POLICY, DELIVERY AND FUNDING

Published: 29 Jun 2013
Part of:
Health and social care
ISBN:
9781782564164

This report provides an overview of the current situation regarding early childhood education and care provision in Scotland, England, Sweden, Denmark, Norway, Slovenia, France and the Netherlands.

EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATION AND CARE PROVISION: INTERNATIONAL REVIEW OF POLICY, DELIVERY AND FUNDING
Footnotes

Footnotes

1. See for example: OECD, Babies and Bosses series (2002-2007); OECD, Starting Strong series I-III (2001, 2006, 2012); Eurydice, Early Childhood Education and Care in Europe: Tackling Social and Cultural Inequalities, Brussels, 2009; UNICEF, Child Poverty in Perspective: An overview of child well-being in rich countries, Geneva, 2007.

2. European Commission, European Commission Communication: Early Childhood Education and Care: Providing all our children with the best start for the world of tomorrow, 2011. Available at: http://ec.europa.eu/education/school-education/doc/childhoodcom_en.pdf

3. The Scottish Government/COSLA, The Early Years Framework, 2008. Available at: http:www.scotland.gov.uk/Resource/Doc/257007/0076309.pdf; Scottish National Party manifesto, 2011, p. 22. Available at: http://votesnp.com/campaigns/SNP_Manifesto_2011_lowRes.pdf

4. See OECD portal 'Early Childhood Education and Care'. Available at: http://www.oecd.org/education/preschoolandschool/earlychildhoodeducationandcare.htm

5. See OECD (2010): Family database factsheet PF2.2: Informal childcare arrangements, available at: http://www.oecd.org/els/soc/oecdfamilydatabase.htm

6. See for example: European Commission, Council Recommendations on Child Care, 1992; European Commission Network, Quality targets in services for young children, EC, Brussels, 1996.

7. See for example: UNICEF, Progress for children. A report card on child protection, no. 8, New York, 2009; UNICEF, The children left behind. A league table of inequality in child well-being in the world's rich countries, No. 9, New York, 2010; World Bank, Investing in Young Children. An Early Childhood Development Guide for Policy Dialogue and Project Preparation, Washington DC, 2011; OECD, Starting Strong III: A Quality Toolbox for Early Childhood Education and Care, Paris, 2012.

8. European Commission, European Commission Communication: Early Childhood Education and Care: Providing all our children with the best start for the world of tomorrow, 2011.

9. http://www.scotland.gov.uk/About/Performance/scotPerforms/NPFChanges

10. http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Topics/People/Young-People/gettingitright

11. Data from 2010. Office for National Statistics (ONS), Region and Country Profiles: Key Statistics, 2012. Available at: http://www.ons.gov.uk/ons/rel/regional-trends/region-and-country-profiles/key-statistics-and-profiles---august-2012/index.html

12. ONS, Social Trends, No. 41, 2011.

13. General Register Office for Scotland, Mid-2011 Population Estimates Scotland, 2012.

14. General Register Office for Scotland, Mid-2011 Population Estimates Scotland, 2012.

15. ONS, 'Regional Profiles - Summary - Scotland.' Regional Trends, No. 43, 2011.

16. General Register Office for Scotland, High Level Summary of Statistics: Population and Migration, 2012. Available at: http://www.gro-scotland.gov.uk

17. Data from 2009. ONS, Region and Country Profiles: Social Indicators, 2012.

18. Data from 2011. General Register Office for Scotland, Births Time Series Data, 2012.

19. Data from 2010. ONS, Region and Country Profiles: Social Indicators, 2012.

20. ONS, 'Regional Profiles - Summary - Scotland.' Regional Trends, No. 43, 2011.

21. Scottish Government, Key Scottish income and poverty figures, 2008-2009.

22. These statistics are the most recent available at the time of writing, but may not represent the same year, which is indicated in the text above.

23. Scottish Government, Labour Market Brief, July 2012.

24. All part-time data from 2011. Annual Population Survey. ONS, Labour Market Regional Tables, Scotland, 2012.

25. These statistics are the most recent available at the time of writing, but may not represent the same year, which is indicated in the text above.

26. Parental employment levels are available only at UK level.

27. Data for 2011. Excludes activity which is not assigned to any particular region. Scottish Government, Key Economy Statistics, August 2012.

28. Scottish Government Statistics, Key Economy Statistics, August 2012.

29. Scottish Government, Government Expenditure and Revenue Scotland 2010-2011, 2012.

30. 'Per head' means per person in the population.

31. HM Treasury, 'Section 4 Country and Regional Analyses,' Public Expenditure Statistical Analyses (PESA) 2011, 2011.

32. Correspondence from Scottish Government, 24 September 2012.

33. Data from 2010. Eurostat Country Profiles - United Kingdom.

34. OECD Family Database, OECD, Paris, 2011.

35. Data from 2007. OECD Family Database, OECD, Paris, 2011.

36. These statistics are the most recent available at the time of writing, but may not represent the same year, which is indicated in the text above.

37. This section draws heavily from the work of O'Brien, M, 'United Kingdom', in P. Moss (ed.) International Review of Leave Policies, International Network on Leave Policies and Research, June 2012.

38. The Scottish Government/COSLA (2008). The Early Years Framework. Available at: http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Resource/Doc/257007/0076309.pdf.

39. European Commission, 'United Kingdom - Scotland.' Eurypedia - European Encyclopaedia on National Education Systems, 2011. Available at: https://webgate.ec.europa.eu/fpfis/mwikis/eurydice/

40. 'European Commission, Eurypedia, 2011.

41. Care Inspectorate, Childcare Statistics 2011, October 2012. Available at: http://www.scswis.com/index.php?option=com_contentandtask=viewandid=8148andItemid=694; Moss, P. and Bennett, J., 'Country profile: United Kingdom,' Children in Scotland, Working for inclusion: an overview of European Union early years services and their workforce, 2010.

42. Care Inspectorate, 2012.

43. Care Inspectorate, 2012.

44. Scottish Government, Preschool and Childcare Statistics 2010, 2010. Available at: http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Topics/Statistics/Browse/Children/PubPreSchoolEdChildcare

45. Care Inspectorate, 2012.

46. Scottish Government, Preschool and Childcare Statistics 2010, 2010.

47. Care Inspectorate, 2012.

48. European Commission, Eurypedia, 2011.

49. Scottish Government, Preschool Education Statistics, September 2011.

50. Correspondence from Scottish Government, 24 September 2012.

51. European Commission, Eurypedia, 2011.

52. Children in Scotland, The cost of childcare in Scotland: a special report, 2011. Available at: http://www.childreninscotland.org.uk/html/pub_tshow.php?ref=PUB0362.

53. Her Majesty's Revenue and Customs (HMRC), 'Help with childcare costs - do you qualify for extra tax credits?', 2013. Available at: http://www.hmrc.gov.uk/taxcredits/start/who-qualifies/children/childcare-costs.htm.

54. Mulheirn, I. and Shorthouse, R. The Parent Trap: illustrating the growing cost of childcare. Social Market Foundation, 2011.

55. Mulheirn, and Shorthouse, 2011.

56. Her Majesty's Revenue and Customs (HMRC), Working Tax Credit - Help with the costs of childcare, 2011. Available at: http://www.hmrc.gov.uk/leaflets/wtc5.pdf

57. Mulheirn, and Shorthouse, 2011.

58. The information on other income groups is not provided by Mulheim and Shorthouse, 2011.

59. OECD Family Database, 2011.

60. After benefits, for a couple where both earn the average wage. Data from 2008. OECD, Doing Better for Families, OECD, Paris, 2011.

61. Blackburn, Philip, Children's Nurseries UK Market Report 2012, Laing and Buisson, Ltd. 11th ed, July 2012.

62. Daycare Trust and Children in Scotland, The Scottish Childcare Lottery, 2012, Available at: http://www.daycaretrust.org.uk

63. Daycare Trust and Children in Scotland, 2012.

64. Data for 2012, for 25 hours per week, unless otherwise specified. Daycare Trust and Children in Scotland, 2012, p. 5.

65. Blackburn, 2012.

66. Children in Scotland, The cost of childcare in Scotland: a special report, 2011.

67. The Scottish Government, Statistical Bulletin 2012. Available at: http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Resource/0041/00410232.pdf

68.Outcomes, 2009. Available at: http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Publications/2009/03/13143410/6

69. Daycare Trust and Children in Scotland, 2012.

70. Scottish Government, 'Free childcare for vulnerable children,' 2011. Available at: http://www.scotland.gov.uk/News/Releases/2011/12/21140320

71. Education Scotland, 'Early Years: Regulation and Inspection,' 2012. Available at: http://www.educationscotland.gov.uk/earlyyears/about/qa/index.asp

72. Scottish Government, 'Pre-Birth to Three: Positive Outcomes for Scotland's Children and Families', 2010. Available at: http://www.educationscotland.gov.uk/earlyyears/prebirthtothree/nationalguidance/index.asp

73. European Commission, Eurypedia, 2011.

74. Scottish Government, Preschool and Childcare Statistics 2010, 2010.

75. The Scottish Government, Statistical Bulletin 2012, p. 16. Available at: http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Resource/0041/00410232.pdf.

76. Children in Scotland, Early childhood education and care: developing a fully integrated system, 2011. Available at: http://www.childreninscotland.org.uk/docs/CIS_ECECSpecialReport2_001.pdf

77. Children in Scotland, Early childhood education and care: developing a fully integrated system, 2011.

78. Scottish Executive, Preschool and Childcare Workforce Statistics 2005, February 2006. Available at: http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Resource/Doc/93905/0022592.pdf Note: Although there are more recent publications on the workforce, they do not report pay.

79. Moss and Bennett, 2010.

80. We gratefully acknowledge the advice and support from Rosalyn Harper and colleagues from the Department for Education for this chapter.

81. Office for National Statistics (ONS), Statistical bulletin: 2011 Census - Population and Household Estimates for England and Wales, March 2011.

82. Data from 2011. ONS, 2011 Census, Population and Household Estimates for England and Wales, July 2012.

83. Data from 2010. ONS, Region and Country Profiles: Key Statistics, February 2012.

84. Data from 2011. ONS, Births and Deaths in England and Wales, 2011, October 2012.

85. Includes Wales. ONS, Birth Summary Tables, England and Wales, 2011.

86. Data from 2010. ONS, Region and Country Profiles: Social Indicators, February 2012.

87. ONS, Region and Country Profiles: Social Indicators, February 2012.

88. Children living in households with income below 60% of the median for at least three years from 2005-2008. Scottish Government, Key Scottish income and poverty figures, 2008-2009.

89. These statistics are the most recent available at the time of writing, but may not represent the same year, which is indicated in the text above.

90. Data from 2012. ONS, Region and Country Profiles: Key Statistics, August 2012.

91. ONS, Region and Country Profiles: Economy, May 2012.

92. Data from 2008-2009. ONS, Regional Trends Online, March 2010.

93. Data for 2011. Eurostat.

94. These statistics are the most recent available at the time of writing, but may not represent the same year, which is indicated in the text above.

95. 'Per head' refers to all persons in the population.

96. HM Treasury, 'Section 4 Country and Regional Analyses,' Public Expenditure Statistical Analyses (PESA) 2011, 2011.

97. Data from 2010. Eurostat Country Profiles - United Kingdom.

98. OECD Family Database, OECD, Paris, 2011.

99. Data from 2007. OECD Family Database, OECD, Paris, 2011.

100. This section draws heavily from the work of O'Brien, M., 'United Kingdom,' in P. Moss (ed.) International Review of Leave Policies and related research, International Network on Leave Policies and Research, June 2012.

101. Moss, P. and Bennett, J., 'Country profile: United Kingdom,' Children in Scotland, Working for inclusion: an overview of European Union early years services and their workforce, 2010.

102. Bryson et al, 2012, The Role of Informal Childcare, Report for the Nuffield Foundation. Available at http://www.nuffieldfoundation.org/sites/default/files/files/The_role_of_informal_childcare_FULL_REPORT.pdf

103. Department for Education, Provision for children under five years of age in England, January 2012. Available at: http://www.education.gov.uk/rsgateway/DB/SFR/s001074/index.shtml

104.Department for Education, 2012, Childcare and Early Years Providers Survey 2011. Available at:
https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/167900/osr18-2012v2.pdf.pdf

105. May not add to 100% due to rounding. Brind et al., Childcare and Early Years Providers Survey 2010, Department for Education, 2011.

106. Department for Education, Provision for Children Under Five Years of Age in England, January 2012.

107. Blackburn, P., 'Future directions for a mature UK childcare market.' In E. Lloyd and H. Penn (eds.) Childcare Markets: can they deliver an equitable service? Bristol: The Policy Press, 2012, p. 52.

108. Her Majesty's Revenue and Customs (HMRC), 'Help with childcare costs - do you qualify for extra tax credits?', 2013. Available at: http://www.hmrc.gov.uk/taxcredits/start/who-qualifies/children/childcare-costs.htm

109. Mulheirn, I. and Shorthouse, R. The Parent Trap: illustrating the growing cost of childcare. Social Market Foundation, 2011.

110. Mulheirn, and Shorthouse, 2011.

111. Her Majesty's Revenue and Customs (HMRC), Working Tax Credit - Help with the costs of childcare, 2011. Available at: http://www.hmrc.gov.uk/leaflets/wtc5.pdf

112. Mulheirn, and Shorthouse, 2011.

113. OECD Family Database, OECD, 2011.

114. After benefits, for a couple where both earn the average wage. Data from 2008. OECD, Doing Better for Families, 2011.

115. Blackburn, P., Children's Nurseries UK Market Report 2012, Laing and Buisson, Ltd. 11th ed, July 2012.

116. Blackburn, Children's Nurseries UK Market Report 2012, July 2012.

117. Blackburn, Children's Nurseries UK Market Report 2012, July 2012.

118. Daycare Trust, Summary of the Childcare Costs Survey 2011.

119. Data for 2012, for 25 hours per week, unless otherwise specified. Daycare Trust and Children in Scotland, The Scottish Childcare Lottery, 2012.

120. Blackburn, Children's Nurseries UK Market Report 2012, July 2012.

121. Daycare Trust and Children in Scotland, The Scottish Childcare Lottery, 2012.

122. Department for Education, Provision for Children Under Five Years of Age in England, January 2012.

123. Smith et al, 2012.

124. Formal ECEC in the English statistics includes: nursery schools, nursery classes, reception classes, day nurseries, playgroups, breakfast clubs, after-school clubs, childminders, nannies and babysitters. The figures here are slightly higher than what would be the case with the OECD definition of formal ECEC provision according to which nannies and babysitters count as informal, not formal ECEC. However, this form of ECEC only makes up 2% of total childcare use in England.

125. Informal includes: family (grandparents, older siblings, etc.), friends, neighbours.

126. The difference in overall participation in free early education and full 15 hour take-up can be explained by the fact that not all three and four year olds are attending ECEC settings every day of the week. For example, a three year old who is in a nursery class four days a week will usually only take up 12 hours of the 15 hour entitlement (three hours per day).

127. Department for Education, Provision for Children Under Five Years of Age in England, January 2012.

128. Following the OECD definition adopted in this report, nannies are here counted as informal ECEC.

129. Smith et al., 2012.

130. Moss and Bennet, 2010.

131. Moss and Bennett, 2010.

132. Brind et al., 2012

133. Brind et al., 2012

134. Brind et al., 2012

135. Brind et al., 2012.

136. Moss and Bennet, 2010, p. 9-11.

137. Data for 2009. Eurostat.

138. Data for 2007. OECD Family Database, OECD, Paris, 2011. Available at: www.oecd.org/social/family/database

139. Bergqvist, C., and Nyberg, A., Den svenska barnomsorgsmodellen - kontinuitet och förändring under 1990-talet [The Swedish child-care model: continuity and change during the 1990s]. In Statens Offentliga Utredningar, Välfärdstjänster i omvandling [Welfare services in transition], Stockholm: SOU 2001:52, p.243.

140. Naumann, I., Childcare politics in the Swedish and German welfare states from the 1950s to the 1970s, PhD thesis, European University Institute, Florence, 2006.

141. Swedish Ministry of Education, Förskolan i politiken. Om intentioner och beslut bakom den svenska förskolans framväxt, report by Barbara M. Korpi, Stockholm, 2006; Naumann, I., 'Towards the Marketisation of Early Childhood Education and care? Recent Developments in Sweden and the United Kingdom', Journal of Nordic Social Research, No. 2, 2011.

142. Sveriges officiella statistik, 2012. Available at: http://www.skolverket.se/statistik-och-analys.

143. Data from 2011. Eurostat.

144. Data from 2010. OECD Family Database, 2011.

145. Moss, P. and Bennett, J., 'Country profile: Sweden,' Children in Scotland, Working for inclusion: an overview of European Union early years services and their workforce, 2010.

146. Data from 2008. OECD Family Database, 2011.

147. Data from 2008. OECD Family Database, 2011.

148. Data from 2010. OECD, 'Country statistical profile: Sweden,' Country statistical profiles: Key tables from OECD, 2011.

149. These statistics are the most recent available at the time of writing, but may not represent the same year, which is indicated in the text above.

150. Data from 2011. Eurostat.

151. All part-time data from 2011. OECD Family Database, 2011.

152. Data from 2011. Eurostat. Data on parental employment is drawn from the European Labour Force Survey (EU-LFS), which is a large household sample survey collected by national statistical agencies. This is the most up-do date micro-level data available for parental employment patterns; EU-LFS data does not differentiate employment rates of parents with children younger than three, or between three and five.

153. Data from 2011. Eurostat.

154. These statistics are the most recent available at the time of writing, but may not represent the same year, which is indicated in the text above.

155. Data from 2010. OECD, 'Country statistical profile: Sweden,' Country statistical profiles: Key tables from OECD, 2011.

156. Data for 2009. Eurostat

157. Data for 2007. OECD Family Database, 2011.

158. The following material is extracted from the EU's Mutual Information System on Social Protection (MISSOC) database, July 2011. Information for Sweden available at: http://ec.europa.eu/employment_social/empl_portal/SSRinEU/Your%20social%20security%20rights%20in%20Sweden_en.pdf

159. These statistics are the most recent available at the time of writing, but may not represent the same year, which is indicated in the text above.

160. This section draws heavily from the work of Haas, L., Duvander, A-Z, Chronholm, A., 'Sweden.' In P. Moss (ed), International Review of Leave Policies and Related Research 2012, International Network on Leave Policies and Research, June 2012.

161. Duvander, A-Z. and Lammi-Taskula, J., 'Parental leave.' In I. Gislason and G. Eydal (eds.), Parental leave, childcare and gender equality in the Nordic countries, Copenhagen: Nordic Council of Ministers, 2011. Available at: http://www.norden.org/en/publications/publikationer/2011-562

162. Skolverket, Barn och personal i förskolan hösten 2010, Dnr 71-2011:14, 2011.

163. Skolverket, Pedagogisk omsorg, 2012. Available at: www.skolverket.se/statistik-och-analys.

164. Skolverket, Barn och personal i förskolan hösten 2010. Dnr 71-2011:14, 2011.

165. This figure excludes open preschools as there is no data available for the number of children using these services.

166. Data for 2011. Sveriges officiella statistik, 2012.

167. Data for 2011. Sveriges officiella statistik, 2012.

168. Data for 2011. Sveriges officiella statistik, 2012.

169. Calculations are for a full-day all year round preschool place.

170. Fritidshem places are part-time during school term (i.e. provided around the school day), but are offered on a full-day basis during school holidays.

171. The differences in costs to the municipalities towards places in public preschools (SEK 123,600) and independent preschool centres (SEK 108,300) is explained by the fact that costs for private providers only include running costs.

172. Skolverket, Avgiftsnivåer för maxtaxa, 2012. Available at: http://www.skolverket.se/fortbildning-och-bidrag/statsbidrag/maxtaxa/avgiftsnivaer-for-maxtaxa-1.9183

173. Sveriges offieciella statistik, 2012.

174. Sveriges officiella statistik, 2012.

175. Data from 2007/2008. OECD Family Database, 2011.

176. Skolverket, Öppen förskola år 2011, 2012; Annan pedagogisk verksamhet, 2012. Available at: http://www.skolverket.se/statistik-och-analys; Moss and Bennett, 2010, p. 12.

177. Sveriges officiella statistik, 2012.

178. Skolverket, Tio år efter förskolereformen, Stockholm, 2008.

179. See Moss and Bennett, 2010.

180. Skolverket, Tio år efter förskolereformen, Stockholm, 2008.

181. Skolverket, Efterfrågade mått, 2012. Available at: http://www.skolverket.se/statistik-och-analys/statistik/2.4317/efterfragade-matt-1.127392

182. Regeringskansliet, Preschool, 2012. Available at: http://www.sweden.gov.se/sb/d/7172; See also the Preschool Curriculum (Läroplan för förskolan, Lpfö), 1998.

183. See the Preschool Curriculum (Läroplan för förskolan, Lpfö), 1998, and the amended Preschool Curriculum 2010.

184. See Moss and Bennett, 2010, p 17.

185. Sveriges officiella statistik, Skolverket, 2012.

186. Sveriges officiella statistik, Skolverket, 2011.

187. See: http://allastudier.se/jobb-o-l%C3%B6n/?q=l%C3%A4rare+f%C3%B6rskola.

188. 'Employment developments in childcare services for school-age children: Sweden' European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions, 2006.

189. Sveriges officiella statistik, Skolverket.

190. Haas, L., Duvander, A-Z, Chronholm, A., 'Sweden.' In P. Moss (ed.) International Review of Leave Policies and Related Research 2012, International Network on Leave Policies and Research, 2012.

191. We gratefully acknowledge the advice and support from Kirsti Rudbeck Roege and colleagues, Danish Ministry for Children and Education, for this chapter.

192. OECD, 'Denmark,' Starting Strong: Early Childhood Education and Care, OECD, Paris, 2001.

193. Wollons, R. L., (ed). Kindergartens and cultures: the global diffusion of an idea, New Haven, CT, Yale University Press, 2000

194. Borchorst, Anette, 'Danish Child-Care Policies within Path - Timing, Sequence, Actors and Opportunity Structures.' In K. Scheiwe and H. Willekens (eds.) Child Care and Preschool Development in Europe. Institutional Perspectives, Palgrave Macmillan, 2009, pp. 126-141.

195. Data from 2012. Danish national statistics. Available at http://www.statistikbanken.dk

196. Data from 2010. Eurostat.

197. Data from 2011. Danish national statistics.

198. Data from 2011. Danish national statistics.

199. Data from 2011. Danish national statistics.

200. Data from 2010. OECD, 'Country statistical profile: Denmark,' Country statistical profiles: Key tables from OECD, 2011.

201. Moss, P. and Bennett, J., 'Country profile: United Kingdom.' Children in Scotland, Working for inclusion: an overview of European Union early years services and their workforce, 2010, p.23.

202. These statistics are the most recent available at the time of writing, but may not represent the same year, which is indicated in the text above.

203. Data from 2011. Eurostat.

204. All part-time data from 2011. OECD Family Database, OECD, Paris, 2011. Available at: www.oecd.org/social/family/database

205. Data from 2010. OECD Family Database, 2011.

206. Data from 2011. Eurostat.

207. These statistics are the most recent available at the time of writing, but may not represent the same year, which is indicated in the text above.

208. Data from 2011. Eurostat.

209. European Commission, 'Denmark,' Eurypedia - European Encyclopaedia on National Education Systems, 2011.

210. European Commission, 'Denmark,' Eurypedia - European Encyclopaedia on National Education Systems, 2011.

211. Unless otherwise noted, this material is extracted from the EU's Mutual Information System on Social Protection (MISSOC) database, July 2011. Information for Denmark available at: http://ec.europa.eu/employment_social/empl_portal/SSRinEU/Your%20social%20security%20rights%20in%20Denmark_en.pdf

212. Data from 2010. OECD, 'Country statistical profile: Denmark,' Country statistical profiles: Key tables from OECD, 2011.

213. Data from 2009. Eurostat.

214. Data from 2007. OECD Family Database, 2011.

215. Data from 2008. OECD, OECD Education at a Glance, OECD, Paris, 2011.

216. Data from 2007. OECD Family Database, 2011.

217. Data from 2010. Eurostat.

218. Share of persons with an equivalised disposable income below the risk-of-poverty threshold (60 % of the national median equivalised disposable income) after social transfers. EU-SILC 2010.

219. Data from 2010. OECD, 'Country statistical profile: Denmark,' Country statistical profiles: Key tables from OECD, 2011.

220. These statistics are the most recent available at the time of writing, but may not represent the same year, which is indicated in the text above.

221. The majority of the information in this section comes from Rostgaard, T., 'Denmark.' In P. Moss (ed.) International Review of Leave Policies, 2012; Duvander, A-Z. and Lammi-Taskula, J. 'Parental leave.' Chapter 1 in I. Gislason and G. Eydal (eds.), Parental Leave, childcare and gender equality in the Nordic countries, Copenhagen: Nordic Council of Ministers, 2011. Available at: http://www.norden.org/en/publications/publikationer/2011-562

222. Olsen, B.M., Evaluering af den fleksible barselsorlov. Orlovsreglerne set fra forældres, kommuners og arbejdspladsers perspektiv [Evaluation of the flexible leave. Leave rights from the perspective of parents, municipalities and employers]. SFI 07: 29, 2007. Available at: http://www.sfi.dk/graphics/SFI/Pdf/Rapporter/2007/0729_Fleksibel%20Barselorlov.pdf

223. Danish Ministry for Children and Education, Optagelse i dagtilbud og pasningsgaranti, 2012. Available at: http://www.uvm.dk/Uddannelser-og-dagtilbud/Dagtilbudsomraadet/Fakta-om-dagtilbud/Optagelse-i-dagtilbud-og-pasningsgaranti

224. Personal Communication from Danish Ministry of Children and Education, October 2012.

225. Danish Ministry of Social Affairs and Integration, Day-care, after-school and club facilities, 2012. Available at: http://english.sm.dk/social-issues/children-and-youth/daycarefacilities/Sider/Start.aspx

226. Private childminders enter into an agreement with the local authority on whether the municipality refers children to the childminder, the childminder does it themself, or whether it takes place in a collaboration. Personal communication from Danish Ministry of Children and Education, October 2012.

227. Danish Ministry of Social Affairs and Integration, Day-care, after-school and club facilities, 2012.

228. Danish Ministry for Children and Education, Fakta om dagtilbud, 2012.

229. Danish Ministry for Children and Education, Fakta om dagtilbud, 2012.

230. European Commission, 'Denmark,' Eurypedia - European Encyclopaedia on National Education Systems, 2011.

231. Danish Ministry for Children and Education, Fakta om dagtilbud, 2012. Available at: http://uvm.dk/Uddannelser-og-dagtilbud/Dagtilbudsomraadet

232. Danish Ministry for Children and Education, Fakta om dagtilbud, 2012.

233. Danish national statistics, 2012.

234. Danish national statistics, 2012.

235. After benefits, for a couple where both earn the average wage. Data from 2008. OECD, Doing Better for Families, OECD, Paris, 2011.

236. Faktaark: Dagtilbud, 21.03.2011. Available at: http://www.kl.dk/Born-og-unge/Fakta-om-dagtilbud.

237. Moss, P. and Bennett, J., 'Country profile: Denmark.' Children in Scotland, Working for inclusion: an overview of European Union early years services and their workforce, 2010.

238. Danish Ministry of Social Affairs and Integration, Day-care, after-school and club facilities, 2012.

239. Danish Ministry for Children and Education, Tilskud til dagtilbudsplads og foraeldrebetaling, 2012; Communication from the Ministry for Children and Education, October 2012.

240. Danish Ministry of Social Affairs and Integration, Day-care, after-school and club facilities, 2012.

241. Fees may, however, be adjusted continuously over the year if budgets should change. Personal communication from the Ministry for Children and Education, October 2012.

242. Danish national statistics, 2012.

243. Danish Ministry of Social Affairs and Integration, Day-care, after-school and club facilities, 2012.

244. Danish national statistics, 2012.

245. Danish Ministry of Social Affairs and Integration, Day-care, after-school and club facilities, 2012.

Moss and Bennett, 2010.

247. Danish national statistics, 2012; own calculations - the national statistics database lists numbers of children enrolled per setting; they do not provide percentages.

248. Faktaark:Dagtilbud, 2011.

249. Danish national statistics, 2012.

250. Danish national statistics 2012.

251. Ministry of Social Affairs and Integration, Vejledning om dagtilbud, fritidshjem og klubtilbud, Copenhagen, 2009.

252. Danish Ministry of Social Affairs and Integration, Day-care, after-school and club facilities, 2012.

253. Ministry of Social Affairs and Integration, Vejledning om dagtilbud, fritidshjem og klubtilbud, Copenhagen, 2009.

254. Danish Ministry of Social Affairs and Integration, Day-care, after-school and club facilities, 2012.

255. The majority of information in this section comes from Moss and Bennett, 2010.

256. Moss and Bennett, 2010.

257. Moss and Bennett, 2010.

258. Moss and Bennett, 2010.

259. We gratefully acknowledge the advice and support from Tove Mogstad Slinde, Norwegian Ministry of Education and Research for this chapter.

260. Data from 2007. OECD Family Database, OECD, Paris, 2011. Available at: www.oecd.org/social/family/database

261. See also Ellingsaeter, A., 'Towards universal quality childcare: the Norwegian model.' In L. Gambaro, K. Stewart and J. Waldfogel (eds.) Equal Access to Childcare: Providing Quality Early Education and Childcare to Disadvantaged Families, Bristol: Policy Press, forthcoming

262. Ellingsaeter (forthcoming).

263. Government of Norway, 2005, Day Care Institution Act no. 64.

264. Data from 2011. Eurostat.

265. Data from 2012. Eurostat.

266. Data from 2010. Eurostat.

267. Data from 2010. OECD Family Database, 2011.

268. Data from 2008. OECD Family Database, 2011.

269. Data from 2008. OECD Family Database, 2011.

270. Data from 2010. OECD, 'Country statistical profile: Norway,' Country statistical profiles: Key tables from OECD, 2011.

271. Data from 2001. OECD Family Database, 2011.

272. These statistics are the most recent available at the time of writing, but may not represent the same year, which is indicated in the text above.

273. Data from 2011, Eurostat.

274. All part-time data from 2011. OECD Family Database, 2011.

275. Data from 2010. OECD Family Database, 2011.

276. Moafi, H. and Såheim Björkli, E., Barnefamiliers tilsynsordninger, hoesten 2010, Rapporter 34-2011, Statistics Norway: Oslo, 2011.

277. These statistics are the most recent available at the time of writing, but may not represent the same year, which is indicated in the text above.

278. Unless otherwise noted, this material is extracted from the EU's Mutual Information System on Social Protection (MISSOC) database, July 2011. Information for Norway available at: http://ec.europa.eu/employment_social/empl_portal/SSRinEU/Your%20social%20security%20rights%20in%20Norway_en.pdf

279. Data from 2010. OECD, 'Country statistical profile: Norway,' Country statistical profiles: Key tables from OECD, 2011.

280. Data from 2009. Eurostat.

281. Data from 2007. OECD Family Database, 2011.

282. Data from 2007. OECD Family Database, OECD, Paris, 2011. Available at: www.oecd.org/social/family/database

283. Data from 2010. Eurostat.

284. Share of persons with an equivalised disposable income below the risk-of-poverty threshold (60 % of the national median equivalised disposable income) after social transfers. EU-SILC 2010.

285. Data from 2010. OECD, 'Country statistical profile: Norway,' Country statistical profiles: Key tables from OECD, 2011.

286. These statistics are the most recent available at the time of writing, but may not represent the same year, which is indicated in the text above.

287. This section draws heavily from the work of Brandth, B. and Kvande, E., 'Norway.' In P. Moss (ed.) International Review of Leave Policies 2012, International Network on Leave Policies and Research, June 2012; Brandth, B. and Kvande, E. 'Norway: the making of the father's quota.' In S. Kamerman and P. Moss (eds.) The Politics of Parental Leave Policies, Policy Press: Bristol, 2009.

288. Danielsen, K. and Lappegård, T., 'Tid er viktig når barn blir født - om ulik bruk av lønnet fødselspermisjon, Samfunnsspeilet 5, Statistisk sentralbyra, 2003.

289. European Commission, 'Norway,' Eurypedia - European Encyclopaedia on National Education Systems, 2011.

290. European Commission, Eurypedia, 2011; The Kindergarten Act no. 64 of June 2005.

291. Moss, P. and Bennett, J., 'Norway.' Children in Scotland, Working for inclusion: an overview of European Union early years services and their workforce, 2010.

292. European Commission, Eurypedia, 2011.

293. European Commission, 2011.

294. Moffat and Såheim Björkli, Barnefamiliers tilsynsordningers, hoesten 2010, Statistics Norway, 2011; Norwegian official sources distinguish between public and private providers, but in general do not distinguish between for-profit and non-profit private providers.

295. Jacobsen, K. and Vollset, G. 'Publicly available and supported early education and care for all in Norway.' In E. Lloyd and H. Penn (eds.) Childcare markets: can they deliver an equitable service? Bristol: Policy Press, 2012. p.126.

296. Personal communication from Tove Mogstad Slinde, Ministry of Education and Research, October 2012.

297. Moss and Bennett, 2010.

298. European Commission, Eurypedia, 2011.

299. Communication from Tove Mogstad Slinde, Ministry of Education and Research.

300. Jacobsen, K. and Vollset, G., 'Publicly available and supported early education and care for all in Norway.' In E. Lloyd and H. Penn (eds.) Childcare Markets: Do They Deliver an Equitable Service? Bristol: The Policy Press, 2012, p. 119; Communication from Tove Mogstad Slinde, Ministry of Education and Research.

301. Moss and Bennett, 2010.

302. European Commission, Eurypedia, 2011.

303. Moss and Bennett, 2010.

304. After benefits, for a couple where both earn the average wage. Data from 2008. OECD, Doing Better for Families, 2011.

305. Personal communication from Maren Hegna, Norwegian Government; KOSTRA databank, Statistics Norway.

306. Moafi, H. and Såheim Björkli, E., Barnefamiliers tilsynsordninger, hoesten 2010, Statistisk sentralbyra, Statistics Norway: Oslo, 2011, p. 10. This survey provides the most recent data available on Norwegian ECEC, documents provided by Tove Mogstad Slinde, Ministry of Education and Research.

307. Moafi and Såheim Björkli, 2011, p. 5.

308. Moafi and Såheim Björkli, 2011, p. 10.

309. Moafi and Såheim Björkli, 2011, p. 64.

310. Data from December 2011. Statistics Norway, 2012. Available at: http://www.ssb.no

311. Data from December 2011. Statistics Norway, 2012.

312. EU-SILC data from 2010. Formal arrangements: preschool, centre-based out-of-school care, day care centre; Other arrangements: childminder in child's or provider's home, other family members, friends/neighbours.

313. EU-SILC data from 2010. Formal arrangements: preschool, centre-based out-of-school care, day care centre; Other arrangements: childminder in child's or provider's home, other family members, friends/neighbours.

314. Moafi and Såheim Björkli, 2011.

315. Moafi and Såheim Björkli, 2011, p. 20.

316. European Commission, Eurypedia, 2011.

317. European Commission, Eurypedia, 2011.

318. European Commission, Eurypedia, 2011.

319. European Commission, Eurypedia, 2011.

320. Moss and Bennett, 2010.

321. European Commission, Eurypedia, 2011.

322. Utdanningsdirektoratet, Utdanningsspeilet. Tall og analyse av grunnopplaerngen I Norge, Oslo, 2012, p.106.

323. European Commission, Eurypedia, 2011.

324. Utdanningsdirektoratet, Utdanningsspeilet. Tall og analyse av grunnopplaerngen I Norge, 2012, p. 109.

325. Utdanningsdirektoratet, Utdanningsspeilet. Tall og analyse av grunnopplaerngen I Norge, 2012, p.110.

326. See employment portal available at: http://www.jobbfeber.no.

327. Moss and Bennett, 2010.

328. Utdanningsdirektoratet, Utdanningsspeilet. Tall og analyse av grunnopplaerngen I Norge, 2012,.p. 113.

329. See Ellingsaeter (forthcoming).

330. Ministry of Children, Equality and Social Inclusion, 2012.

331. We gratefully acknowledge the advice and support from Nada Pozar Matijasic, Slovenian Ministry of Education, Science, Culture and Sport for this chapter.

332. Kaga, Y., Bennett, J. and Moss, P., Caring and Learning Together: A cross-national study on the integration of early childhood care and education within education, UNESCO, Paris, 2010.

333. Children in Europe,'The trailblazers: integrating "education and "care" in Scandinavia and Slovenia.' in Welcome to our world: early childhood education and care services for children under 3, Children in Scotland, 2012.

334. Kaga et al., 2010.

335. Moss, P. and Bennett, J., 'Country profile: Slovenia.' Children in Scotland, Working for inclusion: an overview of European Union early years services and their workforce, 2010.,p.37.

336. Data from 2011. Eurostat.

337. Data from 2012. Eurostat.

338. Data from 2010. Eurostat.

339. Data for 2011. Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia (SORS), 2012.

340. Data from 2008. OECD Family Database, OECD, Paris, 2011. Available at: www.oecd.org/social/family/database

341. Data for 2011. SORS, 2012.

342. Data for 2011. SORS, 2012.

343. Moss and Bennett, 2010.

344. These statistics are the most recent available at the time of writing, but may not represent the same year, which is indicated in the text above.

345. Data from 2011.Eurostat.

346. All part-time data from 2011. OECD Family Database, 2011.

347. OECD Family Database, 2011.

348. Data from 2011. Eurostat.

349. Data from 2011. Eurostat.

350. Data from 2010. OECD, 'Country statistical profile: Slovenia,' Country statistical profiles: Key tables from OECD, 2011.

351. Data for 2010. SORS, 2012.

352. Data from 2010. Eurostat.

353. Share of persons with an equivalised disposable income below the risk-of-poverty threshold (60 % of the national median equivalised disposable income) after social transfers. EU-SILC 2010.

354. OECD, 'Country statistical profile: Slovenia,' Country statistical profiles: Key tables from OECD, 2011.

355. SORS, Expenditure and receipt of social protection schemes, Slovenia, 2010 - provisional data, 2012.

356. Data for 2010. SORS, 2012.

357. Kaga et al., 2010.

358. These statistics are the most recent available at the time of writing, but may not represent the same year, which is indicated in the text above.

359. This material is extracted from the EU's Mutual Information System on Social Protection (MISSOC) database, July 2011. Information for Slovenia is available at: http://ec.europa.eu/employment_social/empl_portal/SSRinEU/Your%20social%20security%20rights%20in%20Slovenia_en.pdf

360. This section draws heavily from the work of Stropnik, N.,'Slovenia.' In Peter Moss (ed.) International Review of Leave Policies and Related Research 2012. International Network on Leave Policies and Research, 2012.

361. Personal communication from Nada Pozar Matijasic, Slovenian Ministry of Education, Science, Culture and Sport (SMESCS), October 2012.

362. Personal communication from Nada Pozar Matijasic, SMESCS, October 2012.

363. Personal communication from Nada Pozar Matijasic, SMESCS, October 2012.

364. Personal communication from Nada Pozar Matijasic, SMESCS, October 2012.

365. Eurydice, Early Childhood Education and Care in Europe: Tackling Social and Cultural Inequalities, Education, Audiovisual and Culture Executive Agency, 2009.

366. Moss and Bennett, 2010.

367. Children in Europe, 2012.

368. Moss and Bennett, 2010.

369. 'European Commission, 'Slovenia,' Eurypedia - European Encyclopaedia on National Education Systems, 2011.

370. Moss and Bennett, 2010.

371. Moss and Bennett, 2010.

372. Personal communication from Nada Pozar Matijasic, SMESCS, October 2012.

373. Moss and Bennett, 2010.

374. This is the official Slovenain translation; personal communication from Nada Pozar Matijasic, SMESCS, October 2012.

375. Education-based childminder is defined as being a preschool type of services, as provision falls under the same national curriculum as preschools. The childminder must meet the same conditions as the preschool teacher or assistant in preschool. The only difference is the place or the setting of the provision. In the case of the childminder it is carried out at their home; personal communication from Nada Pozar Matijasic, SMESCS, October 2012.

376. Celebic, T., 'Preschool education in Slovenia and its international comparison with the EU countries.' IMAD Working Paper Series No. 4, Vol. 21, 2012. (English summary)

377. SORS, Kindergartens, Slovenia, school year 2011/12 - final data, 2012.

378. Moss and Bennett, 2010.

379. SORS, Kindergartens, Slovenia, school year 2011/12 - final data, 2012.

380. Celebic, 2012.

381. Celebic, 2012.

382. Moss and Bennett, 2010.

383. European Commission, Eurypedia, 2011.

384. Moss and Bennett, 2010.

385. Children in Scotland, 2011.

386. Personal communication from Nada Pozar Matijasic, SMESCS, October 2012.

387. Celebic, 2012.

388. Celebic, 2012.

389. Basic Education Division, Ministry of Education, Science, Culture and Sport.

390. Basic Education Division, Ministry of Education, Science, Culture and Sport.

391. OECD, Doing Better for Families, OECD, Paris, 2011.

392. Moss and Bennett, 2010.

393. Celebic, 2012.

394. Moss and Bennett, 2010.

395. SORS, Kindergartens, Slovenia, school year 2011/12 - final data, 2012.

396. Celebic 2012, data from school year 2011/2012.

397. Eurydice, Early Childhood Education and Care in Europe: Tackling Social and Cultural Inequalities, Education, Audiovisual and Culture Executive Agency, 2009.

398. EU-SILC data for 2010. Eurostat.

399. SORS, Children's week, special release, 2008/2009.

400. SORS, Children's week, special release, 2008/2009.

401. SORS, Kindergartens, Slovenia, school year 2011/12 - final data, 2012; see also OECD Family Database, 2011. Neither the Ministry of Education, Science, Culture and Sport nor the Ministry of Labour, Family and Social Affairs were able to provide additional information on informal care use.

402. SORS, Kindergartens, Slovenia, school year 2011/12 - final data, 2012.

403. Moss and Bennett, 2010.

404. Eurydice, 'Early Childhood Education and Care in Europe: Tackling Social and Cultural Inequalities,' Education, Audiovisual and Culture Executive Agency, 2009.

405. European Commission, Eurypedia, 2011.

406. Moss and Bennett, 2010.

407. SORS, Kindergartens, Slovenia, school year 2011/12 - final data, 2012.

408. Celebic, 2012.

409. Children in Scotland, 2011.

410. During a transitional period from 2008-2013 secondary vocational level (3 years) is sufficient for childminders; personal communication from Nada Pozar Matijasic, Slovenian Ministry of Education, Science, Culture and Sport, 1 October 2012.

411. Kaga et al., 2010.

412. OECD, Starting Strong III - A Quality Toolbox for Early Childhood Education and Care, OECD, Paris, 2012.

413. Moss and Bennett, 2010; European Commission, Eurypedia, 2011; Kaga et al. 2010.

414. Moss and Bennett, 2010.

415. Data from 2008. OECD, OECD Education at a Glance, OECD, Paris, 2011.

416. Data from 2007. OECD Family Database, OECD, Paris, 2011. Available at: www.oecd.org/social/family/database

417. Fagnani, J., 'Equal access to quality care: Lessons from France on providing high quality and affordable childcare and early education.' In L. Gambaro, K. Stewart and J. Waldfogel (eds.) Equal Access to Childcare: Providing Quality Early Education and Childcare to Disadvantaged Families, Bristol: Policy Press, forthcoming.

418. Fagnani, J., (forthcoming).

419. Fagnani, J., (forthcoming).

420. European Commission, 'France,' Eurypedia - European Encyclopaedia on National Education Systems, 2011.

421. Data from 2011. Eurostat.

422. Data from 2012. Eurostat.

423. Data from 2010. Eurostat.

424. Data from 2010. OECD Family Database, 2011.

425. Data from 2008. OECD Family Database, 2011.

426. Data from 2006. OECD Family Database, 2011.

427. Data from 2010. Data from 2010. OECD, 'Country statistical profile: France,' Country statistical profiles: Key tables from OECD, 2011.

428. Moss, P. and Bennett, J., 'Country profile: France,' Children in Scotland, Working for inclusion: an overview of European Union early years services and their workforce, 2010, p.23.

429. These statistics are the most recent available at the time of writing, but may not represent the same year, which is indicated in the text above.

430. Eurostat.

431. All part-time data from 2011. OECD Family Database, 2011.

432. Eurostat.

433. Unless otherwise noted the following information is from the EU's Mutual Information System on Social Protection (MISSOC) database, July 2011. Information for France available at: http://ec.europa.eu/employment_social/missoc/db/public/compareTables.do?lang=en

434. Data from 2010. OECD, 'Country statistical profile: France,' Country statistical profiles: Key tables from OECD, 2011.

435. Data from 2009. Eurostat.

436. Data from 2007. OECD Family Database, 2011.

437. Data from 2008. OECD, OECD Education at a Glance, OECD, Paris, 2011.

438. Data from 2007. OECD Family Database, 2011.

439. Data from 2010. Eurostat.

440. Share of persons with an equivalised disposable income below the risk-of-poverty threshold (60 % of the national median equivalised disposable income) after social transfers. EU-SILC 2010.

441. Data from 2010. OECD, 'Country statistical profile: France,' Country statistical profiles: Key tables from OECD, 2011.

442. These statistics are the most recent available at the time of writing, but may not represent the same year, which is indicated in the text above.

443. This section draws heavily from the work of Fagnani, J. and Boyer, D., 'France.' In P. Moss (ed.) International Review of Leave Policies, 2012 International Network on Leave Policies and Research, June 2012.

444. European Commission, 'France,' Eurypedia - European Encyclopaedia on National Education Systems, 2011.

445. European Commission, Eurypedia, 2011; Moss and Bennett, 2010.

446. European Commission, Eurypedia, 2011.

447. European Commission, Eurypedia, 2011.

448. Moss and Bennett, 2010.

449. Moss and Bennett, 2010.

450. European Commission, Eurypedia, 2011.

451. Moss and Bennett, 2010.

452. 'European Commission, Eurypedia, 2011.

453. Borderies, F., 'L'offre d'accueil des enfants de moins de trois ans en 2010', études et résultats, no. 803, juin 2012.

454. Moss and Bennett, 2010; European Commission, Eurypedia, 2011.

455. Borderies, 2012.

456. Fagnani (forthcoming).

457. OECD, OECD country note: Early Childhood Education and Care Policy in France, OECD, Paris, 2004.

458. Moss and Bennett, 2010.

459. Borderies, 2012.

460. Moss and Bennett, 2010.

461. Fagnani, J., (forthcoming)

462. OECD, OECD country note: Early Childhood Education and Care Policy in France, OECD, Paris, 2004.

463. OECD, Starting Strong: Early Childhood Education and Care, OECD, Paris, 2006.

464. After benefits, for a couple where both earn the average wage. Data from 2008. OECD, Doing Better for Families, OECD, Paris, 2011.

465. Caisse nationale allocations familiales (CNAF): L'accueil du jeune enfant en 2010. Donnes statistiques. Observatoire national de la petite enfance, Paris.

466. CNAF, L'affueil du jeune enfant en 2010.

467. CNAF, L'affueil du jeune enfant en 2010.

468. CNAF, L'affueil du jeune enfant en 2010.

469. European Commission, Eurypedia, 2011.

470. Caisse Nationale des Allocations Familiales (CNAF), La politique petite enfance vue par les communes, Paris, L'e-ssentiel, no 121, 2012. Available at: http://www.caf.fr/sites/default/files/cnaf/Documents/Dser/essentiel/121-_cej.pdf

471. EU-SILC data from 2010, Eurostat. Formal arrangements: preschool/compulsory school, centre-based out-of-school care, day care centre; Other arrangements: childminder in child's or provider's home, other family members, friends/neighbours.

472. Moss and Bennett, 2010.

473. Personal communication with Prof. Jean Fagnani, September 2012.

474. Fagnani (forthcoming).

475. Moss and Bennett, 2010.

476. European Commission, Eurypedia, 2011.

477. Moss and Bennett, 2010.

478. Moss and Bennett, 2010.

479. European Commission, Eurypedia, 2011.

480. Moss and Bennett, 2010.

481. Moss and Bennett, 2010.

482. Moss and Bennett, 2010.

483. Moss and Bennett, 2010.; Fagnani, J. and Boyer, D., 'France.' In P. Moss (ed.) International Review of Leave Policies 2012 International Network on Leave Policies and Research, June 2012; Fagnani, J. and Math, A., 'France: Gender Equality a Pipe Dream?' In S. Kamerman and P. Moss (eds) The Politics of Parental Leave Policies, Policy Press: Bristol, 2009.

484. European Commission, Eurypedia, 2011.

485. We gratefully acknowledge the advice and support from Monique de Koning, Dutch Ministry of Education, for this chapter.

486. Ministry of Health, Welfare and Sport and Ministry of Education, Culture and Science, Early childhood education and care policy in the Netherlands, The Hague: Ministry of Health, Welfare and Sport and Ministry of Education, Culture and Science, 2000.

487. OECD, Starting Strong II: Early childhood education and care, OECD, Paris, 2006; Noailly, J., Visser, S. and Grout, P., The Impact of Market Forces on the Provision of Childcare: Insights from the 2005 Childcare Act in the Netherlands. CPB Memorandum 176.The Hague: CPB, 2007; Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis, available at: www.cpb.nl; Plantenga, J., 'Local providers and loyal parents: competition and consumer choice in the Dutch childcare market.' In E. Lloyd and H. Penn (eds.) Childcare markets - Can they deliver an equitable service? Bristol: The Policy Press, 2012, p 63-77.

488. Data from 2011. Eurostat.

489. Data from 2012. Eurostat.

490. Data from 2012. Eurostat.

491. Data for 2011.Statistical Office of the Netherlands (CBS), 2012.

492. Data for 2011. CBS, 2012.

493. Data for 2011. CBS, 2012.

494. Data for 2011. CBS, 2012.

495. Data for 2010. CBS, 2012.

496. Data from 2010. OECD, 'Country statistical profile: Netherlands,' Country statistical profiles: Key tables from OECD, 2011.

497. Moss, P. and Bennett, J., 'Netherlands.' Children in Scotland, Working for inclusion: an overview of European Union early years services and their workforce, 2010, p.23.

498. These statistics are the most recent available at the time of writing, but may not represent the same year, which is indicated in the text above.

499. All part-time data from 2011. OECD Family Database, OECD, Paris, 2011. Available at: www.oecd.org/social/family/database

500. Data from 2010. OECD Family Database, 2011.

501. These statistics are the most recent available at the time of writing, but may not represent the same year, which is indicated in the text above.

502. Eurostat, 2011.

503. CBS, Ex post analyse effect kinderopvangtoeslag op arbeidsparticipatie, The Hague: Centraal Plan Bureau, 2011.

504. The following material is extracted from the EU's Mutual Information System on Social Protection (MISSOC) database, July 2011. Information for the Netherlands available at: http://ec.europa.eu/employment_social/empl_portal/SSRinEU/Your%20social%20security%20rights%20in%20Netherlands_en.pdf

505. Data from 2010. OECD, 'Country statistical profile: Netherlands,' Country statistical profiles: Key tables from OECD, 2011.

506. Data from 2009. Eurostat.

507. Data from 2007. OECD Family Database, 2011.

508. Data from 2008. OECD, OECD Education at a Glance, OECD, Paris, 2011.

509. Data from 2007. OECD Family Database, 2011.

510. These statistics are the most recent available at the time of writing, but may not represent the same year, which is indicated in the text above.

511. Data from 2010. Eurostat.

512. Share of persons with an equivalised disposable income below the risk-of-poverty threshold (60 % of the national median equivalised disposable income) after social transfers. EU-SILC 2010.

513. Data from 2010. OECD, 'Country statistical profile: Netherlands,' Country statistical profiles: Key tables from OECD, 2011.

514. CBS, Kinderopvang in Kaart ('Mapping Childcare'), The Hague: CPB, 2011, p. 23.

515. This section draws heavily from the work of Groenendijk, H. and Keuzenkamp, S., 'The Netherlands.' In P. Moss (ed.) International Review of Leave Policies 2012, International Network on Leave Policies and Research, June 2012; and Plantenga, J. and Remery, C., 'The Netherlands: bridging labour and care.' In S. Kamerman and P. Moss (eds.) The Politics of Parental Leave Policies, Bristol: Policy Press, 2009.

516. Personal communication with Hanne Groenendijk, August 2012.

517. 'National monitor pre- and early education,' p. 13. Letter to the House of Representatives, Wetsvoorstel Ontwikkelingskansen door kwaliteit en educatie [Parliamentary proposal on Development chances through quality and education], 19 December 2008.

518. OECD, Starting Strong II: Early childhood education and care, OECD, Paris, 2006, p. 387

519. 'National monitor pre- and early education,' 2008, p. 13.

520. Letter by the Minister of Education, Culture and Sciences to the Chair of the House of Representatives (16 March 2012) Primair Onderwijs ('Primary Education'), p. 7.

521. Letter by the Minister of Education, Culture and Sciences to the Chair of the House of Representatives (16 March 2012) Primair Onderwijs ('Primary Education'), p. 7.

522. European Commission, 'Netherlands,' Eurypedia - European Encyclopaedia on National Education Systems, 2011.

523. Plantenga, J., 'Local providers and loyal parents: competition and consumer choice in the Dutch childcare market.' In E. Lloyd and H. Penn (eds.) Childcare markets - Can they deliver an equitable service? Bristol: The Policy Press, 2012.

524. 'Mapping Childcare,' 2011, p. 6

525. European Commission, Eurypedia, 2011.

526. Child care subsidy, Available at: http://www.rijksoverheid.nl/onderwerpen/kinderopvang/vormen-van-kinderopvang

527. European Commission, Eurypedia, 2011.

528. European Commission, Eurypedia, 2011.

529. 'National monitor pre- and early school education,' 2008, page 5.

530 Plantinga, M., Plantenga, J. and Siegers, J., (2010) 'The relation between market forces and employee motivation: consequences of the introduction of market forces in the Dutch childcare sector,' European Sociological Review, vol 26(4): p. 401-414.

531. Plantenga, J. Het Kind en de Rekening. Inaugural Lecture. Groningen: University of Groningen, 2002.

532. 'Mapping Childcare,' 2011, p. 10.

533. CPB, Een Analyse van de Groei van de Formele Kinderopvang in het Recente Verleden and in de Nabije Toekomst. CPB Notitie, The Hague: Centraal Plan Bureau, 2008.

534. Schonewille, B. Wat is VVE. Wat is de Effectiviteit ervan en onder welke Condities is VVE Effectief? Utrecht: SARDES, 2004.

535. 'Mapping Childcare,' 2011.

536. 'Mapping Childcare,' 2011.p. 6.

537. 'Mapping Childcare,' 2011, p. 6.

538. 'Mapping Childcare,' 2011, p. 9.

539. 'Mapping Childcare,' 2011, p. 8.

540. Penn, H. And Lloyd, E. (in press) Childcare costs, London: Child Wellbeing Research Centre on behalf of DFE.

541. De Weerd, M. en Paulussen-Hoogeboom, M.C. (2012) Ontwikkelingen in de omvang en de gemeentelijke financiering van het Peuterspeelzaalwerk, Eindrapport. Amsterdam: Regioplan Beleidsraad.

542. 'Recht op kinderopvangtoeslag,' Available at: http://www.rijksoverheid.nl/onderwerpen/kinderopvang/recht-op-kinderopvangtoeslag

543. Proposal of Law: Amendment of the rules regarding the Parental Contribution to Preschool education in playschools ('Wetsvoorstel wijziging regeling ouderbijdrage voorschoolse educatie peuterspeelzaal'). Available at: http://www.rijksoverheid.nl/documenten-en-publicaties/kamerstukken/2012/01/17/wetsvoorstel-wijziging-regeling-ouderbijdrage-voorschoolse-educatie-peuterspeelzaal.html

544. See http://www.noord.amsterdam.nl/3746/Peuterspeelzalen
(http://www.noord.amsterdam.nl/3746/Peuterspeelzalen).

545.See http://www.denhaag.nl/home/bewoners/to/Peuterspeelzalen.htm
(http://www.denhaag.nl/home/bewoners/to/Peuterspeelzalen.htm).

546. This figure excludes the local authority budget directed to play groups for the basic provision. Personal communication from Monique de Koning, Dutch Ministry of Education, October 2012

547. 'Mapping Childcare,' 2011, p. 23.

548. 'Mapping Childcare,' 2011, p. 23.

549. 'Mapping Childcare,' 2011, p. 23.

550. 'Mapping Childcare,' 2011, p.23-24.

551. 'Mapping Childcare,' 2011, p.24. See table 2. These numbers cover the whole of the Netherlands.

552. 'Mapping Childcare,' 2011, p.8.

553. 'Mapping Childcare,' 2011, p.10.

554. 'Mapping Childcare,' 2011, p.10.

555. Ministerie van Sociale Zaken en Werkgelegenheid, Informatiesheet maatregelen kinderopvang - kinderopvangtoeslag, Den Haag: SZW, 2011.

556. Mapping Childcare, page 10.

557. Mapping Childcare, page 10.

558. National monitor pre- and early school education, 2008, p. 5; personal communication from Monique de Koning, Dutch Ministry of Education, October 2012; see also 'Development Opportunities Through Quality and Education' Act 2010.

559. 'Mapping Childcare,' 2011,

560. Daycare Trust with Eva Lloyd, Childminding in the Netherlands, policy briefing, London: Daycare Trust, 2012.

561. European Commission, Eurypedia, 2011.

562. Minister van Sociale Zaken en Werkgelegenheid, 2011.

563. Lloyd, E. (2010 unpublished) A brief comparison of recent childcare market developments in England and the Netherlands. London: UEL.

564. Lloyd, E. and Penn, H. (2010) 'Why do childcare markets fail? Comparing England and the Netherlands,' Public Policy Research, vol 17(1), pp 42-48.

565. Inspectie van het Onderwijs, 2012.

566. OECD, Starting Strong II: Early childhood education and care, OECD, Paris, 2006, p.387.

567. van der Windt, W., Smeets, R.C.K.H. and Arnold, E.J.E., RegioMarge 2008 - De Arbeidsmarkt van Verpleegkundigen, Verzorgenden en Sociaalagogen 2008 - 2012. Utrecht: Prismant, 2008.

568. Bettendorf, L.J.H., Jongen, E.L.W. en Muller, P., Childcare subsidies and labour supply: evidence from a large Dutch reform, The Hague: CPB - Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis, 2012.

569. European Union Parliament website. Lisbon European Council 23 and 24 March Presidency Conclusion, 2000. Available at: http://www.consilium.europa.eu/uedocs/cms_data/docs/pressdata/en/ec/00100-r1.en0.htm

570. European Commission, Implementation of the Barcelona objectives concerning childcare facilities for preschool-age children, COM(2008) 638 final; SEC(2008)2597, 2008.

571. See e.g. Heckman, J. and Kreuger, A., Inequality in America: What role for human capital policies, MIT Press: Boston, 2004; OECD, PISA 2009 results Vol2: Overcoming Social Background, 2010.

572. European Commission, Communication from the Commission: Early Childhood Education and Care: Providing all our children with the best start for the world of tomorrow, 2011. Available at: http://ec.europa.eu/education/school-education/doc/childhoodcom_en.pdf

573. European Commission, 2011, p. 2.

574. European Commission, 2011, p. 3.

575. For example, the EU recommendation draws on extensive work by the OECD, e.g. the Starting Strong series; Babies and Bosses series; and OECD Doing better for children, 2009.

576. Formal childcare arrangements include: education at preschool or equivalent, or at compulsory school, care in a day care centre or at centre-based services for out-of-school hours.

577. EU-SILC does not differentiate between UK nations.

578. Plantenga, J. and Remery, J., The Provision of Childcare Services: A comparative review of 30 European countries, European Communities: Brussels, 2009, p. 31.

579. European Commission, 2011.

580. See European Commission Network on Childcare, Quality targets in services for young children. Brussels: European Equal Opportunities Unit, 1996. These recommendations were not officially adopted by the European Commission.

581. After benefits, for a couple where both earn the average wage. Data from 2008.

582. Data for 2011. For all adults age 20-49. Part-time work is defined according to individual response except in the Netherlands and Norway where part-time refers to fewer than 35 hours usually worked per week.

583. Eurostat data for Norway is not available. These figures were measured separately for mothers of children age one to two, age three to five and age six to nine. Moafi, H. and Såheim Björkli, E., Barnefamiliers tilsynsordninger, hoesten 2010, Rapporter 34-2011, Statistics Norway: Oslo, 2011.

584. Data for 2011. For all adults age 20-49. Part-time work is defined according to individual response except in the Netherlands and Norway where part-time refers to fewer than 35 hours usually worked per week.

585. Eurostat data for Norway is not available. These figures were measured separately for mothers of children age one to two, age three to five and age six to nine. Moafi, H. and Såheim Björkli, E., Barnefamiliers tilsynsordninger, hoesten 2010, Rapporter 34-2011, Statistics Norway: Oslo, 2011.


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