Publication - Publication

Developing the young workforce: equality impact assessment report

Published: 14 Dec 2017

This equality impact assessment report reflects on the progress of the programme three years in.

36 page PDF

444.8 kB

36 page PDF

444.8 kB

Contents
Developing the young workforce: equality impact assessment report
Stage 2: Data and evidence gathering, involvement and consultation

36 page PDF

444.8 kB

Stage 2: Data and evidence gathering, involvement and consultation

Include here the results of your evidence gathering (including framing exercise), including qualitative and quantitative data and the source of that information, whether national statistics, surveys or consultations with relevant equality groups.

Characteristic

Evidence gathered and

Strength/quality of evidence

Source

(Data source used for the Wood Commission Report)

Data gaps identified and action taken

AGE

The life chances of young people (16-24) – There's no doubt that the first five years of life lay down the foundations for future success. But we also now know

that brain plasticity lasts well into early adulthood. Increasing dependence on financial support from parents at this age increases the likelihood of intergenerational poverty. And research shows that unemployment during this period can have a significant impact on future earnings potential.

The poverty rate for young adults (16-29) in Scotland in 2015/16 was higher than for other groups of adults. Younger households are more likely than older households to not manage well financially, to have no savings and to have much lower wealth. To some extent, this is to be expected at this life stage: younger people tend to have lower earnings, as they are more likely to be in entry level jobs, and they have also simply had less time to accumulate wealth.

The Wage Scar from Youth Unemployment, Paul Gregg and Emma Tominey (2004)

Independent Advisor on Poverty and Inequality: "Shifting the Curve - A Report to the First Minister", 20 Jan 2016

Independent Advisor on Poverty and Inequality: "The Life Chances of Young People in Scotland: A Report to the First Minister "

30 Jun 2017

DISABILITY

Young people with disabilities are more likely to be offered a limited range of education and training opportunities and ultimately are more likely to experience significant periods of unemployment.

Evidence demonstrates that young people with a disability have a similar level of career aspiration at the age of 16 to other young people at the same age. By the time they are 26, they are nearly 4 times as likely to be unemployed.

Like all young people, careers advice and work experience for young people with disabilities is incredibly important. However those we have met who work with young people with disabilities have reported that this is often not a priority.

Young people with disabilities often experience disjointed journeys through education and employment. While there is a requirement to plan transitions from the age of 14, the follow up implementation is often characterised by a lack of focus on employment outcomes and fragmented support.

Many of those we have spoken to have reported that young people with disabilities are often presented with post-school opportunities which don't support the young person's longer term employment aspirations and which don't prepare them for employment.

The learner journeys of young people with disabilities are often disjointed due to barriers which don't take account of the needs of the young person.

Office for Disability Issues (2012), "Making it happen: fulfilling potential"

Little (2012), "Creating an inclusive apprenticeship offer"

Miller (2012), "Good practice evaluation of the diversity in apprenticeships pilots"

BIS (2012), "Creating an inclusive apprenticeship offer for learners with learning difficulties or disabilities"

Scottish Government (2013), Disability Evidence Review

The Equality Challenge Unit (2013), "Equality in colleges in Scotland"

Scottish Government (2013), "Summary statistics for attainment, leaver destinations and health living no.3"

EHRC (2013) "Modern Apprenticeships: Equality and the economy"

WISE (2013) "How modern is the modern apprenticeship?"

Scottish Transitions Forum (2013) "Principles of good transitions"

Inclusion Scotland (2012) "Destinations of Disabled School Leavers 2011/12" briefing paper

Stakeholder views gathered: STUC; Scottish Transitions Forum; Glasgow Disability Alliance; Enable Scotland; EHRC; Inclusion Scotland; Autism Network Scotland; Glasgow City Council

Skills Development Scotland - Equalities Action Plan for Modern Apprenticeships (2016)

Skills Development Scotland –

Equality action plan – Year 1 update:

For Modern Apprenticeships in Scotland (2017)

Skills Development Scotland - Modern Apprenticeship Statistics

Full Year Report (2016/17, 2015/2016)

SEX

Young people continue to make choices which conform to gender stereotypes which in turn dictate the sort of occupations they go into. This applies to both young women and young men. However over a number of decades we have seen significant improvements, in the gender balance across a number of occupations and professions.

Subject choice is a key determinant to the occupational options young people will have open to them after they leave education. Young people will often make their choices against a sophisticated range of background factors relating to confidence and external expectations.

By the time young people leave school and move into vocational education and training, it is often too late to influence the choices they make. Without the guidance of teachers and others providing support, they will often favour what they perceive as safer options in line with established stereotypes, even if this is at their own longer term expense.

While the gender balance within Modern Apprenticeships has improved in recent years, gender segregation within some frameworks remains very significant. In a number of areas this is replicated in college education. Ultimately this impacts heavily on the early and longer term labour market outcomes of young people and on the volume and diversity of talent available to employers.

Miller (2012), "Good practice evaluation of the diversity in apprenticeships pilots"

EHRC (2013) "Modern Apprenticeships: Equality & the Economy"

WISE (2013) "How modern is the Modern Apprenticeship?"

Royal Society of Edinburgh (2012), Women in STEM?

Construction skills (2011) "Getting in, getting on…in construction"

Touchstone (2013) "The Gender jobs Split"

Stakeholder views gathered:

Engender; Scottish Resource Centre for Women in STEM; Close the Gap; Scottish Women's Convention; Strategic Group on Women and Work; EHRC; STUC

Skills Development Scotland - Equalities Action Plan for Modern Apprenticeships (2016)

Skills Development Scotland –

Equality action plan – Year 1 update:

For Modern Apprenticeships in Scotland (2017)

Skills Development Scotland - Modern Apprenticeship Statistics

Full Year Report (2016/17, 2015/2016)

PREGNANCY AND MATERNITY

The restricted curriculum available for home schooled mothers was found to be an issue.

Almost half of all pregnant women experience some form of disadvantage at work as a result of becoming pregnant or taking maternity leave.

Childcare costs can be a significant proportion of household income.

Scottish Government (2013), Pregnancy and Maternity Evidence Review

Scottish Government (2017), Pregnancy and Parenthood in Young People Strategy

GENDER REASSIGNMENT

Scottish Transgender Alliance (2008), Transgender experiences in Scotland"

Scottish Transgender Alliance (2010)Public bodies and the public sector duties relating to transsexual and transgender people: Report of findings and case studies

Scottish Transgender Alliance –

Being Trans in the European Union 2014

SEXUAL ORIENTATION

Bullying at school, college and university can have long term effects on confidence and impact on many areas of life including employment.

Discrimination can negatively impact on employment opportunities.

Young people did not feel that being LGBT had a direct impact on their early career choices, more of an indirect impact.

Stereotypes around sexual orientation can impact on early career choice, with stereotypes around gender likely to compound the effect. Young LGBT people report they are often pulled towards LGBT "friendly" industries and occupations.

Role models are seen to have a positive effect.

LGBT Youth Scotland (2012) "Life in Scotland for LGBT young people – education report"

SDS (2011) "Impact of sexual orientation on career management skills and career progression"

RACE

As a single group young people from BME groups are less likely to participate in certain vocational pathways and are more likely to be unemployed than the general population. However it is important to bear in mind that participation and employment outcomes vary – sometimes significantly - between different BME groups.

There is a complex range of factors relating to the choices young people are encouraged to take, the impact of the attitudes of adults on these choices and in some cases to the attitudes of employers.

Consistent messages have emerged around the understanding of the value and nature of certain options such as Modern Apprenticeships among young people, their parents and their wider communities.

The young people from BME groups who we have spoken to have also suggested that role models drawn from young people on the full range of vocational pathways and related occupations would also encourage them to consider a wider range of options.

Some stakeholders we have spoken to have expressed concern that some employers discriminate against young people in their recruitment.

Miller (2012) "Good practice evaluation of the diversity in apprenticeship pilots"

Scottish Government (2013), "Equality Evidence Review"

The Equality Challenge Unit (2013), "Equality in colleges in Scotland"

EHRC (2013) "Modern Apprenticeships: Equality &the Economy"

CRER (2012) "Race Equality in Modern Apprenticeships"

Stakeholder views gathered: CEMVO Scotland; BEMIS; EHRC; STUC

Skills Development Scotland - Equalities Action Plan for Modern Apprenticeships (2016)

Skills Development Scotland –

Equality action plan – Year 1 update:

For Modern Apprenticeships in Scotland (2017)

Skills Development Scotland - Modern Apprenticeship Statistics

Full Year Report (2016/17, 2015/2016)

RELIGION OR BELIEF

Census data from 2001 show that Muslims, Sikhs and Hindus are more likely to participate in post-school education. There are significantly lower levels of economic activity for Muslim women compared to Muslim men, and also relatively low levels for Buddist, Hindu and Sikh women.

Muslim and Sikhs are most likely to be employed in 'Wholesale and retail trade' than other religious groups. Hindus are more likely to be employed in 'health and social work',

In 2001, over half of all Sikhs and Muslims worked in microbusinesses compared to 30% of people who reported the Church of Scotland as their religion.

Self- employment is highest for Sikhs (33%), Muslims (29%) and Jewish people (27%).

Scottish Government (2012), Religion Evidence Review

EHRC (2013) "Modern Apprenticeships: Equality & the Economy"

MARRIAGE AND CIVIL PARTNERSHIP

(the Scottish Government does not require assessment against this protected characteristic unless the policy or practice relates to work, for example HR policies and practices - refer to Definitions of Protected Characteristics document for details)

N/A

N/A

LOOKED AFTER CHILDREN

There are many reasons young people end up in care and in most cases these are not down to the young person themselves.

The groups we have met who support young people preparing to leave care have consistently described how these young people face disjointed journeys from school into post-school education and on into work. Better planning and additional support from employers would help smooth these journeys.

The learner journeys of care leavers can be impeded by unhelpful funding barriers which often don't take account of the wider challenges the young person faces as they make the transition into adult life.

For many care leavers access to the networks that many young people draw on to move into employment is not available. Additionally the challenges of moving into employment for the first time that we all face often come at a time when care leavers are facing a significant range of additional challenges.

Scottish Government (2013) Education outcomes for Scotland's looked after children 2011-12

JRF (2014) "Helping unemployed young people to find private sector work"

Stakeholder views gathered:

Barnardos

CELCIS

Who Cares Scotland?


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