1. 'Articulation' is used in this report to describe the seamless transfer of students between stages of education, leading ultimately to entry into nursing and midwifery degree-level programmes.
2. Scottish Government. Nursing 2030 Vision. Edinburgh: Scottish Government; 2017 ( http://www.gov.scot/publications/nursing-2030-vision-9781788511001/).
3. Scottish Government. National Health and Social Care Workforce Plan – Part 1: a framework for improving workforce planning across NHS Scotland. Edinburgh: Scottish Government; 2017 ( http://www.gov.scot/publications/national-health-social-care-workforce-plan-part-1-framework-improving/).
4. Scottish Government. Best Start: a five-year forward plan for maternity and neonatal care in Scotland. Edinburgh: Scottish Government; 2017 ( http://www.gov.scot/publications/best-start-five-year-forward-plan-maternity-neonatal-care-scotland-9781786527646//downloads).
5. Scottish Government. Plan for Scotland: the Government's Programme for Scotland 2016–17. Edinburgh: Scottish Government; 2016 ( http://www.gov.scot/Resource/0050/00505210.pdf).
6. Scottish Government. Health and Social Care Delivery Plan. Edinburgh: Scottish Government; 2016 ( http://www.gov.scot/Resource/0051/00511950.pdf).
7. Scottish Government. Developing the Young Workforce Strategy. Edinburgh: Scottish Government; 2014 ( http://www.gov.scot/Publications/2014/12/7750).
8. Scottish Government. A Blueprint for Fairness. Edinburgh: Scottish Government; 2016 ( http://www.gov.scot/Resource/0049/00496535.pdf).
9. Boliver V et al. Mapping and Evaluating the Use of Contextual Data in Undergraduate Admissions in Scotland. Durham: Durham University; 2017 ( http://www.sfc.ac.uk/access-inclusion/contextualised-admissions/evaluating-contextual-admissions.aspx).
10. The Commission is grateful to David Robson and Victoria Loughlan of the Scottish Government for this definition.
11. Nursing and Midwifery Council. The NMC Register 2012/13–2016/17. London: NMC; 2017 ( https://www.nmc.org.uk/globalassets/sitedocuments/other-publications/nmc-register-2013-2017.pdf).
12. These figures do not include registered specialist community public health nurses ( SCPHN), nurses and midwives with joint registration, and nurses and midwives or those with joint registration who are also registered SCPHNs.
13. Nursing and Midwifery Council. The NMC Register 2017. Scotland. London: NMC; 2017.
14. Scottish Care. Independent Sector Nursing Data 2017. Ayr: Scottish Care; 2017 ( http://www.scottishcare.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/11/Nursing-Survey-Data-Report-Nov-2017.pdf).
15. Nursing and Midwifery Council. The NMC Register 2012/13–2016/17. London: NMC; 2017. ( https://www.nmc.org.uk/globalassets/sitedocuments/other-publications/nmc-register-2013-2017.pdf).
16. Information and Statistics Division, October 2016 figures.
17. Boliver V et al. Mapping and Evaluating the Use of Contextual Data in Undergraduate Admissions in Scotland. Durham: Durham University; 2017 ( http://www.sfc.ac.uk/access-inclusion/contextualised-admissions/evaluating-contextual-admissions.aspx).
18. Source of SIMD data is the Scottish Funding Council.
19. This is not the case for all students: those in FEI settings are not always entitled to this funding, which appears to apply only to HEI students.
20. Health Education England. Raising the Bar. Shape of Caring: a Review of the Future Education and Training of Registered Nurses and Care Assistants. London: Health Education England/ NMC; 2015 ( https://www.hee.nhs.uk/our-work/developing-our-workforce/nursing/shape-caring-review).
21. Scottish Care. Voices from the Nursing Front Line. Ayr: Scottish Care; 2016 ( http://www.scottishcare.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/11/SC-Voices-from-the-Nursing-Front-Line-.pdf).
22. Universities Scotland. Working to Widen Access. Edinburgh: Universities Scotland; 2017 ( https://www.universities-scotland.ac.uk/wp-content/uploads/2017/11/Widening-Access-A5-Leaflet-digital.pdf).
23. The consultation is running to 23 January 2018 – access at: https://consultations.dh.gov.uk/professional-regulation/regulatory-reform/
24. Currently, no articulation route into the undergraduate midwifery programme exists.
25. Graduateness is defined as: '... the successful attainment of a higher education degree. From that educational process graduates develop key attributes. Those attributes may be common to all graduates, shared among those who have studied related subjects or be subject specific. These transferrable skills-sets and attitudes are markers of graduate-level performance and/or disposition, contributing to making these individuals desirable to employers.' (Definition taken from the report Graduateness: a systematized literature review of the concept applied to nursing in the United Kingdom by Dr Mike Ramsay, University of Dundee, March 2016.)
26. Buchan J. Solving nursing shortages: a common priority. Journal of Clinical Nursing 2008:17(24):3262–8.
27. Birkhead S et al. A model of practical nurse to registered nurse educational articulation: a successful approach to advancing the workforce. Teaching and Learning in Nursing 2016;11:152–6.
28. Department of Health. The Cavendish Review: an independent review into healthcare assistants and support workers in the NHS and social care settings. London: Department of Health; 2013.
29. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Outlook Handbook ( https://www.bls.gov/ooh/healthcare/licensed-practical-and-licensed-vocational-nurses.htm#tab-4).
30. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Outlook Handbook ( https://www.bls.gov/ooh/healthcare/registered-nurses.htm#tab-4).
31. American Nurses Association, How to become a nurse (webpage) ( http://www.nursingworld.org/EspeciallyForYou/What-is-Nursing/Tools-You-Need/RegisteredNurseLicensing.html).
32. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Outlook Handbook ( https://www.bls.gov/ooh/healthcare/registered-nurses.htm#tab-4).
33. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Outlook Handbook ( https://www.bls.gov/ooh/healthcare/licensed-practical-and-licensed-vocational-nurses.htm#tab-4).
34. American Association of Colleges of Nursing ( AACN), Accelerated nursing programmes (webpage) ( http://www.aacn.nche.edu/students/accelerated-nursing-programs).
35. AACN (2017), Diversity, Inclusion, & Equity in Academic Nursing: AACN Position Statement ( http://www.aacn.nche.edu/media-relations/AACN-Position-Statement-Diversity-Inclusion.pdf) (page 2).
36. AACN, Holistic Admissions Review in Nursing (webpage) ( http://www.aacn.nche.edu/education-resources/holistic-review).
37. Urban Universities for HEALTH (2014), Holistic Admissions in the Health Professions: findings from a national survey ( http://urbanuniversitiesforhealth.org/media/documents/holisticadmissionsinthehealthprofessions.pdf).
38. AACN, How has holistic review been used in nursing (webpage) ( http://www.aacn.nche.edu/education-resources/holistic-review/nursing).
39. Robert Wood Johnson Foundation (2017), The changing face of nursing: creating a workforce for an increasingly diverse nation (Charting Nursing's Future, Issue No 27 Jan 2016) ( http://www.rwjf.org/content/dam/farm/reports/issue_briefs/2016/rwjf425988).
40. Further details at Australian Nursing and Midwifery Accreditation Council ( ANMAC), (2015), Credit Transfer and Recognition of Prior Learning in Bachelor of Nursing and Bachelor of Midwifery Programs ( https://www.anmac.org.au/sites/default/files/documents/20150821_Expl_Note_Cred_Tfer_RPL_1.pdf).
41. Western Australia Aboriginal pathways ( http://ww2.health.wa.gov.au/Careers/Aboriginal-pathways).
42. Career pathways for Aboriginal people in NSW Health ( http://hire.steppingup.health.nsw.gov.au/career-pathways-aboriginal-people-nsw-health/).
43. NSW Aboriginal nursing and midwifery cadetship program ( http://www.health.nsw.gov.au/nursing/aboriginal-strategy/Pages/aboriginal-cadetships.aspx).
44. CATSINaM, Recruitment and Retention Position Statement ( http://catsinam.org.au/static/uploads/files/recruitment-and-retention-endorsed-march-2014-wfptinaomexg.pdf).
45. Nursing Council of New Zealand (2002, amended April 2017), Handbook for nursing departments offering programmes leading to registration as an enrolled nurse or a registered nurse ( http://www.nursingcouncil.org.nz/Education/Schools-Handbook).
46. The Mãori and Pacific Admission Scheme ( MAPAS) ( https://www.fmhs.auckland.ac.nz/en/faculty/for/future-undergraduates/maori-and-pacific-admission-scheme.html).
47. Ngã Manukura o Ãpõpõ ( https://www.ngamanukura.co.nz/about-us).
48. Canadian Council for Practical Nurse Regulators, Become an LPN/ RPN (webpage) ( http://www.ccpnr.ca/become-an-lpnrpn/).
49. Canadian Council for Practical Nurse Regulators, Become an LPN/ RPN (webpage) ( http://www.ccpnr.ca/become-an-lpnrpn/).
50. Province of Nova Scotia, 2015, Registered nurse education review in Nova Scotia: final report ( https://novascotia.ca/dhw/nurses/documents/Registered-Nurse-Education-Review-in-Nova-Scotia-Final-Report.pdf).
51. College of Licensed Practical Nurses of Nova Scotia, Proposed LPN to BScN Bridging Program (webpage) ( http://clpnns.ca/proposed-lpn-to-bscn-bridging-program/).
52. Algonquin College, What is PLAR? (webpage) ( http://www.algonquincollege.com/plar/).
53. NMBI, Standards for nursing – Standard 2 Student entry (webpage) ( https://www.nmbi.ie/Education/Higher-Education-Institutions/Approvals-Nursing-Programmes/Student-Entry).
54. Health Education England. Raising the Bar. Shape of Caring: a Review of the Future Education and Training of Registered Nurses and Care Assistants. London: Health Education England/ NMC; 2015 ( https://www.hee.nhs.uk/our-work/developing-our-workforce/nursing/shape-caring-review).
55. Department of Health (2015) Nursing associate role offers new route into nursing (news story 17 December 2015) ( https://www.gov.uk/government/news/nursing-associate-role-offers-new-route-into-nursing).
56. Department of Health (2016) Nursing degree apprenticeship: factsheet ( https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/nursing-degree-apprenticeships-factsheet/nursing-degree-apprenticeship-factsheet).
57. NMC (2011) Using accreditation of prior learning ( APL) in existing pre-registration nursing, specialist community public health nursing programmes, and in other programmes where APL is permitted (Circ 01/2011) ( https://www.nmc.org.uk/standards/additional-standards/standards-to-support-learning-and-assessment-in-practice/).
58. O'Brien F et al. Mature students' experiences of undergraduate nurse education programmes: the Irish experience. Nurse Education Today 2009:29;635–40.
59. Draper J et al. 'Ready to hit the ground running': alumni and employer accounts of a unique part-time distance learning pre-registration nurse education programme. Nurse Education Today 2014;34:1305–10.