Publication - Research publication

Time use survey 2014-2015: results for Scotland

Published: 5 Mar 2019

Analysis of the Scottish results of the 2014-2015 time use survey by Centre for Time Use, Oxford University.

Contents
Time use survey 2014-2015: results for Scotland
3. Results

3. Results

Unless otherwise specified, all references to average time use and participation refer to the 2014-15 Scottish sample of the Centre for Time Use Research (CTUR) Time Use Survey. The results reproduced here highlight the most pertinent findings from the data. A full breakdown of all available data and all comparisons of statistical significance can be found in the data tables accompanying this report.

Paid work

  • Men spent significantly more time on paid work than women.
  • Those aged 65 and over spent significantly less time in paid work compared to all other age groups.
  • Non-disabled people spent more time in paid work than disabled people.
  • Those in the bottom 25% of the income distribution spent significantly less time on paid work than other groups within the income distribution.

The time spent on paid work in Scotland declined from an average of 164 minutes per day in the Scottish sample of the 2000-01 survey to an average of 148 minutes per day in 2014-15. This decline was not statistically significant. In the rest of the UK, however, the decline in paid work over the same period was statistically significant. It is possible, therefore, that the lack of significance in this decline may result from the comparatively smaller Scottish sample size. Those in the rest of the UK spent an average of 161 minutes per day on paid work, which was not significantly different from the Scottish average in 2014-15.

The average time use reported here is lower than a typical working day. This reflects the fact that the daily participation rate in paid work was 35% in the Scottish sample. This means that, on a given day that was selected at random, 35% of those sampled would be participating in paid work. The overall average time use, however, captures all those not undertaking paid work on a given day alongside those who were. For reference, the average time use of those participating in paid work on a given day, was 447 minutes – 7 hours and 27 minutes - per day amongst men and 380 minutes – 6 hours and 20 minutes - per day amongst women.

Gender

Men spent significantly more time on paid work than women. Men worked an average of 184 minutes per day, while women worked an average of 113 minutes per day. When analysed at different age ranges (see Table 3.1), time use differences between the genders were not significant except in the 45-64 age range, within which men spent an average of 238 minutes per day on paid work, compared to an average of 136 minutes per day for women. The differences in time use between men and women was also significant in the rest of the UK. Here, men spent an average of 195 minutes per day on paid work, compared to an average of 129 minutes per day amongst women.

Age

Those in the 65 and over age group spent significantly less time on paid work than those in the other age groups (see Table 3.1). This group spent an average of 19 minutes per day on this activity. The average across the whole sample was 148 minutes per day. The averages for the other age groups were not significantly different from each other.

Table 3.1 Paid work by Age and Gender

Avg. PR[5]

PR for men

PR for women

Avg. TU[6]

TU for men

TU for women

16-24

38%

40%

34%

161

176

140

25-44

52%

56%

48%

222

261

182

45-64

43%

50%

36%

184

238*

136

65+

7%†

13%*

3%

19†

31

8

All ages

35%

41%*

30%

148

184*

113

*Significantly higher than the comparative gender †Significantly different from all other age groups within column

Disability

Disabled people spent significantly less time on paid work than non-disabled people. Amongst non-disabled people, the average time spent on paid work was 181 minutes per day, compared to an average of 102 minutes per day amongst disabled people.

The differences in time use between disabled men and women were not significant. Here, men spent an average of 130 minutes per day on these activities, compared
to an average of 72 minutes per day amongst women. The differences in time use between non-disabled men and women, however, were significant. Here, men
spent an average of 224 minutes per day on this activity, compared to an average
of 140 minutes per day amongst women.

Income

Both the middle 50% of the income distribution and top 25% of the income distribution spent significantly more time on paid work than those in the bottom 25%. Those in the top 25% of the income distribution spent an average of 205 minutes per day on paid work. This compared to averages of 181 and 83 minutes per day spent on this activity by the middle 50% and bottom 25% of the income distribution, respectively.

Unpaid work

  • Women spent significantly more time on unpaid work than men.
  • Participants in the 16-24 age group spent significantly less time on unpaid work than those in the 45-64 and 65 and over age groups.

‘Unpaid work’ is a combined variable, meaning that it incorporates a range of other variables which are also reported on separately within this study. The nine components of ‘unpaid work’ are:housework; shopping, services and household management; construction and repairs; caring for one’s own children; caring for other people’s children; gardening and pet care; travel; help to others; and volunteering. These variables are discussed individually in subsequent sections of this report.

There were no significant differences in the time spent on unpaid work between Scotland and the rest of the UK, or between the 2000-01 and 2014-15 Scottish surveys. An average of 270 minutes per day was spent on unpaid work in Scotland, compared to an average of 261 minutes per day of unpaid work in the rest of the UK and an average of 281 minutes per day in the 2000-01 Scottish sample. In the rest of the UK, the decline in unpaid work between 2000-01 and 2014-15 was statistically significant, but the decline between the two Scottish samples was not. Daily participation in unpaid work was 98% across the whole sample, meaning that average time use is not unduly altered by daily participation rates.

Gender

Women spent significantly more time on unpaid work than men. On average, per day, women spent 310 minutes on these activities, compared to an average of
230 minutes per day amongst men. Broken down by age, women spent significantly more time on unpaid work in the 25-44 and 65 and over age groups (see Table 3.2). Women also spent significantly more time on unpaid work than men in the rest of the UK. Here, women spent an average of 298 minutes on unpaid work per day, while men spent an average of 223 minutes per day on these activities.

As will be discussed in subsequent sections, these differences partially reflect the significantly higher time spent by women than men in relation to housework, childcare and shopping, services and household management.

Age

There were some significant differences in time use between age groups. Those aged 16-24 spent 180 minutes per day on unpaid work, which was significantly lower than all other age groups. By contrast, all other age groups were not significantly different from each other. The 25-44 age group spent an average of 280 minutes
per day on these activities, compared to an average of 282 minutes per day amongst the 45-64 age group and an average of 284 minutes per day amongst the 65 and over age group. Amongst women specifically, the time spent on unpaid work in the 16-24 age group was also significantly lower than all other age groups.

Table 3.2 Unpaid work by Age and Gender

Avg. PR

PR for men

PR for women

Avg. TU

TU for men

TU for women

16-24

96%

93%

100%*

180†

158

211†

25-44

98%

97%

100%*

280

220

343*

45-64

99%

99%

100%

282

255

306

65+

98%

96%

99%

284

254

310*

All ages

98%

97%

100%*

270

230

310*

*Significantly higher than the comparative gender. †Significantly different from all other age groups within that column

Disability

Time use concerning unpaid work did not significantly vary between disabled and non-disabled people. Disabled people spent an average of 257 minutes per day on these activities, compared to the average of 278 minutes per day spent by non-disabled people.

Withinboth groups, women spent significantly more time on unpaid work. Amongst disabled people, women spent an average of 298 minutes per day on these activities, compared to the average of 219 minutes per day spent by men. Amongst non-disabled people, women spent 314 minutes on average per day on these activities, compared to the average of 238 minutes per day spent by men.

Income

Time spent on unpaid work did not vary significantly between income groups. Those in the bottom 25% of the income distribution spent an average of 250 minutes per day, on unpaid work. Those in the middle 50% spent an average of 262 minutes per day on these activities and those in the top 25% spent an average of 297 minutes per day on these activities.

Housework

  • Women spent significantly more time on housework than men.
  • The time spent on housework declined significantly between the 2000-01 and 2014-15 Scottish samples. This decline was also observed in the rest of the UK.
  • The 65 and over age group spent significantly more time on housework than all other age groups.

The data shows a significant decline in the time spent on housework between the two Scottish surveys. Here, housework declined from an average of 102 minutes per day in 2000-01 to an average of 90 minutes per day in 2014-15. Broken down by gender, this decline was observed for women within the sample, but not for men.
A significant decline in the average of amount of time spent on housework was also observed in the rest of the UK.

There were no significant differences between the Scottish sample and the rest of the UK in terms of time spent on housework, with the latter sample also spending an average of 90 minutes per day on housework. Overall, the daily participation rate in housework was 85% in Scotland.

Gender

Women spent significantly more time on housework than men. Women spent an average of 123 minutes per day on these activities, compared to an average of 57 minutes per day amongst men. With the exception of the 16-24 age group, time use was significantly higher amongst women in all age groups (see Table 3.3). Women also spent significantly more time on housework than men in the rest of the UK. In this context women spent an average of 123 minutes per day on housework, while men spent an average of 56 minutes per day on these activities.

Age

Time spent on housework varied significantly by age. Participants in the 16-24 age group spent an average of 43 minutes per day on housework, which was significantly lower than all other age groups. Comparatively, those aged 65 and over spent an average of 126 minutes per day on housework, which was significantly higher than all other groups. Those aged 25-44 and 45-64 spent an average of 75 and 92 minutes per day, respectively, on housework. In both cases this was significantly higher than the time spent on housework by those aged 16-24, while significantly lower than the time spent on these activities by the 65 and over age group.

Amongst women, those in the 65 and over age group spent significantly more time on these activities compared to all other age groups, while those in the 16-24 age group spent significantly less time on these activities compared to all other age groups.

Table 3.3 Housework by Age and Gender

Avg. PR

PR for men

PR for women

Avg. TU

TU for men

TU for women

16-24

77%

84%

68%

43†

42

44†

25-44

84%

77%

92%*

75

45

107*

45-64

85%

78%

90%

92

58

123*

65+

90%

84%

96%*

126†

79

166*†

All ages

85%

80%

90%*

90

57

123*

*Significantly higher than the comparative gender †Significantly different from all other age groups within column

Disability

Time spent on housework did not significantly vary between disabled and non-disabled people. Disabled people spent an average of 98 minutes per day on these activities, compared to an average of 85 minutes per day amongst non-disabled people.

Amongst disabled people, time spent on housework was significantly higher for women. Women in this group spent an average of 138 minutes per day on housework, compared to an average of 60 minutes per day spent by men. Amongst non-disabled people, time use was also significantly higher for women, at an average of 113 minutes per day, compared to an average of 55 minutes per day spent by men.

Income

There were no significant differences between the income groups in terms of time spent on housework. Those in the bottom 25% of the income distribution spent an average of 92 minutes on housework per day, compared to averages of 84 and 77 minutes per day for those in the middle 50% and top 25%, respectively.

Shopping, services and household management

  • Women spent significantly more time on shopping, services and household management than men.

Shopping, services and household management, as a variable, combines activities related to household administration, such as paying bills and household management, alongside various forms of shopping. Forms of shopping include, for example, shopping for food and clothing, shopping related to accommodation and shopping undertaken for leisure.

There were no significant differences in time use between the Scottish sample and the rest of the UK or between the two time periods concerning shopping, services and household management. Those in the 2000-01 Scottish sample spent an average of 36 minutes per day on these activities, compared to an average of 35 minutes per day in both the 2014-15 Scottish sample and the rest of the UK.

Gender

Women spent significantly more time on shopping, services and household management than men. Women spent an average of 40 minutes per day on these activities, compared to the average of 30 minutes per day spent by men. Across the age distribution, the time spent by women on these activities was significantly higher than men in the 25-44 year old age group, but not significantly different in other age groups (see Table 3.4).

Significant differences in time use also emerged between men and women in the rest of the UK, where women also spent an average of 40 minutes per day on these activities compared to an average of 30 minutes per day spent by men.

Age

There was some significant variation between age groups regarding shopping, services and household management. For those aged 45-64, the time spent on these activities – 47 minutes on average per day - was higher than the time spent by the 16-24 and 25-44 year old age groups. These latter groups both spent an average of 27 minutes per day on these activities. Those in the 65 and over age group spent an average of 34 minutes per day on these activities, which did not differ significantly from other groups.

Table 3.4 Shopping, services and household management by Age and Gender

Avg. PR

PR for men

PR for women

Avg. TU

TU for men

TU for women

16-24

43%

41%

46%

27

26

28

25-44

44%

31%

58%*

27

19

35*

45-64

60%

58%

62%

47

39

54

65+

54%

58%

50%

34

35

34

All ages

51%

47%

56%

35

30

40*

*Significantly higher than the comparative gender

Disability

The time spent on shopping, services and household management did not vary significantly between disabled and non-disabled people. Both groups reported spending an average of 35 minutes per day on shopping, services and household management. The differences between men and women were not significant in either group.

Income

The time spent on shopping, services and household management use did not vary significantly with income. The bottom 25% of the income distribution spent an average of 34 minutes per day on these activities, compared to averages of 33 and 34 minutes per day amongst the middle 50% and top 25% of the income distribution, respectively.

Construction and repairs

  • Men spent significantly more time on construction and repairs than women.
  • Time spent on construction and repairs was significantly lower in Scotland than in the rest of the UK.

The time spent on and construction and repairs was significantly lower in Scotland than in the rest of the UK. Those in the rest of the UK spent an average of seven minutes per day on these activities, compared to an average of four minutes per day in the Scottish sample. Time spent on construction and repairs was also significantly higher in the Scottish sample from the 2000-01 survey than in the Scottish sample from the 2014-15 survey, at an average of 10 minutes per day. The low average use of time here reflects, in part, the low daily participation rates in these activities, which was 5% in the 2014-15 Scottish sample and 7% in the rest of the UK.

Gender

Men spent significantly more time on construction and repairs than women. Men spent an average of six minutes per day on these activities, compared to an average of two minutes per day amongst women. The significantly higher time spent by men on these activities than women was also identified in the rest of the UK. In this context, men spent an average of 11 minutes per day on these activities, compared to an average of three minutes per day amongst women. These differences between genders were statistically significant within the 45-64 and 65 and over age groups (see Table 3.5).

Age

There was limited variation in the time spent on construction and repairs between the age groups (see Table 3.5). The 65 and over age group spent an average of seven minutes per day on these activities, which was significantly higher than the average of one minute per day amongst the 16-24 year old age group. This was not significantly different, however, to the 25-44 or 45-64 year old age groups. These groups spent an average of two and four minutes per day on these activities, respectively, which did not significantly differ from other age groups.

Table 3.5 Construction and repairs by Age and Gender

Avg. PR

PR for men

PR for women

Avg. TU

TU for men

TU for women

16-24

2%

2%

1%

1

1

1

25-44

2%

3%

1%

2

2

3

45-64

5%

9%*

1%

4

8*

0

65+

9%

14%

4%

7

13*

2

All ages

5%

8%*

2%

4

6*

2

*Significantly higher than the comparative gender

Disability

Time spent on construction and repairs did not vary significantly between disabled and non-disabled people. Non-disabled people spent an average of three minutes per day on these activities, compared to an average of six minutes per day amongst disabled people. Amongst disabled people, men spent an average of nine minutes per day on these activities, which was significantly higher than the average of two minutes per day spent by women. Amongst non-disabled people, the difference between men and women was not significant. Here, men spent an average of four minutes per day on these activities, compared to an average of two minutes per day amongst women.

Income

Time spent on construction and repairs did not vary significantly across the income groups. Those in the bottom 25% of the income distribution spent an average of three minutes per day on these activities. Those is the middle 50% spent an average of four minutes per day on these activities, compared to an average of five minutes per day amongst those in the top 25%.

Childcare (own children)

  • Women spent significantly more time on childcare than men.
  • Time spent on childcare significantly increased in Scotland between 2000-01 and 2014-15.
  • Those aged 25-44 spent significantly more time on childcare than other age groups.
  • Disabled people spent significantly less time on childcare than non-disabled people.

Childcare in this context refers to childcare for children living in the same residence as the participant, as distinct from childcare for children primarily living elsewhere.

Those in the Scottish sample spent an average of 26 minutes per day on childcare, compared to 21 minutes in the rest of the UK. However, these differences were non-significant. Time spent on childcare increased significantly between the two Scottish samples, from an average of 19 minutes a day in 2000-01 to the 26 minutes a day in 2014-15. A statistically significant increase in the same period, however, was not observed in the rest of the UK.

Gender

Women spent significantly more time on childcare than men. Women spent an average of 35 minutes per day on childcare, compared to an average of 16 minutes per day spent by men. A statistically significant difference between men and women was also observed in the rest of the UK. In this context, women spent an average of 29 minutes per day on childcare, compared to an average of 12 minutes per day amongst men. Broken down by age, the differences between men and women were only significant in the 25-44 age group. Women aged 25-44 spent an average of 93 minutes per day on childcare, which was significantly higher than the average of 40 minutes per day reported by men.

The relatively low average time use reported above partially reflects low average daily participation rates. In turn, this may reflect the fact that not all participants had children. Within the sample as a whole 24% of women in Scotland reported participating in childcare on a given day, compared to 15% of men (see Table 3.6). For those aged 25-44, the primary childbearing years, women had a daily participation rate of 58%, compared to 37% amongst men. Amongst those who were participating in childcare on a given day, time use averaged 143 minutes - two hours and 23 minutes - per day for women and 106 minutes - one hour and 46 minutes - per day for men.

Age

Those in the 25-44 year old age group spent an average of 65 minutes per day on childcare (see Table 3.6). This group spent significantly more time caring for their own children than all other age groups. Those aged 65 and over, by contrast, spent an average of one minute per day on caring for their children, which was significantly lower than those aged 25-44 and 45-64, while not significantly different from those aged 16-24. Those aged 45-64 spent an average of eight minutes per day on this activity, which significantly lower than the 25-44 age group. The time use in the 45-64 age group was significantly higher than the 65 and over age group, but not significantly higher than the 16-24 age group.

Those in the 16-24 group, however, spent an average of 19 minutes per day on this activity, which was significantly lower than the 25-44 age group and otherwise not significantly different from the other groups. Again, low averages in these contexts reflect the fact that there was considerable variation in the participation rates amongst age groups. For instance, 1% of those aged 65 and over reported participation in childcare on a diary day, compared to 47% of those aged between 25 and 44.

Table 3.6 Childcare (own children) by Age and Gender

Avg. PR

PR for men

PR for women

Avg. TU

TU for men

TU for women

16-24

9%

3%

17%

19

5

39

25-44

47%†

37%†

58%* †

65†

40†

93*

45-64

12%

9%

14%

8

9

7

65+

1%

1%

2%

1

0

2

All ages

20%

15%

24%*

26

16

35*

*Significantly higher than the comparative gender †Significantly different from all other age groups within the column

Amongst men, those aged 25-44 spent more time on childcare than all other age groups. However, amongst women, while those aged 25-44 spent significantly more time on childcare than those in the 45-64 and 65 and over group, the difference in time use between those in the 25-44 group and the 16-24 group was not significant.

Disability

Time spent on childcare was significantly lower amongst disabled people compared to non-disabled people. On average, non-disabled people spent 35 minutes per day on childcare for their own children, compared to an average of 13 minutes per day amongst disabled people. This may, in part, reflect the fact that the rates of disability are higher amongst older people.

Amongst disabled people, the differences in time spent on childcare between men and women were not statistically significant. Here, men spent an average of 10 minutes per day on this activity, compared to an average of 15 minutes per day amongst women. However, amongst non-disabled people, the differences in time use were significant. Here, men spent an average of 21 minutes per day on childcare, compared to an average of 47 minutes per day amongst women.

Income

The time spent on childcare was significantly higher for those in the top 25% of the income distribution compared to the middle 50%. Those in the former group spent an average of 47 minutes per day on these activities, compared to an average of 21 minutes per day amongst the latter group. The bottom 25% spent an average of 26 per day on childcare, which was not significantly different to either of the other groups.

Childcare for the children of others

  • In the rest of the UK, women spent more time on childcare for the children of others – i.e. non-resident children – than men. However, the difference between men and women in the Scottish sample was not significant.

Childcare for the children of others here refers to childcare for non-resident children, i.e. children who live outside the home of the participant.

Time spent on childcare for the children of others did not significantly vary either between the Scottish sample and the rest of the UK or over time. An average of six minutes per day was spent on this activity in the Scottish sample of the 2000-01 survey, compared to an average of four minutes per day in the 2014-15 Scottish sample. Those in the rest of the UK spent an average of three minutes per day on these activities. These low averages reflect, in part, the very low daily participation rate for this activity, which was 4% across the Scottish sample.

Gender

Time spent on childcare for the children of others did not differ significantly between men and women in the Scottish sample. Here, men and women reported an average of three and five minutes per day on this activity, respectively. However, in the rest of the UK, women spent significantly more time on childcare for the children of others. In this context, men spent an average of two minutes per day on this activity compared to an average of four minutes per day amongst women.

Age

Across the whole sample, time spent on childcare for the children of others did not vary significantly differences between age groups (see Table 3.7). Amongst women specifically, the time spent on childcare for the children of others was significantly lower in the 16-24 age group relative to the 45-64 and 65 and over age groups. In the 16-24 year old age group, women spent an average of zero minutes per day on this activity. This compared to an average of seven minutes per day amongst women aged 45-64 and an average of eight minutes per day amongst women aged 65 and over. Amongst men, there were no significant differences between age groups in the time spent on this activity.

Table 3.7 Childcare for other people’s children by Age and Gender

Avg. PR

PR for men

PR for women

Avg. TU

TU for men

TU for women

16-24

6%

10%

0%

3

5

0

25-44

1%

1%

1%

2

3

1

45-64

5%

2%

8%

4

2

7

65+

6%

6%

7%

7

5

8

All ages

4%

4%

5%

4

3

5

Disability

Time spent on childcare for the children of others did not vary significantly between disabled and non-disabled people. Disabled people spent an average of six minutes per day on this activity, compared to an average of three minutes amongst non-disabled people.

Income

There were no significant differences between the income groups in terms of time spent on childcare for the children of others. Participants in the top 25% of the income distribution spent an average of three minutes per day on childcare for others. Those in the middle 50% and bottom 25% both spent an average of four minutes per day on this activity.

Gardening and pet care

  • Time spent on gardening and pet care was significantly higher amongst the older 45-64 and 65 and over age groups compared to the younger 16-24 and 25-44 age groups.

There were no statistically significant differences in the time spent on gardening and pet care between the Scottish sample and the rest of the UK. Those in the Scottish sample spent an average of 22 minutes per day on these activities compared to an average of 19 minutes per day in the rest of the UK. There was also no significant variation in the Scottish samples over time, with those in the 2000-01 Scottish sample spending an average of 19 minutes per day on these activities.

Gender

The time spent on gardening and pet care did not vary significantly between men and women. Women spent an average of 23 minutes per day on these activities, compared to an average of 21 minutes per day amongst men.

Age

Time use varied significantly between the age groups. Those aged 16-24 years and 25-44 years spent averages of five and 11 minutes per day on gardening and pet care, respectively (see Table 3.8). These averages were not significantly different from each other, but were significantly lower than the average time spent by those in the 45-64 and 65 and over age groups. These older groups spent averages of 27 and 37 minutes per day, respectively, on these activities. However, the differences in time use between the 45-64 and 65 and over age groups were not significant.

Table 3.8 Gardening and pet care by Age and Gender

Avg. PR

PR for men

PR for women

Avg. TU

TU for men

TU for women

16-24

7%

5%

11%

5

3

8

25-44

15%

14%

15%

11

7

14

45-64

31%

32%

29%

27

27

26

65+

33%

37%

30%

37

42

34

All ages

24%

24%

23%

22

21

23

Disability

The time spent on gardening and pet care did not vary significantly between disabled people and non-disabled people. Disabled people spent an average of 26 minutes per day on these activities, compared to an average of 19 minutes per day amongst non-disabled people.

Income

Time spent on gardening and pet care did not vary significantly by income group. Those in the bottom 25% of the income distribution spent an average of 25 minutes per day on these activities. This compared to averages of 24 and 15 minutes per day amongst the middle 50% and top 25%, respectively.

Travel

  • Men spent significantly more time on travel than women.
  • Disabled people spent significantly less time on travel than non-disabled people.
  • Those in the 65 and over age group spent significantly less time on travel than those in the 25-44 and 45-64 age groups.
  • Those in the lowest 25% of the income distribution spent significantly less time on travel than those in other income groups.

The variable ‘travel’ contains a range of different travel activities. It includes, amongst others, commuting to work, travelling to a holiday base, travelling related physical exercise, travelling to participation in social and cultural events, travel that involved escorting a child to both education and other non-education activities and travel undertaken in the course of taking part of shopping or household management.

There was no significant decline in time spent on these activities between the two Scottish samples. Those in the 2000-01 sample spent an average of 84 minutes per day on travel, compared to those in the 2014-15 sample who spent average of 82 minutes per day on these activities. An average of 82 minutes a day on travel was reported in both the Scottish sample and the rest of the UK.

Gender

Men spent significantly more time on travel than women. Men spent an average of 91 minutes per day on travel, compared to an average of 74 minutes per day spent by women. The difference between men and women was also significant in the rest of the UK. Here, men spent an average of 89 minutes per day on travel, compared to an average of 75 minutes per day amongst women.

Age

Travel exhibited some variation between age groups (see Table 3.9). The 25-44 and 45-64 year old groups spent averages of 90 and 96 minutes per day, respectively, on travel. In both cases, this was significantly higher than the average of 60 minutes per spent on travel by the 65 and over age group. For those aged 16-24, an average of 77 minutes per day was spent travelling, which was not significantly different to other age groups.

Table 3.9 Travel by Age and Gender

Avg. PR

PR for men

PR for women

Avg. TU

TU for men

TU for women

16-24

80%

78%

83%

77

72

84

25-44

86%

85%

87%

90

99

81

45-64

85%

85%

85%

96

107

86

65+

72%

74%

70%

60

72

50

All ages

81%

81%

81%

82

91*

74

*Significantly higher than the comparative gender

Disability

Non-disabled people spent significantly more time on travel than disabled people. Non-disabled people spent an average of 92 minutes a day on travel compared to 68 minutes a day for disabled people.

Income

Those in the bottom 25% of the income distribution spent significantly less time on travel than those in the other two income groups. Those in the bottom 25% of the income distribution spent an average of 60 minutes on travel per day. Those in the middle 50% and top 25%, by contrast, spent an average of 85 and 113 minutes per day, respectively, on these activities.

Help to others and Voluntary work

There were minimal significant differences between the various groups in terms of the time spent on help to others or voluntary work

The variable ‘help to others’ combined a range of variables concerned with offering assistance to other dependent and non-dependent adults, both inside and outside of the home. There were minimal statistically significant variations between the various groups in the time spent in help to others or voluntary work.

There was no significant difference between the Scottish sample and the rest of the UK or between the two Scottish samples in terms of the time spent helping others. The Scottish sample spent an average of three minutes per day on help to others, compared to an average of two minutes per day in the rest of the UK and an average of one minute per day reported in Scotland in 2000-01.

Time spent on voluntary work did not vary significantly between Scottish sample and the rest of the UK or between the two Scottish samples. The average time per day spent in 2000-01 was three minutes per day, compared to an average of four minutes per day 2014-15. In the rest of the UK, an average of three minutes per day was spent on these activities.

The very low average time use reported in this context partially reflects the very low daily participation rates for both of these activities. Across all groups, daily participation rates averaged 4% for help to others and 3% for volunteering.

Gender

Time spent on help to others and voluntary work did not significantly differ between men and women. Women spent an average of four minutes per day on help to others, compared to men who spent an average of two minutes per day on this activity. Women spent an average of five minutes a day voluntary work, compared to men who spent an average of four minutes per day on this activity.

Age

Help to others and voluntary work also did not vary significantly by age in terms of time use (see Tables 3.10 and 3.11) across the sample as a whole. Concerning men specifically, help to others amongst the 65 and over age group was significantly higher than amongst the 25-44 age group. Here, men aged 65 and over spent an average of six minutes per day on help to others, compared to an average of zero minutes per day amongst the 25-44 age group.

Table 3.10 Help to others by age and gender

Avg. PR

PR for men

PR for women

Avg. TU

TU for men

TU for women

16-24

5%

5%

4%

2

1

3

25-44

2%

0%

3%*

2

0

3

45-64

3%

5%

1%

1

2

1

65+

8%

10%

%

6

6

7

All ages

4%

5%

4%

3

2

4

Table 3.11 Voluntary work by age and gender

Avg. PR

PR for men

PR for women

Avg. TU

TU for men

TU for women

16-24

2%

3%

2%

4

4

4

25-44

1%

2%

1%

5

4

6

45-64

2%

3%

1%

3

4

2

65+

5%

5%

5%

6

3

8

All ages

3%

3%

2%

4

4

5

Disability

There were no significant differences in time use on either of these activities between disabled people and non-disabled people. Regarding help to others, non-disabled people spent an average of two minutes per day on this activity compared to an average of four minutes per day for disabled people. Regarding voluntary work, non-disabled people reported an average of four minutes per day on these activities, compared to an average of three minutes per day for disabled people.

Income

There were no statistically significant differences in participation in voluntary work or helping others across income groups. Regarding help to others, an average of three minutes per day was spent on this activity by the bottom 25% of the income distribution. This compared to average of one and two minutes per day amongst the middle 50% and top 25%, respectively.

Regarding voluntary work, the bottom 25% of the income distribution spent an average of three minutes per day on this activity. This compared to an average of six minutes and one minute per day amongst the middle 50% and the top 25%, respectively.

Study

  • Participants in the youngest age group – 16-24 – spent significantly more time studying than all other age groups.
  • Time spent on studying in the Scottish sample was significantly lower than in the rest of the UK.
  • Time spent on studying was significantly lower amongst disabled people compared to non-disabled people.

There was a statistically significant difference in the time spent studying between the Scottish sample and the rest of the UK. In the rest of the UK, participants spent an average of 19 minutes per day on study, compared to an average of 11 minutes per day in Scotland. There were no significant differences in time spent on study between the two Scottish samples. The 2000-01 Scottish sample spent an average of 17 minutes per day on study.

The low averages, in this context, partially reflect low daily participation rates in for this activity, at 5% across the whole 2014-15 Scottish sample. Participation rates were also highly differentiated by age (see Table 3.12).

Gender

There was no statistically significant difference in the time spent on studying between men and women. Women spent an average of 10 minutes per day on study, while men spent an average of 12 minutes per day on this activity. Differences between men and women were also non-significant in the rest of the UK. In this context, men spent an average of 21 minutes per day on this activity compared to an average of 18 minutes per day spent by women.

Age

Time spent on studying varied significantly between age groups. Those in the 16-24 age group spent significantly more time on this activity than all other groups. This group spent an average of 68 minutes per day on this activity. This compared to an average of seven minutes per day amongst the 25-44 age group, an average of three minutes per day in the 45-64 age group and an average of zero minutes per day in the 65 and over age group (see Table 3.12).

Table 3.12 Studying by Age and Gender

Avg. PR

PR for men

PR for women

Avg. TU

TU for men

TU for women

16-24

24%†

23%†

26%†

68†

67†

69†

25-44

3%

4%

3%

7

9

5

45-64

2%

2%

3%

3

1

6

65+

1%

0%

1%

0

0

1

All ages

5%

5%

5%

11

12

10

†Significantly different than all other age groups within the column

Disability

The time spent on study was significantly lower for disabled people compared to non-disabled people. Non-disabled people spent an average of 18 minutes per day on these activities, compared to an average of two minutes per day amongst disabled people. This may in part reflect the fact that rates of disability are higher amongst older people.

Income

The time spent on study did not vary significantly between the income groups. An average of four minutes per day was spent on studying by those in the bottom 25% of the income distribution, compared to an average of 17 minutes per day spent on this activity by those in both the middle 50% and top 25% of the income distribution.

Sports and outdoor activities

  • Men spent more time on sports and outdoor activities than women.
  • Time spent on sports and outdoor activities increased significantly between the 2000-01 and 2014-15 Scottish samples.

Time spent on sports and outdoor activities increased significantly between the 2000-01 and 2014-15 Scottish samples, from an average of 16 minutes per day in the former to an average of 21 minutes per day in the latter. Those in the rest of the UK reported an average of 18 minutes per day, which did not differ significantly from the Scottish sample.

The low average time spent on these activities should be understood with reference to the relatively low daily participation rate in these activities, which was 21% across the 2014-15 Scottish sample as a whole.

Gender

Men spent significantly more time on sports and outdoor activities than women. Women spent an average of 15 minutes per day on these activities, compared to an average of 27 minutes a day amongst men. Men also spent significantly more time on these activities in the rest of the UK. Here, men spent an average of 22 minutes a day on these activities, compared to an average of 14 minutes per day amongst women.

Including only those participating in these activities on a given day, participating men spent an average of 114 minutes per day on sports and outdoor activities, while participating women spent an average of 79 minutes per day on these activities.

Age

Time spent on sports and outdoor activities did not vary significantly with age (see Table 3.13).

Table 3.13 Sports and outdoor activities by Age and Gender

Avg. PR

PR for men

PR for women

Avg. TU

TU for men

TU for women

16-24

20%

21%

20%

29

30

28

25-44

26%

32%

19%

24

33

15

45-64

19%

14%

23%

16

16

16

65+

19%

24%

15%

19

29

10

All ages

21%

23%

19%

21

27*

15

*Significantly higher than for the comparative gender

Disability

There was no significant difference in the time spent on sports and outdoor activities by disabled people and non-disabled people. Disabled people spent an average of 18 minutes on these activities compared to an average of 23 minutes per day amongst non-disabled people.

Amongst disabled people, differences between men and women were non-significant. Women in this group reported an average of 14 minutes per day on these activities, compared to an average of 22 minutes a day amongst men. Amongst non-disabled people, men spent significantly more time on these activities than women. Here, men reported an average of 30 minutes a day on these activities, compared to an average of 16 minutes a day amongst women.

Income

Time spent on sports and outdoor activities did not vary significantly between income groups. Those in the bottom 25% of the income distribution spent an average of 18 minutes per day on these activities. Those in the middle 50% and top 25% spent an average of 22 and 20 minutes per day on these activities, respectively.

Social life, culture and entertainment

  • Women spent significantly more time on social life, culture and entertainment than men.

This set of activities comprises social and cultural activities and includes, amongst others, talking on the phone, participating in the arts, attending performances or the cinema, socialising with friends and family, celebrations, visiting historical sites and libraries, attending sports events or visiting leisure parks.

Time use did not significantly vary between the Scottish sample and the rest of the UK or between the two Scottish samples over time. On average per day, the 2000-01 sample spent an average of 63 minutes per day on these activities, compared to an average of 60 minutes per day in the 2014-15 sample. The rest of the UK spent an average of 61 minutes per day on these activities.

Gender

Women spent significantly more time on social life, culture and entertainment than men. Women spent an average of 66 minutes per day on these activities compared to an average of 53 minutes per day amongst men. In the rest of the UK, time use also varied significantly between men and women. In this context, women spent an average of 66 minutes per day on social life, culture and entertainment, compared men who spent an average of 55 minutes per day on these activities.

Age

There were no significant differences between age groups on the time spent on social life, culture and entertainment (see Table 3.14).

Table 3.14 Social Life, culture and entertainment by Age and Gender

Avg. PR

PR for men

PR for women

Avg. TU

TU for men

TU for women

16-24

51%

47%

55%

82

88

74

25-44

60%

52%

68%

51

43

59

45-64

57%

51%

62%

59

45

71

65+

61%

58%

63%

61

56

65

All ages

58%

53%

64%*

60

53

66*

*Significantly higher than for the comparative gender

Disability

There were no significant differences in the time spent on social life, entertainment and culture between disabled people and non-disabled people. Disabled people spent an average of 61 minutes per day on these activities, compared to an average of 58 minutes per day amongst non-disabled people.

Income

There were no significant differences between the income groups on the time spent on social life, entertainment and culture. Those in the bottom 25% of the income distribution reported an average of 69 minutes per day on these activities. This compared to an average of 61 and 48 minutes per day amongst the middle 50% and top 25%, respectively.

TV and other leisure

  • Men spent significantly more time on TV and other leisure than women.
  • Disabled people spent significantly more time on these activities than non-disabled people.
  • Those in the 65 and over age group spent significantly more time on TV and other leisure than all other age groups.
  • Those in the bottom 25% of the income distribution spent significantly more time on TV and other leisure than the other income groups.

TV and other leisure’ in this context refers to a range of activities including but not limited to watching television, resting, playing games, computing, reading and listening to music or the radio.

There were no statistically significant differences between the Scottish sample and the rest of the UK, or between the two Scottish samples in terms of time spent on TV and other leisure. Those in Scotland spent an average of 230 minutes on TV and other leisure, compared to an average of 222 minutes per day in the rest of the UK. The time spent on these activities did not vary significantly across time. Those in the Scottish sample from the 2000-01 survey spent an average of 239 minutes per day on these activities.

Given the high daily participation rates in these activities, at 94% across the whole 2014-15 Scottish sample, these averages are not unduly affected by low participation rates.

Gender

Men spent significantly more time on TV and other leisure than women. Men spent an average of 254 minutes per day on these activities, compared to an average of 207 minutes per day amongst women. In the rest of the UK, men also spent significantly more time than women on these activities. Here, men spent an average of 242 minutes per day on these activities, compared to an average of 203 minutes per day amongst women.

Significant differences between genders also emerged between different age groups. Men aged 25-44 spent 200 minutes, on average, per day, on TV and other leisure compared to 145 minutes spent by women. In the 65 and over age group men spent an average of 334 minutes per day on TV and other leisure, compared to an average of 277 minutes per day spent by women. Differences were not significant amongst genders in the other age groups (see Table 3.15).

Age

Time use varied significantly between age groups (see Table 3.15). Those aged 65 and over spent significantly more time on these activities than all other age groups. This group spent an average of 304 minutes per day on TV and other leisure Comparatively, those in the 16-24 age group spent an average of 231 minutes on per day on these activities, which was not significantly different to the averages of 173 minutes per day amongst those aged 25-44 and 223 minutes per day amongst those aged 45-64. The time spent by the 25-44 age group on these activities was significantly lower than the time spent by the 45-64 year old group.

Table 3.15 TV and other leisure by age and gender

Avg. PR

PR for men

PR for women

Avg. TU

TU for men

TU for women

16-24

94%

96%

92%

231

257

195

25-44

90%

92%

89%

173

200*

145

45-64

96%

96%

96%

223

242

207

65+

97%

97%

97%

304†

334*

277

All ages

94%

95%

94%

230

254*

207

*Significantly higher than comparative gender †Significantly different from all other age groups within the column

Disability

There was a significant difference in the time spent on TV and other leisure between disabled and non-disabled people. Those in the former group spent an average of 276 minutes per day on these activities, compared to an average of 199 minutes per day amongst the latter group.

Amongst disabled people, differences in time use between men and women were not significant. Here, women spent an average of 252 minutes per day on these activities, compared to an average of 299 minutes per day amongst men. Amongst non-disabled people, however, men spent significantly more time on these activities. Here, men spent an average of 220 minutes per day on TV and Other Leisure, compared to an average of 179 minutes per day amongst women.

Income

Those in the bottom 25% of the income distribution spent significantly more time on TV and other leisure than those in the other income groups. This group spent an average of 296 minutes per day on these activities, compared to averages of 215 and 180 minutes per day amongst the middle 50% and top 25% of income distribution, respectively. The difference in time use between the middle 50% and top 25%, however, was not significant.


Contact

Email: Claire McHarrie