PART ONE - Setting the Scene
Scotland's climate is already changing. The climate will continue to change in the future and this will present a wide range of threats and opportunities to the environment, infrastructure, economy and people of Scotland. By planning and preparing for change now, Scotland will be better placed to take advantage of any opportunities, and can build resilience to the potential negative consequences that this change is bringing.
Section 56 of the Climate Change Act 2008  requires the UK Government to publish 5-yearly assessments of risk to the UK. The first UK Climate Change Risk Assessment ( CCRA) was published in January 2012 and provides an assessment of the current and predicted threats and opportunities to the UK from climate change. It includes a Climate Change Risk Assessment for Scotland  .
Following these assessments, section 53 of the Climate Change (Scotland) Act 2009 (hereafter referred to as "the Act")  requires Scottish Ministers to lay a programme before the Scottish Parliament, setting out:
- their objectives in relation to adaptation to climate change;
- their proposals and policies for meeting those objectives;
- the period within which those proposals and policies will be introduced; and
- otherwise addressing the risks identified in the report under section 56 of the Climate Change Act 2008.
The Act also requires the Programme to set out the arrangements for involving employers, trade unions and other stakeholders in meeting Scottish Ministers objectives; and the mechanisms for ensuring public engagement in meeting those objectives.
Publication of the first Scottish Climate Change Adaptation Programme brings into force the adaptation requirement of the public bodies climate change duties introduced by section 44 of the Act which requires that a public body within the definition of the Act, must, in exercising its functions, act in the way best calculated to help deliver the Programme.
The UK Climate Change Risk Assessment
The Climate Change Risk Assessment for Scotland ( CCRA) describes, and where possible quantifies, the impacts from climate change facing Scotland up until 2100. The assessment is based primarily on the UK Climate Projections which were published in 2009 ( UKCP09)  . UKCP09 provides projections of future climate from the present to 2100, and represents the most authoritative evidence of potential changes in climate for Scotland.
Over 130 impacts for Scotland have been identified, and while the majority of these represent potential threats for Scotland, some present potential opportunities. The impacts vary in character and whilst some have been quantified, others have had to rely on expert elicitation or a narrative based on literature. To allow some comparison of different risks, they have been categorised into classes of 'high', 'medium' and 'low' magnitude consequences and 'high', 'medium' and 'low' confidence. The overall confidence is generally 'low' to 'medium', with only impacts that are already experienced and those related to increased temperatures classified with 'high' confidence. Some impacts are identified as 'too uncertain', either because the science is not sufficiently well advanced to understand the scale of the consequences or the inherent uncertainty is too great.
This information, and other information where available, has been used to inform those impacts that the Scottish Government considers to require early adaptation action as highlighted in the Technical Annex to this Programme.
The Scottish Climate Change Adaptation Programme
This Scottish Climate Change Adaptation Programme (hereafter referred to as "the Programme") addresses the impacts identified for Scotland in the CCRA. The Programme does not directly address matters which are expressly reserved to the UK Government  . Reserved matters are dealt with under the UK Government's National Adaptation Programme.
Due to the inherent uncertainty in some aspects of climate change, adaptation policies need to be flexible and adjusted as and when new information becomes available. The Programme is part of an iterative process and subsequent programmes are required to address impacts and opportunities identified in progressive CCRAs due every 5 years.
The Programme is structured around an overarching aim and three themes. There will inevitably be interactions between each theme and they should not be viewed in isolation. For example, the health and productivity of ecosystems underpins agriculture which is essential for livelihood and food security. Reducing vulnerability and building resilience in the natural environment will therefore help to reduce vulnerability and build resilience for society. And adapting our buildings can bring additional public health benefits for society by reducing heat and cold-related mortality, indoor air pollution and mould growth.
Each theme has an outcome that the Programme is seeking to deliver in the long term (up to 2050), and within each theme are three objectives (referenced by Theme as N1-N3, B1-B3 and S1-S3). This sets the long term framework for future Programmes (Figure 1).
Each Programme will set out the proposals and policies that provide the focus for the lifetime of that Programme in order to progress towards the long term objective. These will evolve and develop with each Programme, providing flexibility to adjust to new understanding and information.
Figure 1: Overarching Aim, Themes and Objectives
National policy supporting wider action
Action to adapt to the changing climate is required across society. Many actions are most appropriately undertaken at a local level, where impacts will primarily be felt.
The long-term sustainability of Scotland in a changing climate will depend on businesses, government, organisations, communities and the individuals in them accepting responsibility for their share of action and working collaboratively. In some cases it will require a behaviour change - in others a continuation or adaption of their efforts. But this needs to be supported by national policy and the Scottish Government must lead by example. This approach will help to address barriers for adapting at a local level and encourage appropriate action.
Planning for the changing climate is being comprehensively embedded into Scottish Government policy. For example - the Land Use Strategy; Biodiversity Strategy; National Planning Framework; National Marine Plan; National Flooding Policy; Scotland Rural Development Programme; Critical National Infrastructure Strategy; Resilience Planning; and research funding - all reflect the need for Scotland to prepare for the changing climate.
However, it will not be enough to act alone as a nation. Scotland will need to co-operate with its EU neighbours and countries further afield to harness their collective efforts and expertise.
Working with our UK and international partners
The UK Government, Welsh Assembly Government and Northern Ireland Assembly are all pursuing climate change adaptation in their respective jurisdictions. The Scottish Government is working closely with other UK Administrations to ensure the sharing of best practice and cross-border cooperation. This includes development of the next UK Climate Change Risk Assessment of the current and future risks from climate change, due by 2017.
Climate change is a global challenge and Scotland will not be immune to the effects of impacts felt in other regions. Similarly, decisions and actions within Scotland may also affect societies and environments outside Scottish borders. The Programme will implement policy to adapt to climate change at a domestic level, however, the UK and international developments will affect our domestic policies.
The Scottish Government is committed to the creation of a modern, inclusive Scotland which protects, respects and realises international human rights standards. Climate change impacts on human rights, particularly the rights contained within the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights. Scotland's National Action Plan for Human Rights  , launched on 10 December 2013, outlines the Scottish Government's commitment to promoting climate justice at home and abroad.
Scottish Ministers have actively participated in international climate change conferences and are championing climate justice, a key issue for human rights in the 21st Century that is rising up the UN agenda. In line with aims of the Scottish Government's International Framework, we will share our experiences, values and expertise in areas such as justice, education, and climate change with a view to seeing the human rights of people across the world fully realised.
Evidence shows that developing countries are most at risk from current and future impacts of climate change and least able to adapt to increased risk of drought, disease, flooding, heat waves, rising sea levels and other impacts of climate change  . The Scottish Government has launched an innovative Climate Justice Fund providing support to some of the poorest communities in the world to develop resilience to the worst impacts of climate change.
The UK Government commissioned research by Price Waterhouse Coopers ( PWC) on the international threats and opportunities to the UK. Some of the main findings are set out below.
PWC Report on International Threats and Opportunities from Climate Change
- The threats associated with climate change internationally can be an "order of magnitude" larger than domestic threats for some thematic areas, in particular business (trade and investment) and food (imports).
- Certain foodstuffs and energy are concentrated in relatively few countries. Climate change is highly likely to exacerbate volatility of import prices and cause disruptions of supply, over the short-term (to 2020s). Over the longer term (2050s to 2080s) the increasing impacts of climate change could lead to more pervasive systemic changes to trade in food and other physical commodities, with knock-on effects in other areas such as health, conflict and global governance.
- The UK has its strongest links with industrialised countries, generally considered to be less vulnerable to climate change. However recent climatic events in such countries, for example drought in the American south-west, show that our exposure to these costs can be high.
IMPRESSIONS (Impacts and Risks from High-End Scenarios: Strategies for Innovative Solutions)
This project aims to increase our understanding of the consequences of high-end climate change. The project will help decision-makers apply this knowledge within integrated adaptation and mitigation strategies.
Scotland is an important case study in this 5-year €9 million EU-funded project that involves an international team from 27 research institutions from 18 countries. Researchers from The University of Edinburgh and ClimateXChange will develop the Scottish case study with other project partners. Adaptation Scotland will play a key role in making sure that policy makers from across Scotland are involved and benefit from the work. This project will build on another completed EU project - CLIMSAVE - which created an interactive web-based tool for citizens and policy makers to simulate climate change impacts across multiple sectors. Scotland was the regional case study for this project, with the creation of a customised Scottish version of the tool.
Who is the Scottish Climate Change Adaptation Programme for?
The Programme is the Scottish Government's first step towards ensuring that existing and future Scottish Government policy helps drive and support adaptation activity in Scotland. In taking forward this adaptation agenda, the Scottish Government will work collaboratively with a range of local, national and international partners, and with strategic partners including organisations that deliver public services, that manage Scotland's natural environment, that develop social and economic policy and that work in our communities.
Sustainable adaptation to the impacts of climate change will require a mixture of actions at local, national and international levels. No one organisation can address this in isolation. There are complex interactions between and within sectors. Therefore, success will depend on organisations, businesses and communities across Scotland accepting responsibility and working in partnership if we are to create a Scotland which is increasingly recognised as an attractive, environmentally-conscious and climate resilient place in which to live, work and invest.
How is our Climate Changing?
Weather and Climate Change
To understand climate change, it is important to understand the difference between weather and climate. Weather is the temperature, precipitation (rain, hail, sleet and snow) and wind, which change hour by hour and day by day. Climate is the average weather we expect over a long period of time, typically 30 years or longer. Infrequent spells of extreme cold weather regionally does not mean that climate change is not happening.
The Changing Climate
There is unequivocal evidence that the global climate is already warming and the continued emissions of greenhouse gases will cause further warming and changes in the climate system. The extent of future change will depend on global efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, with a stark contrast evident by the end of the 21 st century.
The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's Fifth Assessment Report  ( IPCC AR5) on the state of the climate is the most comprehensive report on the subject ever written. The scientific evidence is clear: warming of the climate system since the 19 th century is unequivocal and global temperatures have risen by 0.9 oC. It is extremely likely that greenhouse gas emissions as a result of human activity have caused more than half the warming seen since the middle of the 20 th century.
Regardless of how successful the global mitigation effort proves to be, the legacy of past and current greenhouse gas emissions means that climate change over the next few decades is now unavoidable.
"Since the 1950s, many of the observed changes are unprecedented over decades to millennia. The atmosphere and oceans have warmed, the amounts of snow and ice have diminished, sea level has risen, and the concentrations of greenhouse gases have increased." ( IPCC AR5, 2013)
"Continued emissions of greenhouse gases will cause further warming and changes in all components of the climate system. Limiting climate change will require substantial and sustained reductions of greenhouse gas emissions." ( IPCC AR5, 2013)
We are already seeing evidence of Scotland's climate changing  . Over the last few decades our climate has warmed, sea-levels have risen, rainfall patterns have changed and we have been impacted by extreme weather events. Temperatures have been increasing, with the last decade the warmest since records began  . Rainfall has been increasing in Scotland over the last thirty years, with more heavy downpours.
Climate projections for the next century  indicate that the climate trends observed over the last century will continue and intensify over the coming decades.
We can expect future changes in climate to be far greater than anything we have seen in the past. The UK Climate Projections 2009 ( UKCP09) indicate that our average climate will become warmer throughout the year, with this few degrees of temperature creating conditions unlike anything in Scotland today. The projections also indicate that rainfall is likely to become even more seasonal, with an average summer becoming drier, while autumn and winter become wetter.
We need to recognise that climate averages alone do not tell us the whole climate story. The weather from year to year is determined both by the long-term trend of climate change and the short-term natural variability, including natural cycles. It is possible that in our future we will see conditions that are increasingly variable and unpredictable, season-to-season and year-to-year. This could lead to fluctuating temperatures and more frequent and/or prolonged periods of drought or above average rainfall. It is also likely that extreme weather events, like heat waves or heavy rainfall, will become more common. This means that not all future summers will be hot and dry, nor all winters warm and wet even though this is the general trend expected in future. This will present a wide range of threats and opportunities to the environment, infrastructure, economy and people in Scotland.
The Changing Climate: What does this mean for Scotland?
The experience of recent years has shown us that climate change and extreme weather events have already impacted many aspects of our natural environment and our society, including buildings and property, health, agriculture, forestry, transport, water resources and energy demand.
These changes have already had a widespread impact. For example, warmer springs in recent decades have caused a trend towards many biological events, such as flowering, budbreak, laying and hatching of eggs, occurring earlier in the year. Scotland's trees and forests are facing major threats from pests and diseases established in Scotland as well as pests from Europe, and climate change is likely to create conditions that could make this worse. In 2010, phytophthora ramorum (sudden oak death) was found in Dumfries and Galloway and recent surveys have found it is now widespread in the region.
Some of the key consequences  for Scotland that may occur from the impacts of climate change are presented below and explored in more detail in Section Two of the Programme:
The productivity of our agriculture and forests
A warming climate has the potential to improve growing conditions in Scotland and increase the productivity of our agriculture and forestry. However, climate change will also pose a number of threats, from more variable and extreme weather to the spread of pests and diseases, which may limit this potential.
The occurrence of pests and disease
As our climate changes, it will create new conditions that may allow existing pests and disease to spread and new threats to become established in Scotland. This may impact on the health of our people, animals, plants and ecosystems if risks are not properly managed.
The quality of our soils
We rely on soils to sustain biodiversity, support agriculture and forestry, regulate the water cycle and store carbon. Soils also have an historic environment value, as a proxy record of environmental change and for the preservation of archaeological deposits and artefacts. Soils and vegetation may be altered by changes to rainfall patterns and increased temperatures - as well as the way we use the land.
The health of our natural environment
Climate change may affect the delicate balance of Scotland's ecosystems and transform Scotland's habitats and biodiversity, adding to existing pressures. Some distinctive Scottish species may struggle and could be lost, invasive non-native species may thrive, while a degraded environment may not be able to sustain productive land or water supply.
The security of our food supply
Climate change may have an impact on global food production. Although Scotland may be able to grow more food, this will not offset the impact global disruption has on us. The effects of increased volatility in the global commodity market due to exposure to extreme climatic events has an impact on supply and cost of food.
The availability and quality of water
As our climate warms and rainfall patterns change, there may be increased competition for water between households, agriculture, industry and the needs of the natural environment. Summer droughts may become more frequent and more severe causing problems for water quality and supply.
The increased risk of flooding
Flooding can already have a devastating effect on those affected. With climate change likely to alter rainfall patterns and bring more heavy downpours, we expect flood risk to increase in the future. This could impact on properties and infrastructure - with serious consequences for our people, heritage, businesses and communities.
The change at our coast
Sea level rise is already having a widespread impact on parts of Scotland's coast. With this set to accelerate over the coming decades, we can expect to see more coastal flooding, erosion and coastline retreat - with consequences for our coastal communities and supporting infrastructure.
The health of our marine environment
Our marine ecosystems - from plankton through to fish, mammals and seabirds - are already being affected by climate change alongside other pressures, particularly fishing. Changes will continue, with rising temperatures likely to change species and their distributions. The changes will present both threats and opportunities to our commercial fisheries and aquaculture.
The resilience of our businesses
Climate change and associated extreme weather may disrupt transport, energy and communication networks in Scotland and around the world. This could impact on markets, affect supply chains and raise insurance costs.
The health and wellbeing of our people
A warming climate may provide more opportunity to be outdoors and enjoy a healthy and active lifestyle, while reducing mortality in winter. However, it could affect patterns of disease and other health issues. Climate change and associated extreme weather may disrupt the lives of individuals and communities, limiting access to vital services and impacting on people's physical and mental health.
Our cultural heritage and identity
The changing climate is already altering our unique Scottish landscape and threatening our historic environment through coastal erosion, flooding and wetter, warmer conditions. The increased pace of climate change presents challenges to all those involved in the care, protection and promotion of the historic environment.
The security and efficiency of our energy supply
Climate change may influence Scotland's capacity to generate weather-dependent renewable energy. For example, varying water availability will affect hydro generation schemes. Climate change can also impact power distribution, with impacts ranging from damage caused by extreme weather events, to reduced transmission efficiency occurring as a result of temperature fluctuations. Impacts on global energy markets may also affect energy supplies in Scotland and consequently our overall energy security.
The performance of our buildings
Climate change will have an impact on the design, construction, management and use of our buildings and surroundings. Whether retrofitting existing or building new, it is likely that there will be issues with water management (in flood and drought), weather resistance and overheating.
Infrastructure - network connectivity and interdependencies
Our energy, transport, water, and ICT networks support services are vital to our health and wellbeing and economic prosperity. The effect of climate change on these infrastructure systems will be varied. They are likely to be impacted by an increase in disruptive events such as flooding, landslides, drought, and heatwaves. Our infrastructure is closely inter-linked and failure in any area can lead to wider disruption across these networks.
Adapting to Scotland's Changing Climate
Planning for, and managing the risks posed by the impacts of climate change supports the Scottish Government purpose of increasing sustainable economic growth.
Adaptation is an on-going process. It involves the on-going integration of options, costs and risks by private and public decision makers in different locations and over different timescales. There is value in developing an approach to climate adaptation that can guide the many decision making processes over time. This approach should be one of sustainability that builds the resilience of our communities and the long-term prosperity of our environment and our economy.
Strategic Principles for Climate Change Adaptation
A sustainable approach to climate change adaptation should be underpinned by the following principles:
1. Adaptation must be addressed alongside actions to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and environmental impacts:
Actions to adapt for a changing climate should, where possible, avoid negative impacts on the environment or society. It is important to understand the interactions between potential mitigation actions and potential adaptation actions and take advantage of synergies and address any negative relationships where necessary. Without mitigation and the move to a low carbon economy, the scale of adaptation challenges will increase significantly.
2. Adaptation should build broader resilience:
Changes in Scotland's climate will bring both short and long-term challenges. In addressing immediate impacts of climate change, opportunities for developing broader benefits of strong communities, sustainable economic growth and a healthy environment should be considered, as this will make Scotland more resilient to future change.
3. Adaptation should be informed by a cycle of review and action:
Actions to adapt must account for inherent uncertainty of climate projections and related factors through monitoring and reviewing systematically. This improves the knowledge base by identifying those responses which have been successful and providing the flexibility needed in order to adjust to new understanding and information as it becomes available. 
4. Adaptation should be integrated into existing development and implementation practices:
Preparing for a changing climate should be integrated into existing risk management and planning processes and decisions, as an extension of good development practice. Decisions and actions should be flexible and adaptable, and informed by a cycle of review, based on on-going monitoring and latest evidence.
5. Adaptation should be integrated at an appropriate scale:
Adaptation to the impacts of climate change should be implemented at the most appropriate scale. Some policy action will be needed at the national scale however implementation at a local level may be most effective, as the impacts and consequences may vary considerably by area or community. A local approach will be enhanced through broader support for capacity building, sharing of best practice and supporting policy.
6. Adaptation should be developed in partnership with interested parties and avoid restricting others from adapting:
Climate change will impact on many resources, such as water, that are vital to a number of individuals and organisations from across sectors. In developing adaptation actions, the interests of others and other sectors should be considered. Seeking a more joined-up, strategic approach that builds collective responsibility and ownership can avoid potential conflicts, and enhance the effectiveness and sustainability of the planned adaptation.
Taking a planned approach
It is vital to plan for the changes to our climate. Some climate impacts are being felt now and others will not be experienced in some parts of Scotland for decades. There will be negative impacts to overcome and new opportunities which we can benefit from. In some areas immediate, practical action is needed now whereas for others flexible, long-term strategic planning is required.
Failure to adapt and manage risks could lead to the collapse of a system, service, or asset. Action without informed and co-ordinated planning, will result in adaptation occurring spontaneously and action is more likely to be responsive and lead to less optimal, or possibly adverse, outcomes. In some cases, it could even lead to unintended negative consequences.
Taking a planned approach, which follows adaptation principles and guidelines is also needed to avoid maladaptation or unintended consequences of actions. For example, dredging a river to avoid flooding in one location may result in unintended flooding downstream.
There is a range of effective actions that can be taken now to prepare for the changing climate and build resilience to climate change impacts. Many of these actions can be characterised as being no-regret, low-regret, or win-win actions. These types of action can be described as follows:
- No-regret actions are cost-effective under current climate conditions and are consistent with addressing risks of climate change. They do not involve any hard trade-offs with other policy objectives. Examples include, use of resilient building materials and surface water run-off measures in new buildings.
- Low-regret actions are relatively low cost and provide relatively large benefits under a range of predicted future climates. Examples include incorporating greenspace, permeable paving and sustainable drainage systems into urban developments.
- Win-win actions contribute to adaptation whilst also having other social, economic and environmental benefits. Examples include natural flood management techniques, such as tree planting, that reduce flood risk and support biodiversity conservation and habitat connectivity; and green roofs which reduce building temperature and rainfall runoff at the same time as reducing energy use for heating and cooling.
Identifying no-regret, low-regret and win-win actions enables organisations to start taking concrete steps to adapt to climate change, rather than adopting a 'wait and see' approach. Standard techniques such as cost-benefit and cost-effectiveness analysis can be used to identify no- and low-regret options. Planning actions which provide win-wins or multiple benefits can help to justify limited spending. For example, providing high quality urban greenspace can be good for nature, reduce flooding, and improve mental and physical health.
Building in flexibility is also important. Due to the inherent uncertainty in some aspects of climate change, adaptation policies need to be flexible and adjusted as and when new information becomes available. This flexibility provides the opportunity to learn from others and to learn from our own experiences, allowing us to choose more sustainable planning, design or investment options where the risks and opportunities associated with changes in our climate have been properly assessed and understood.
Flexible actions can be described as those which allow for sound adjustments to be made over time, based on our improving understanding of the risks and the effectiveness of the action. They can be undertaken in parallel with building understanding and reducing uncertainty to help develop longer-term actions.
There is also the need to take action for reasons of moral responsibility. For example, to help the most vulnerable members of society, or to support wildlife and the natural environment - which is suffering from climate impacts caused by human action.
Managing climate risk
Climate risk needs to be managed just like any other risk. By assessing the impacts of present-day weather and climate, we can understand existing vulnerabilities and how we might reduce existing risks. Reducing those risks, especially those that are projected to increase with future climate change, can have multiple and immediate benefits.
To fully assess the potential risks and opportunities of a changing climate in Scotland, we must not only understand the likelihood and degree of change, we must also understand the consequences of that change and the costs of prevention. The direct and indirect impacts of a changing climate on our environment, economy and society must be better understood as well as how people can be motivated to adapt appropriately.
Managing climate uncertainty and probability
Uncertainty should not act as a barrier to adapting to future change. Many other issues and risks are highly uncertain, such as global commodity prices and demographic change, but these do not prevent decisions being taken now that will be affected by future change - it is a question of managing these risks and the uncertainty surrounding them.
Decision making under uncertainty
Although the evidence about how the climate is likely to change in the future is strong, the amount of change is uncertain.
Even with the latest advances in climate modelling  , we cannot be entirely certain about how much change we can expect in the future. This means we should take a flexible approach to planning and decision making in order to avoid wasted investments, unnecessary costs and increasing risks to people and assets.
Adaptation policies need to be flexible and adjusted as and when new information becomes available. By adopting a flexible approach, recognising that our understanding of the risks and the adequacy of a given adaptation action will change over time, we are able to allow for systematic changes to be made in order to respond to new information and changing circumstances.
Climate change adaptation will come at a cost. But failing to adapt will cost us more. Crucially, adaptation is not just about Scottish Government expenditure - costs will fall across the public sector, organisations, business and individuals. Adaptation demands the efficient and targeted use of existing resources.
Where restructuring is occurring anyway, it is an opportunity to plan for a future in which the climate is not the same as it has been in the past - a future which will not only have a different climate but also a low carbon economy. If incorporated early enough in development, adaptive measures may be less costly. The key is to be alert to the impacts of climate change and see opportunities to adapt as and when they arise. Early adaptation through design for climate change, including retrofit, is more cost effective and sustainable than taking no action.
The most obvious reason for taking action to prepare and adapt to the changing climate is to minimise the disruption or damage - and associated cost - caused by the changing climate.
While it may not be appropriate or feasible to adapt immediately in every specific case, actions to adapt should be pursued where costs are determined to be less than the likely future losses caused by climate change. The estimation of costs and losses should reflect environmental, social and financial considerations. However, not all adaptation actions will stand up to strict cost benefit analysis - these actions may need to be taken because they are the right thing to do.
The consequences of many decisions being taken now will be with us for many decades, so it is important to consider the costs and benefits of adaptation actions over an appropriate period of time. In some cases, such as reducing flood risk, this may require a significant capital investment in the short-term which is followed by long-term savings as loss to property and disruption to communities is reduced or avoided altogether.
The Scottish Government acknowledges that a shift to target investment in preventative approaches (not just on climate change) will deliver better outcomes and value for money. It is therefore important that the Scottish Government leads the way and provides support and funding in areas that are the responsibility of the Scottish Government.
The Scottish Government already provides support and funding for adaptation through:
- the development of a robust evidence base, including annual funding to the ClimateXChange adaptation research programme;
- programmes to develop adaptive capacity, including funding Adaptation Scotland to help organisations, business and communities, and;
- policy-specific actions, including annual funding of the Scottish Flood Forum to help enhance their support to promoting flood risk and supporting those who have been affected by flood events.
Building Resilience to the Impacts of Climate Change
The Scottish Government relies on widely accepted evidence informing the international response to climate change. This includes the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change whose Fifth Assessment Report (AR5)  sends a stronger warning than ever that human activity is changing the global climate and that adaptation is essential to deal with the risks of climate change alongside urgent action to reduce emissions. The United Nation's World Meteorological Organization  provides evidence on the state and behaviour of the Earth's atmosphere and climate, including an annual statement on the status of the global climate which provides a snapshot of global and regional trends in weather and climate and the most significant extreme events. Evidence from the UK's Met Office Hadley Centre  , a recognised leader in climate change prediction and impact assessment, contributes to understanding of the changing climate.
We have a solid evidence base for understanding the impacts of climate change in Scotland. The UK Climate Projections (UKCP09) and the Climate Change Risk Assessment ( CCRA), in particular, provide a robust basis for adaptation planning. However, we need to continue to build the evidence base to improve our understanding of the impacts of climate change, and how we can best adapt to deal with threats and seize opportunities. The evidence base will be improved as we learn by implementing adaptation actions.
Building Skills and Knowledge
Improving the evidence must be accompanied by awareness raising of the consequences of the changing climate and the provision of information and support to help organisations, businesses and communities adapt.
The support of communities, organisations and individuals will be required to successfully achieve the objectives set out in the Programme. To gain this support, there must be a general awareness of why it is important that Scotland is prepared for a changing climate and what the costs of inaction may be. Communities have immense potential for developing innovative, grass-root responses to the challenges of climate change.
Adapting to the challenge of climate change cannot be delivered by one agency, one organisation, or through one action. It will not be addressed in a week, a month or even a year. This is a long term issue that requires an on-going commitment from organisations, businesses and communities across Scotland.
The impacts of climate change will affect Scotland as a whole; we all have a role to play in ensuring Scotland is well prepared and resilient to change.
This section sets out the arrangements for involving employers, trade unions and other stakeholders in meeting Scottish Ministers objectives; and the mechanisms for ensuring public engagement in meeting those objectives, as required by Section 53(2)(a)(iii) and (iv) of the Act.
1. The role of the Scottish Government It is vital that the Scottish Government provides clear leadership in promoting a sustainable approach to climate change adaptation. The Programme is the Scottish Government's first step towards ensuring that existing and future Scottish Government policy helps drive and support adaptation activity in Scotland. In taking forward this adaptation agenda, the Scottish Government will work collaboratively with a range of local, national and international partners.
Advice and Guidance
Effective leadership requires government to provide clear advice and guidance, helping sectors across society to better understand their role in addressing climate change and ensuring easy access to necessary information and tools. The Scottish Government incorporates advice and guidance in its own publications where appropriate, some of which are highlighted in this section.
In addition, the Scottish Government funds the Adaptation Scotland  programme to provide guidance and support to help organisations, businesses and communities in Scotland prepare for, and build resilience to, the impacts of climate change. See Annex A for guidance, practical tools and web based resources available through the Adaptation Scotland programme.
It is important that advice and guidance is based on the best available evidence. The Scottish Government works with a number of partners to develop the evidence base for Scotland.
ClimateXChange is Scotland's Centre of Expertise on Climate Change  . It is funded by the Scottish Government and provides research to inform climate change policy making in Scotland. ClimateXChange has a programme of research projects that support adaptation decision-making across sectors in Scotland. ClimateXChange also responds to particular policy-relevant questions as these arise, and is working with a range of sector stakeholders on projects that address particular issues.
The ClimateXChange programme addresses three key adaptation challenges:
Measuring adaptation progress
ClimateXChange is developing indicators that will allow us to measure climate change adaptation. The project is establishing baseline information that gives us a picture of where we are starting from. It also provides tools to assess trends over time and to understand the nature, extent and effectiveness of adaptation responses.
Understanding adaptation costs and benefits
Adaptation economics considers the costs, benefits and trade-offs associated with particular adaptation actions. These include impacts on people's well-being.
Demonstrating adaptation in practice
ClimateXChange is working with 'on the ground' specialists and practitioners such as farmers and foresters to provide knowledge on emerging adaptation issues. ClimateXChange is establishing a range of case studies, demonstration sites and networks, which cover sectors including: farming; woodlands and forestry; housing; and river catchments.
The Scottish Government also works with the Met Office, to reduce, mitigate and prepare for the effects of climate change. With a dedicated Edinburgh office and forecasting centre in Aberdeen, the Met Office covers a range of services which help deliver against Scottish Government objectives  .
Working with the UK Government and other devolved administrations, the Scottish Government supported the development of the UK Climate Projections 2009 ( UKCP09). These projections show the changes that can be expected across the UK, including Scotland, during the rest of this century. Working with Sniffer  and other partners, the Scottish Government also supported work to assess historic climate trends across Scotland. 
The Scottish Government is one of the partners in the Living with Environmental Change ( LWEC) Partnership  which aims to ensure that decision makers in government, business and society have the knowledge, foresight and tools to mitigate, adapt to and benefit from environmental change.
Marine Scotland supports the work of the Marine Climate Change Impacts Partnership ( MCCIP) in its production of evidence of climate change impacts in the marine environment. MCCIP synthesises broad based evidence on how climate change is affecting our coast and seas and communicates its findings through an annual report card and special topic report cards  .
The Scottish Government's rural and environment strategic research programme contains work to improve our understanding of the impact of climate change on the environment and appropriate land management options - including knowledge transfer of the relevant findings. In addition, knowledge transfer is being taken forward by Scotland's research institutes including through ClimateXChange.
No single organisation, business or community can adapt to climate change alone. We are all dependent on and influenced by the decisions of others and need to work together to adapt. The Scottish Government is building partnerships to co-ordinate action across boundaries of organisations' responsibilities, through:
- establishment of forums such as the Public Sector Climate Leaders Forum, and the Scottish Flood Forum;
- creating research partnerships including ClimateXChange  , involving researchers across 15 Scottish research and higher education institutions; and CREW  , a partnership between the James Hutton Institute and all Scottish Higher Education Institutes;
- support for Adaptation Scotland to encourage partnership working across sectors. Examples include place based adaptation in Glasgow and the Clyde Valley and working with spatial planners to embed adaptation at the heart of regional and local planning processes. (see Annex A for Adaptation Scotland information and resources to support collaborative working), and;
- support for working partnerships such as the Scottish Flood Forecasting Service ( SFFS), a joint initiative between the Scottish Environment Protection Agency ( SEPA) and the Met Office so that both organisations can share their expertise to improve the accuracy of flood forecast for the whole of Scotland.
2. Public sector
The Climate Change (Scotland) Act 2009 places duties on Scottish Ministers and public bodies to act in the way best calculated to help deliver this Programme. Guidance  to assist public bodies comply with the duties has been published by the Scottish Government which includes advice on monitoring and reporting. More detailed advice on monitoring and reporting for local authorities is contained in Scotland's Climate Change Declaration guidance and reporting template  , produced by the Sustainable Scotland Network, and the Sustainability Reporting Guidance  produced by Scottish Government provides a more detailed reporting framework for the wider public sector.
In addition to being major employers in Scotland, public bodies have a key role in building a resilient Scotland prepared for the challenges of the changing climate through the development of evidence and research, provision of guidance and services, delivery of adaptation measures, and through direct management of built and natural estates. Several of Scotland's key public agencies have already published their own climate change action plans  .
Public bodies will have varying degrees of influence in relation to adaptation in Scotland depending on their particular role, functions and responsibilities. A number of public bodies are directly involved in delivering policies in this Programme but all public bodies need to be resilient to the future climate and to plan for business continuity in relation to delivery of their functions and the services they deliver to the wider community.
Another key role for public bodies will be in influencing and supporting the resilience of individuals and communities to the impacts of climate change, for example, by building adaptive capacity through raising awareness of impacts, and community consultation as part of the adaptation planning process.
Public bodies are encouraged to work together through existing mechanisms - for example, Community Planning Partnerships - or through devising new partnerships, and to explore opportunities for building capacity and sharing best practice. The Adaptation Scotland website presents a useful portal for sharing best practice between public sector organisations and broader private and community sectors, but direct engagement is also needed.
Public bodies are impacted upon by a changing climate and will need to:
a) Be resilient in a changing climate
Impacts of the changing climate will be felt by organisations irrespective of their size, location, activities and services. Public bodies depend on secure supply chains, resource supplies (energy, water, materials) and infrastructure and these could be at risk from the changes in the climate - for example, increased flood risk. It is important that to operate effectively, public bodies are resilient in the face of climate change.
Understanding the changes and how these changes could impact on the day to day running of the organisation is a useful starting place. For example, public bodies could put in place Sustainable Drainage Systems ( SUDS) on their own estates.
b) Help Scotland prepare for a changing climate
Through carrying out their functions, some public bodies will play a central role in preparing Scotland for a changing climate. For example, a planning authority taking account of flood risk in decisions on the location of developments. Public bodies can also influence Scotland's resilience by, for example, protecting ecosystem services such as natural flood management.
Another key role for public bodies will be in influencing and supporting the resilience of individuals and communities to the impacts of climate change, for example, by building adaptive capacity through raising awareness of impacts and community consultation as part of the adaptation planning process.
Public bodies' functions vary significantly, and include undertaking statutory roles and providing essential services to people living and working in Scotland. These activities need to be maintained and remain affordable in the face of a move towards a low-carbon future and a changing climate.
Public Bodies Climate Change Duties: Putting Them Into Practice, Scottish Government, February 2011
3. Local Authorities
Scotland's communities will often be in the front line in responding to the impacts of climate change and local authorities and their Community Planning Partnerships are ideally placed to lead the community response to climate change. With knowledge of local values, industries and landscapes, local government allows adaptation actions to be tailored effectively to localised impacts of climate change.
Local authorities can also work in partnership with their broader community of local estate managers, employers, community leaders and planning partners in preparing for a changing climate. Local authorities can also work in partnership with their broader community of local estate managers, employers, community leaders and planning partners in preparing for a changing climate. Local authorities across Scotland are working hard to build capacity and take action in response to the risks and opportunities that they face as a result of changes in climate.
In 2007, all 32 Scottish local authorities showed their commitment to acting on climate change by signing Scotland's Climate Change Declaration  . This represented a voluntary commitment to take action and report annually on work to reduce emissions and adapt to the unavoidable impacts of climate change. In their work on climate change adaptation, local authorities have shown their leadership on strategic and targeted action across all themes in Section Two of the Programme and examples of this are illustrated within case studies in the Programme.
Given the important role of local authorities in supporting communities to adapt to the impacts of climate change, the Scottish Government is committed to developing their adaptive capacity.
Public Sector Climate Leaders' Forum
As the central part of governance arrangements to help drive the climate change mitigation and adaptation agenda forward across the public sector to deliver the requirements of the Climate Change (Scotland) Act 2009, Scottish Ministers have established a high-level Public Sector Climate Leaders Forum ( PSCLF)  with broad representation from the public sector. The group is chaired by the Minister for Environment and Climate Change, and the COSLA Spokesperson for Development, Economy and Sustainability acts as Vice-Chair. The Forum is supported by an Officials Group, which includes representation from the Adaptation Scotland programme, and is underpinned by a network of Climate Change Champions in key strategic roles across the sector.
Sustainable Scotland Network
The Scottish Government funds the Sustainable Scotland Network  to support public sector action on sustainable development, focusing on climate change and sustainable procurement, by:
- coordinating programmes on climate change and sustainable procurement including Scotland's Climate Change Declaration;
- sharing good practice and supporting collaboration;
- researching and promoting better solutions;
- connecting with national and international policy-makers, and;
- providing access to up-to-date news, advice and guidance.
4. Private Sector
Climate change implications for business, through failure to assess and manage climate risks, are significant. Impacts will be felt by every business irrespective of their size, location, markets, products or services, and will affect investors, customers and the business workforce itself. These impacts are wide ranging, and will include such diverse implications as security of supply chains and natural resources for raw materials to implications for workforces and the operational performance of assets. Business relies on a range of infrastructure and associated services including water supplies, waste disposal, energy supplies, supply chain and Information and Communications Technology ( ICT). Disruption to any of these services has a direct impact on business.
Flooding has the potential to disrupt UK businesses' supply chains by causing distribution delays. Flooding is also a factor in the market demand for goods. If extreme flood events affect key suppliers, and no alternate supply is available, then supply chains are severely interrupted. Each of these risks is likely to increase as the climate changes. Clearly there is also a very strong international dimension to this risk and therefore UK or non- UK supply chain disruptions can cause significant harm to business operations. They can raise costs, cause inventory overstocks, and lower the market share of a business. Broken supply chains jeopardise production and distribution, reducing revenue when goods can't be manufactured or delivered. Disruptions can also affect credibility with customers, investors and other stakeholders. 
We know that change is essential, and that business, through engaging its workforce and by influencing its customers, has a huge role to play in being a catalyst for this change. Businesses should be thinking about 'outward-facing adaptation' (relating to business risk and opportunities) as well as 'inward-facing adaptation' (relating to employees' skills or health and safety). Businesses thrive on opportunity, and the climate change challenge we face offers opportunities for new markets, to strengthen supplier relations (and their resilience to climate change) and to increase brand loyalty to name a few.
Opportunity in turn leads to innovation, and there is no doubt that the business sector is best placed to both lead and capitalise on new and innovative technologies. This in turn will support Scotland in reaching the ambitious climate change objectives set by the Scottish Government and will provide economic growth in a developing sector. It will also limit Scotland's environmental impact and provide the support and infrastructure needed to adapt to the inevitable climatic changes that will occur in the next 50 years.
2020 Climate Group
In December 2009 a Group initiated by Ian Marchant, (at that time Chief Executive of SSE), with support from the Scottish Government was set up to ensure that all sectors of Scotland's economy and civic society contribute fully to achieving Scotland's ambitious climate change targets.
The 2020 Climate Group has membership of approximately 140 individuals from 100 different organisations across Scotland. This membership is comprised of some of the largest businesses in Scotland, the Scottish Government, local authorities, universities, charities and SMEs.
Many businesses are assessing their vulnerability to climate change and are seeking to develop appropriate adaptation strategies.
Renewable sources of energy, such as wind, solar and wave power, are particularly dependent on changing weather patterns, with the potential for both positive and negative impacts. Energy infrastructure is vulnerable to extreme weather events (floods, storms). Developers, including those engaged in renewables, may need to take into account in their future siting decisions the risk of climate change, not only in terms of local impacts such as weather events, flooding and subsidence, but possible impacts on global supply chains. The Scottish Government will consider carefully how to raise awareness of potential risks, including through engagement with Scottish Renewables and other industry stakeholders.
The Scottish Government also recognises that broadband infrastructure providers have to take into account the risk of climate change along with the visual, noise and other impacts on the environment when designing networks and siting structures. The Scottish Government supports close working between infrastructure providers and relevant authorities to minimise negative impacts of deployment and maximise the reach of broadband enabling infrastructure.
Keeping Scotland Running ( KSR) Guidance is being developed and is aimed at government, business and industry and the emergency responder communities. KSR will encourage enhanced resilience and business continuity planning to keep Scotland running in spite of disruptive events. KSR will comprise a number of separate guides on issues relevant to critical infrastructure resilience, including natural hazards and climate change adaptation. KSR is expected to be published by the end of 2014.
A functioning transport network is critical to the vitality and sustainability of Scotland's economy. Everyone that uses this network or relies on it for their business will need to incorporate climate change risk into their day to day plans. Climate change is likely to increase the frequency of and the impact of severe weather, flooding and landslides. Traffic Scotland's website, Twitter, mobile applications, radio and infomercials provide regular traffic reports allowing business and transport users to access accurate and up-to-date information. The Scottish Environment Protection Agency ( SEPA) also provide live flood warnings via their Floodline service. Raising awareness of climate risks ('outward-facing adaptation') has already started with the likes of the Adaptation Scotland 'Adapting to Climate Change' guide for businesses and the 'Freight Best Practice Scotland: Winter Preparedness' advice note which both provide succinct guidance for transport infrastructure business users on how to prepare for climate change.
The Scottish Government has invested in a number of initiatives to encourage agricultural businesses to work collectively to adapt to the impacts of a changing climate. Through programmes such as Farming For a Better Climate, Future Proofing Scotland's Farming, and Cheviot Futures, farmers are provided with on-going technical advice and supported by industry experts to strengthen their businesses to make them more resilient to climate change.
The Cheviot Futures project is a simple, practical approach to the development of long term resilience measures for the environment, economy and local community against the impacts of a changing climate. It is a cross-border project, focused on working with the rural communities of the Cheviot Hills and the surrounding Tweed Catchment area, formed from representatives of agencies and organisations working in both North Northumberland and the Scottish Borders.
The project is funded through a grant provided by SRDP LEADER and aims to work with farmers to develop and trial new sustainable solutions to the impacts of climate change and demonstrate benefits that would encourage other farmers and land managers to invest in the adaptation methods. It brings together all interested parties who have a stake in the countryside and best practice is shared to support a more co-ordinated and streamlined approach thus also delivering wider community and economic resilience.
One of the concepts developed by Cheviot Futures is Farm Resilience Planning. Completing a Farm Resilience Plan ( FRP) involves working with the Cheviot Futures Project Officer to identify the challenges and opportunities presented to individual farms. The approach then seeks to identify what adaptations or resilience works may be suitable in addressing challenges and making the most of opportunities arising from a changing climate. The FRP will comprise a full report and detailed maps, with identified impacts and potential solutions marked up, as well as relevant additional information, drawing upon suitable advice and guidance. Where applicable, additional plans can be produced, for example detailed farm flood and fire plans.
Scottish Borders LEADER
5. Trade Unions
The Scottish Government and the STUC agreed a joint Communiqué on Climate Change on 27 May 2009  . The joint communiqué outlines shared aims and objectives, and a commitment to work in partnership to ensure the creation of high quality jobs through Scotland's transition to a low carbon economy and states that: "Addressing the economic, employment and social impacts of the transition to the low-carbon economy and adapting to climate change will be vital to building stakeholder support and delivering the necessary programmes of action." It agrees to jointly " Promote the importance of education, training, skills and workforce development in delivering effective action on climate change".
Adaptation Scotland provides support to trade union members through access to public sector training and online resources including 'Five Steps to Managing Your Climate Risks' and the Climate Risk Management Template.
Community support will be required to implement many adaptation activities and there must be a general awareness of why it is so important that Scotland prepares for a changing climate and what the costs of inaction may be. Communities also present immense potential for the development of innovative, grass root responses to the challenges of climate change.
The Scottish Government is committed to our communities being supported to do things for themselves (community empowerment) and to people having their voices heard in the planning and delivery of services through community engagement and participation. The Scottish Government is taking forward action in a number of areas and is working closely with partners to help support and promote community empowerment and engagement  .
The Scottish Government funds the Scottish Flood Forum to provide advice and support to communities at risk of flooding, including advice on insurance matters and protecting property.
Guidance for communities on Community Emergency Planning is available on the Scottish Government's Ready Scotland  website. This guidance identifies straightforward measures which communities can take to make themselves more resilient.
The Scottish Government works closely with local emergency service providers, the Third sector and community groups to ensure that Scotland is prepared for more frequent extreme weather events and the, often long lasting effects they can have.
All emergency and volunteer services play a vital role in responding to extreme weather events. The Scottish Government works closely with both sectors to develop and promulgate good practice. Preparing Scotland - Guidance on Building Community Resilience  , published in April 2013, sets out good practice for Responders in working with communities and the voluntary sector.
The Resilience Advisory Board Scotland (voluntary sector) acts as a Forum for the development of further integration of voluntary and statutory sector responders. The group has representation from the voluntary sector, local authorities and other public sector responders and the Regional Resilience Partnerships.
The Scottish Government also supports a number of mechanisms which enable groups to share good practice among themselves:
- The Ready Scotland website  highlights a number of examples of good practice involving partnership working between the statutory and voluntary sectors.
- The Voluntary Emergency Responders Guide  raises the profile of the services which national voluntary response organisations provide, includes contact details, and specific guidance on cross-sector engagement.
Encouraging behavioural change, such as increasing the uptake of property flood protection measures for households and businesses most at risk of flooding, can play a role in increasing resilience.
The Low Carbon Scotland: Behaviours Framework  sets out the Scottish Government's strategic approach to encourage low carbon lifestyles amongst Scotland's individuals and households. While the focus of this Framework is supporting behaviours to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, engagement on these issues can also provide opportunities to engage on adapting to the changing climate.
- Climate Challenge Fund  - projects which improve the resilience of communities to the impacts of climate change, that are delivered in a way that is demonstrably low carbon, and contribute to wider community action on climate change are eligible for funding through the normal Climate Challenge Fund route.
- A Low Carbon Vision for Scotland - the Scottish Government will publish a vision of a low carbon Scotland in 2030. This project, which will bring together adaptation and mitigation measures, will translate our policy ambitions for a low carbon future into an accessible vision which is meaningful at a household level. Through this vision we will aim to engage communities and individuals on what a low carbon future might mean for their daily lives.
- Low Carbon Networks - including Eco-congregations, Sustainable Scotland Network, Eco-schools and the Scottish Communities Climate Action Network, raise awareness of climate change and the impacts of this.
Over recent years, governments across the UK have been applying insights from behavioural science to policy problems. Traditional behavioural interventions have tended to focus on either the Individual, or on the Material contexts, and sometimes on both of these. However, this is often insufficient to lead to the change in behaviour that practitioners are expecting. The ISM  tool considers all of the contexts that shape people's behaviours - the Individual, the Social and the Material. By understanding these different contexts and the multiple factors within them that influence the way people act every day, more effective policies and interventions can be developed.
The Scottish Government will consider how the Individual, Social and Material ( ISM) tool can be applied to encouraging key adaptation behaviours amongst populations most at risk of the impacts of climate change.
7. Third Sector
The Scottish Government recognises the pivotal role the Third sector has in achieving its aim of building Scotland's resilience to the impacts of climate change. The sector has immense potential to link up grassroots community action, communicate policy initiatives, and run training programmes - connecting with the people in Scotland who turn to an environmental group or charity in the first instance to provide them with information on climate change. The Third sector is often best placed to connect with individuals that the public sector finds hardest to reach, working with the most vulnerable in our society and helping tackle the 'equality gap' which could be widened by the impacts of climate change. The Third sector also provides a valuable contribution to the collection of data, through their networks of staff and volunteers who observe wildlife and undertake research, as well as providing advice about managing protected areas and other valuable habitats.
The Scottish Government will support and work with the Third sector to offer targeted
support to those most impacted by climate change. We will look to the Third sector to help develop our understanding of how the impacts of climate change are already being felt by Scotland's communities and the natural environment, and in the development of sustainable methods to adapt to this change.
Measuring and Reporting Progress
Appropriate measurement and reporting of the Scottish Government's progress towards achieving the aim of the Scottish Climate Change Adaptation Programme is necessary for transparency and accountability. Related assessments and progress reports are illustrated below.
Reporting on the Scottish Climate Change Adaptation Programme
The Act requires Scottish Ministers to provide an annual report on progress towards achieving the objectives and implementing the proposals and policies set out in the Programme.
The Act also establishes the requirement for the relevant body to independently assess the Scottish Government's progress towards achieving the objectives and implementing the proposals and policies set out in the Programme. An independent assessment must be commissioned within two years of the Programme being laid before the Scottish Parliament. The Adaptation Sub-Committee of the Committee on Climate Change is currently designated as the relevant body. In the event of a Scottish climate change advisory body being established, this function would revert to the Scottish body.
Scottish Governance of Climate Change Adaptation
The Scottish Government must lead by example, integrating adaptation into its development processes.
The Governance structure to integrate climate change adaptation in to the Scottish Government is outlined below.
Delivery of the Programme will be overseen by the Climate Change Delivery Board.
The Board was established by the Scottish Government to oversee delivery of the statutory annual emissions reduction targets required by the Climate Change (Scotland) Act 2009. The Board meets quarterly and is chaired by the Director General Enterprise, Environment and Innovation. Membership covers Directors from the key areas within the Scottish Government involved with delivering emissions reductions.
The Board's scope will be expanded to include a new governance and reporting role for the Programme. For adaptation, its purpose will be to ensure delivery of the proposals and policies in this Programme, and subsequent Programmes, to ensure Scotland is well prepared and resilient to the impacts of climate change.
Membership will be reviewed to ensure that Directors with responsibility for delivering of proposals and policies in the Programme are appropriately represented.