Child trafficking: research
Research on the routes and circumstances of children and young people who have been identified as victims of trafficking and exploitation in Scotland, and their experiences of support services.
ATMG Anti-Trafficking Monitoring Group (2014) Proposal for a Revised National Referral Mechanism (NRM) For Children London https://www.ecpat.org.uk/Handlers/Download.ashx?IDMF=f1e86743-535c-4c95-8387-578cbc1a003b [Accessed 2 April 2019]
Annison, R. (2013) Hidden in Plain Sight - Three Years On: Updated Analysis of UK Measures to Protect Trafficked Persons, London: Anti-Trafficking Monitoring Group https://www.antislavery.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/01/hidden_in_plain_sight.pdf [Accessed 31 March 2019]
Archibald, M. and Munce, S. (2015) 'Challenges and Strategies in the Recruitment of Participants for Qualitative Research', University of Alberta Health Sciences Journal, 11(1), 34-37.
Arocha, L. and Wallace, R. (2010) Wrong Kind of Victim? London, Anti-Trafficking Monitoring Group https://www.ecpat.org.uk/Handlers/Download.ashx?IDMF=9b1a0aa4-8645-4d61-ade8-e5e7257ddc98 [Accessed 31 March 2019]
Beddoe, C. (2017) Nobody Deserves To Live This Way! An Independent Inquiry into the Situation of Separated and Unaccompanied Minors in Parts of Europe Human Trafficking Foundation https://www.antislaverycommissioner.co.uk/media/1262/nobody-deserves-to-live-this-way.pdf [Accessed 31 March 2019]
Braun, V. and Clarke, V. (2012) 'Thematic Analysis' in H. Cooper (Ed) APA Handbook of Research Methods in Psychology, Vol. 2: 57-71.
Brennan, D. (2005) 'Methodological challenges in research with trafficked persons: lessons from the field' in Laczko, F. and Gozdziak, E. (Eds) Data and Research on Human Trafficking: A Global Survey International Organization Migration http://publications.iom.int/system/files/pdf/global_survey.pdf [Accessed 31 March 2019]
Brodie, I., and Pearce, J. (2012) Exploring the Scale and Nature of Child Sexual Exploitation in Scotland Edinburgh, Scottish Government https://www.webarchive.org.uk/wayback/archive/20170105180932/http://www.gov.scot/Publications/2012/10/9300 [Accessed 31 March 2019]
Brown, S., Brady, G., Franklin, A., Crookes, R (2016) The Use Of Tools And Checklists To Assess Risk Of Child Sexual Exploitation: An Exploratory Study Coventry University https://www.csacentre.org.uk/research-publications/cse-risk-tools/exploratory-study-on-the-use-of-tools-and-checklists-to-assess-risk-of-child-sexual-exploitation/ [Accessed 2 April 2019]
Cameron, H. (2010) Child Trafficking: Mapping Resources in the City of Glasgow, University of Stirling, Scottish Centre for Crime and Justice Research.
Chase, E. (2010) 'Agency and silence: Young people seeking asylum alone in the UK', British Journal of Social Work, 40(7) 2050–68.
Council of Europe (2005) Council of Europe Convention on Action against Trafficking in Human Beings https://www.coe.int/en/web/conventions/full-list/-/conventions/rms/090000168008371d [Accessed 31 March 2019]
Crawley, H. (2011) When Is a Child Not a Child? Asylum, Age Disputes and the Process of Age Assessment London, Immigration Law Practitioners' Association http://library.college.police.uk/docs/APPREF/ILPA-2007-Executive-Summary-Age-Dispute.pdf [Accessed 27 March 2019]
Crawley, H. and Kholi, R. (2013) She Endures with Me Swansea University, University of Bedfordshire https://www.researchgate.net/publication/318947020_'She_Endures_with_Me'_An_Evaluation_of_the_Scottish_Guardianship_Service_Piloth [Accessed 27 March 2019]
DfE/Home Office (2017) Local Authority Support For Non-EEA Migrant Child Victims of Modern Slavery London, Department for Education/Home Office https://www.cordisbright.co.uk/admin/resources/localauthoritysupportfornon-eeamigrantchildvictimsofmodernslavery.pdf [Accessed 31 March 2019]
Doherty, S. and Morley, R. (2016) 'Promoting Psychological Recovery in Victims of Human Trafficking' in M. Malloch and P. Rigby (Eds) Human Trafficking: The Complexities of Exploitation, Edinburgh, Edinburgh University Press.
ECPAT UK (2017) Time to Transform: Results of a Survey of Frontline Professionals on the National Referral Mechanism for Child Victims of Trafficking and Modern Slavery London ECPAT UK.
ECPAT UK (2019) Precarious Journeys Mapping vulnerabilities of victims of trafficking from Vietnam to Europe ECPAT UK. Anti-slavery International, Pacific Links Foundation https://www.antislavery.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/03/Precarious-Journeys-Mapping-vulnerabilities-of-victims-of-trafficking-from-Vietnam-to-Europe.pdf [Accessed 31 March 2019]
EHRC Scotland (2011) Inquiry into Human Trafficking in Scotland Edinburgh Equalities and Human Rights Commission Scotland https://www.equalityhumanrights.com/sites/default/files/inquiry_into_human_trafficking_in_scotland-full-report.pdf [Accessed 31 March 2019]
EU Parliament (2013) Directive 2011/36/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council On Preventing And Combating Trafficking In Human Beings And Protecting Its Victims https://ec.europa.eu/anti-trafficking/sites/antitrafficking/files/directive_thb_l_101_15_april_2011_1.pdf [Accessed 31 March 2019]
Fairfax, K. and Rigby, P. (2011) Local Authority Pilots of the London Safeguarding Trafficked Children Guidance and Toolkit London Safeguarding Children Board.
Gearon, A. (2018) 'Child trafficking: Young people's experiences of front-line services in England' British Journal of Criminology (29) 481-500.
Godziak, E. and Bump, M. (2008) Data and Research on Human Trafficking Georgetown University, Institute for the Study of International Migration https://repository.library.georgetown.edu/bitstream/handle/10822/551495/Data_research_trafficking.pdf?sequence=1 [Accessed 31 March 2019]
Gregoriou, C. and Ras, I.A.(2018) Representations of Transnational Human Trafficking: A Critical Review In: C. Gregoriou (ed). Representations of Transnational Human Trafficking: Present-Day News Media, True Crime, and Fiction London, Palgrave.
Harvey, JH., Hornsby, RA., Sattar, Z. (2015) 'Disjointed service: An English case study of multiagency provision in tackling child trafficking' British Journal of Criminology 55, 494–513.
HM Government (2018) UK Annual Report on Modern Slavery London, Home Office https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/749346/2018_UK_Annual_Report_on_Modern_Slavery.pdf [Accessed 31 March 2019]
Home Office (2010) An Evidence Assessment of The Routes Of Human Trafficking Into The UK London, Home Office https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/115923/occ103.pdf [Accessed 31 March 2019]
Home Office (2014) Review of the National Referral Mechanism for Victims of Human Trafficking London, Home Office https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/467434/Review_of_the_National_Referral_Mechanism_for_victims_of_human_trafficking.pdf [Accessed 31 March 2019]
Home Office (2016a) Victims of Modern Slavery – Frontline Staff Guidance London, Home Office https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/509326/victims-of-modern-slavery-frontline-staff-guidance-v3.pdf
Home Office (2016b) National Referral Mechanism: Guidance for Child First Responders London, Home Office https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/510091/NRM_-_guidance_for_child_first_responders_v2.0_EXT.PDF [Accessed 27 March 2019]
Home Office (2017) An Evaluation of the National Referral Mechanism Pilot London, Home Office https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/653703/evaluation-national-referral-mechanism-pilot-horr94.pdf [Accessed 6 September 2019]
Home Office (2019a) Victims of Modern Slavery – Competent Authority Guidance London, Home Office https://www.safeguardingchildren.co.uk/wp-content/uploads/2019/09/victims-of-modern-day-slavery-competent-authroity-guidance.pdf [Accessed 8 May 2019]
Home Office (2019b) Assessing Age London, Home Office https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/804760/Assessing-age-asylum-instruction-v3.0ext.pdf [Accessed May 2019]
Home Office (2019c) National Referral Mechanism Statistics Quarter 2 2019 – April to June https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/827508/national-referral-mechanism-statistics-quarter-2-2019-april-to-june.pdf [Accessed 9 September 2019]
Howard, N. (2017) Child Trafficking, Youth Labour Mobility and the Politics of Protection London, Palgrave Macmillan
Hynes, P. (2010) 'Global points of 'vulnerability': understanding processes of the trafficking of children and young people into, within and out of the UK', The International Journal of Human Rights,14:6, 952-970.
Hynes, P. (2015) 'No 'Magic Bullets': Children, Young People, Trafficking and Child Protection in the UK International Migration Vol. 53 (4) 2015 62-76.
IOM International Organisation for Migration (2009) Guidelines for the Collection of Data on Trafficking in Human Beings, Including Comparable Indicators Vienna International Organisation for Migration https://publications.iom.int/system/files/pdf/guidelines_collection_data_iomvienna.pdf [Accessed 31 March 2019]
Ivan, J. (2016) Case Study on the Scottish Guardianship System and on the Role of the Independent Guardian in Ensuring Adequate Reception Conditions European Council on Refugees and Exiles https://www.ecre.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/05/Scotland_Case_Study1.pdf [Accessed 1 April 209]
Jay, A. (2014) Independent Inquiry into Child Sexual Exploitation in Rotherham https://www.rotherham.gov.uk/downloads/file/279/independent-inquiry-into-child-sexual-exploitation-in-rotherham [Accessed 1 April 2019]
Kohli, R.S. (2006) 'The Sound of Silence: Listening to What Unaccompanied Asylum-seeking Children Say and Do Not Say' British Journal of Social Work (2006) 36, 707–721.
Kohli, R.S. (2007) Social Work with Unaccompanied Asylum Seeking Children, Basingstoke, Palgrave Macmillan.
Kovacevic, I. and Mirovic, V. (2005) Children Speak Out: Trafficking Resilience and Risk in South East Europe – Montenegro Report, Montenegro, Save the Children http://resourcecentre.savethechildren.se/library/children-speak-out-trafficking-risk-and-resilience-southeast-europe-montenegro-report [Accessed 31 March 2019]
Lebov, K. (2010) 'Human trafficking in Scotland' European Journal of Criminology 7(1) 77–93.
Legal Services Agency – LSA (2014) Legal Issues in the Accommodation and Support of Asylum Seeking and Trafficked Children Under the Children (Scotland) Act 1995 http://strategiclegalfund.org.uk/Legal%20Services%20Agency_SLF%20Report%20FINAL%20Enc%201.pdf [Accessed 31 March 2019]
Lynch, JK and Hadjimatheau, K. (2011) 'Challenges and expectations of safeguarding and anti-trafficking initiatives at the UK border' Border Criminologies blog University of Oxford https://www.law.ox.ac.uk/research-subject-groups/centre-criminology/centreborder-criminologies/blog/2017/07/challenges-and [Accessed 29 July 2019]
MacSween, C. (2013) Evidence presented to the Modern Slavery Bill Joint Committee, House of Commons. London https://publications.parliament.uk/pa/jt201314/jtselect/jtslavery/166/16606.htm#n165 [Accessed 5 April 2019]
Malloch, M. and Rigby, P. (2016) (Eds) Human Trafficking: The Complexities of Exploitation, Edinburgh University Press.
NCA – National Crime Agency (2018) National Referral Mechanism Statistics 2012-2018 https://nationalcrimeagency.gov.uk/who-we-are/publications?search=&category%5B%5D=13&limit=15&tag=&tag= [Accessed 31 March 2019]
NCA – National Crime Agency (2017) County Lines Violence, Exploitation & Drug Supply 2017: National Briefing Report https://nationalcrimeagency.gov.uk/who-we-are/publications/234-county-lines-violen-ce-exploitation-drug-supply-2017/file [Accessed 31 March 2019]
NCA - National Crime Agency (2019a) National Referral Mechanism Statistics: End of Year Summary 2018 https://www.nationalcrimeagency.gov.uk/who-we-are/publications/282-national-referral-mechanism-statistics-end-of-year-summary-2018/file [Accessed 27 March 2019]
NCA – National Crime Agency (2019b) National Referral Mechanism Statistics: Quarter 1 2019 January to March https://nationalcrimeagency.gov.uk/who-we-are/publications/291-modern-slavery-and-human-trafficking-national-referral-mechanism-statistics-january-to-march-2019/file [Accessed 9 September 2019]
Oram, S., Stockl, H., Busza, J., Howard, LM., Zimmerman C. (2012) Prevalence and risk of violence and the physical, mental, and sexual health problems associated with human trafficking: Systematic review PLOS Med doi: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1001224 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3362635/ [Accessed 31 March 2019]
Ottisova, L., Smith, P., Shetty, H., Stahl, D., Downs, J., Oram, S. (2018) Psychological consequences of child trafficking: An historical cohort study of trafficked children in contact with secondary mental health services PLOS One doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0192321 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5843209/ [Accessed 31 March 2019]
Rafferty, Y. (2007) 'Children for sale: child trafficking in Southeast Asia' Child Abuse Review 16, 401-422.
Rigby, P. (2009) Child Trafficking in Glasgow: Report of a Social Work Case File Analysis of Unaccompanied Asylum Seeking Children Glasgow, Child Protection Committee https://dspace.stir.ac.uk/bitstream/1893/22477/1/Glasgow_Child_Protection_Committee_child_trafficking_views_of_Professionals.pdf [Accessed 31 March 2019]
Rigby, P. (2010) Child Trafficking in Glasgow: The Views of Professionals Glasgow, Child Protection Committee https://dspace.stir.ac.uk/bitstream/1893/22477/1/Glasgow_Child_Protection_Committee_child_trafficking_views_of_Professionals.pdf [Accessed 31 March 2019]
Rigby, P., Murie, S, Ball, M. (2012) Child Trafficking in Glasgow: The Journey So Far Glasgow Child Protection Committee
Rigby, P., Thomson, K., Macsween, C., Tudor, C. (2015) The Identification and Support of Child Victims of Trafficking in Scotland: A Child Protection Model Paper submitted to Scottish Parliament Justice Committee evidence session 10 March 2015 http://www.scottish.parliament.uk/S4_JusticeCommittee/Meeting%20Papers/Papers20150310.pdf [Accessed 2 April 2019]
Rigby, P. and Ishola, P. (2016) 'Child Protection for Child Trafficking Victims' in Malloch, M. and Rigby, P. (Eds) Human Trafficking: The Complexities of Exploitation, Edinburgh University Press.
Rigby, P. and Whyte, B. (2015) 'The importance of children's narrative within a multi-centred, dynamic ecological framework for child trafficking assessment and planning' British Journal of Social Work (45) 34-51.
Rigby, P., Fotopoulou, M., Rogers, A., Manta, A. (2018) Responding to Unaccompanied Minors in Scotland: Policy and Local Authority Perspectives University of Stirling https://www.stir.ac.uk/research/hub/publication/1029734 [Accessed 31 March 2019]
Samuelson, KW. (2011) 'Post traumatic and declarative memory functioning: A literature review' Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience 13(3) 346-351.
Scotland's Commissioner for Children and Young People (2011) Scotland: A Safe Place for Child Traffickers? A Scoping Study into the Nature and Extent of Child Trafficking in Scotland.
Scott, J., Grant, M., Rigby, P., Sangstrom, S. (2018) Befriending Services for Unaccompanied Asylum Seeking Children in Scotland https://www.stir.ac.uk/research/hub/publication/1231985 [Accessed 2 April 2019]
Scottish Government (2013) Inter-Agency Guidance for Child Trafficking Edinburgh, Scottish Government https://www2.gov.scot/resource/0043/00437636.pdf [Accessed 31 March 2019]
Scottish Government (2014) National Guidance for Child Protection in Scotland Edinburgh, Scottish Government https://www.gov.scot/publications/national-guidance-child-protection-scotland/ [Accessed 31 March 2019]
Scottish Government (2015) Trafficking and Exploitation Strategy Edinburgh, Scottish Government https://www.gov.scot/publications/trafficking-exploitation-strategy/pages/1/ [Accessed 31 March 2019]
Scottish Government (2017) Human Trafficking and Exploitation Strategy Edinburgh, Scottish Government https://www.gov.scot/publications/trafficking-exploitation-strategy/ [Accessed 31 March 2019]
Scottish Government (2018a) What is GIRFEC? https://www.gov.scot/Topics/People/Young-People/gettingitright/what-is-girfec [Accessed 31 March 2018]
Scottish Government (2018b) Age Assessment Practice Guidance for Scotland Edinburgh, Scottish Government https://www.gov.scot/publications/age-assessment-practice-guidance-scotland-good-practice-guidance-support-social/ [Accessed 31 March 2019]
Scottish Parliament (2010) Inquiry into Migration and Trafficking Equal Opportunities Committee Report https://archive.parliament.scot/s3/committees/equal/reports-10/eor10-05-00.htm [Accessed 31 March 2019]
Scottish Parliament (2014) Report on Tackling Child Sexual Exploitation in Scotland www.scottish.parliament.uk/S4_PublicPetitionsCommittee/Reports/puR-14-01w-rev-v3.pdf [Accessed 31 March 2019]
Sereni, A. and Baker, C. (2018) Before the Harm is Done: Examining the UK's Response to the Prevention of Trafficking London, The Anti-Trafficking Monitoring Group.
Setter, C. and Baker, C. (2018) Child Trafficking in the UK 2018: A Snapshot London, ECPAT https://www.ecpat.org.uk/Handlers/Download.ashx?IDMF=de66f2c7-64f9-485f-bb45-e3f38b7b4675[Accessed 31 March 2019]
Siegel, D. and de Wildt, R. (2016) (Eds.) Ethical Concerns in Research on Human Trafficking.
Silverman, D. (2013) Modern Slavery: An Application of Multiple Systems Estimation https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/386841/Modern_Slavery_an_application_of_MSE_revised.pdf [Accessed 31 March 2019]
Silverstone, D. and Brickell, C. (2017) Combating Modern Slavery Experienced By Vietnamese Nationals en Route to, and Within, the UK London, Independent Anti-Slavery Commissioner https://www.antislaverycommissioner.co.uk/media/1159/iasc-report-combating-modern-slavery-experience-by-vietname-nationals-en-route-to-and-within-the-uk.pdf [Accessed 31 March 2019]
Stone, N. (2018) 'Child criminal exploitation, 'county lines', trafficking and cuckooing', Youth Justice 2018, Vol. 18(3) 285–293.
Surtees, R. and Craggs, S. (2010) Beneath The Surface: Methodological Issues In Research And Data Collection With Assisted Trafficking Victims Nexus Institute and International Organisation for Migration https://publications.iom.int/system/files/pdf/beneath_the_surface.pdf [Accessed 31 March 2019]
Tuggey, L. and Smith, T. (2017) Achieving a Durable Solution for Trafficked Children UNICEF https://downloads.unicef.org.uk/wpcontent/uploads/2016/01/Unicef_DurableSolutions_Report2015.pdf?_ga=2.44140071.2069559445.1554032424-1558821978.1538736454 [Accessed 31 March 2019]
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UN (2000) Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons Especially Women and Children, supplementing the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime https://www.ohchr.org/EN/ProfessionalInterest/Pages/ProtocolTraffickingInPersons.aspx
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Vance, CS (2011) States of contradiction: Twelve ways to do nothing about trafficking while pretending to Social Research 78(3), 933-948
Wright, F. (2014) 'Social work practice with unaccompanied asylum-seeking young people facing removal', British Journal of Social Work, 44, 1027-1044
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