Definitions and explanation of terms used in this document.
The following is a list of terms used in the Technical Handbooks that have a specific meaning. The defined terms which are used in the Building (Scotland) Act 2003 and the building regulations are in inverted commas. All the terms in bold text below are in italics throughout the Technical Handbook.
Access deck means a structure having a surface in the open air suitable for ingress and egress of persons to a building.
Access point means a physical point, located inside or outside the building, accessible to undertakings providing or authorised to provide public communications networks, where connection to the high-speed ready in-building physical infrastructure is made available.
Appliance compartment means a space constructed or adapted specifically for the housing of a combustion appliance.
Assembly building means any place of assembly, other than an entertainment building, including swimming pool buildings, churches and other places of worship, crematoria, dancing schools, educational establishments, gymnasia, law courts, libraries open to the public, day centres, clinics, health centres and surgeries, passenger stations and termini for air, rail road, or sea travel, public toilets, riding schools, ice rinks, sports pavilions, sports stadia, zoos and menageries, museums and art galleries.
in relation to any road , whether public or private, public access way or public right of way, river, stream, canal, loch, pond, common land or a public open space it should be taken to mean the centre line thereof; and
the sea and its foreshore should not be regarded as land in different occupation.
any private road,
any sewer or water main which is, or is to be, vested in Scottish Water,
any aerodrome runway,
any railway line,
any large raised reservoir within the meaning of the Reservoirs Act 1975 (c23),
any wires and cables, their supports above ground and other apparatus used for telephonic or telegraphic communication.
Any references to a building include references to a prospective building. Any references to a building, structure or erection include references to a part of the building, structure or erection. In relation to the extension, alteration or conversion of a building, references to a building are to so much of the building as is comprised in the extension or the subject of the alteration or conversion.
Building site means any area of land on which work is, or is to be, carried out.
Carport means a roofed building for vehicle storage which is open on at least two sides except for roof supports.
Cavity barrier means any construction provided to seal a cavity against the penetration of fire and smoke, or to restrict its movement within the cavity.
Chimney means a structure enclosing 1 or more flues, but not a flue pipe, and including any openings for the accommodation of a combustion appliance, but does not include a chimney terminal.
Compartment means a part of a building (which may contain one or more rooms, spaces or storey and includes, where relevant, the space above the top storey of the compartment) constructed so as to prevent the spread of fire to or from another part of the same building; and compartmented and compartmentation should be construed accordingly.
Compartment floor means a floor with the fire resistance required to ensure compartmentation.
Compartment wall means a wall with the fire resistance required to ensure compartmentation.
Conservatory means a building attached to a dwelling with a door and any other building elements dividing it thermally from that dwelling and having translucent glazing (including frames) forming not less than either:
75% of its roof area and 50% of its external wall area or
95% of its roof area and 35% of its external wall area.
Note – the definition of ‘conservatory’ was amended on 1 May 2007.
Construction Products Regulation means the instruction of the European Commission to Member States, numbered 305/2011, to regulate so as to remove technical barriers to trade in construction products within the European Economic Area.
Convert in relation to a building , means to make such change in the occupation or use of the building as specified in schedule 2 to regulation 4, and “conversion” and related expressions are to be construed accordingly.
Covered area means a roofed building which is open on at least two sides except for roof supports.
Decorative fuel-effect gas appliance means an open-flued appliance designed to simulate a solid fuel open fire primarily for decorative purposes and intended to be installed so that the products of combustion pass unrestricted from the fire bed to the flue.
Disabled people means persons with a physical, hearing or sight impairment which affects their mobility or their use of buildings.
Duct means the structure, trunking, or casing, with any apertures, enclosing a passage, other than a flue, used solely for conveying air, gases, or refuse.
by an individual or by individuals living together as a family; or
by not more than six individuals living together as a single household (including a household where care is provided for residents)
and includes any surgeries, consulting rooms, offices or other accommodation, of a floor area not exceeding in the aggregate 50 square metres, forming part of a dwelling and used by an occupant of the dwelling in a professional or business capacity.
Element of structure means a part of a building which is part of the structural frame (beams and columns), loadbearing (other than a part which is only self-loadbearing), a floor, or supports a floor.
Emergency door means a door which may be a fire door and which is intended to be used only during an emergency.
Entertainment building means a place of entertainment or recreation other than sports stadia, including bingo halls, broadcasting, recording and film studios open to the public, casinos, dance halls, entertainment, conference, exhibition and leisure centres (except where consisting predominately of a swimming pool), funfairs and amusement arcades, licensed betting offices, clubs, public houses, restaurants, cafes, snack bars, theatres, cinemas and concert halls.
Escape route means a route by which a person may reach a place of safety, and in relation to:
a place of special fire risk, means a route from an exit of that room or from an exit of the protected lobby serving that room, or from an exit of the room or lobby separating the place of special fire risk from any other accommodation, as the case may be.
Escape stair means a stair or ramp forming part of an escape route.
Factory (Class 1) is any factory involved in manufacturing, processing, repairing, cleaning, washing, breaking up or otherwise treating any substance comprising or used in association with: adhesives, asphalt and bituminous products, chemical and allied industries, cleaners and solvents, clothing and footwear (excluding laundering), coal and petroleum products, cork products, dry cleaning, dye-stuffs and pigments, fertilisers, grains and cereals, inks, insulated wires and cables, leather, sheepskin and fur, linoleum, magnetic tape, oils and greases, paints, paper, printing and publishing (excluding paper manufacturing), pharmaceutical products, photographic materials and products, plastics, polishes, rubber and synthetic rubber, soaps and detergents, spirit distilling, surgical bandages and plasters, synthetic resins, textiles, timber, joinery, furniture, brushes and brooms, toilet preparations, upholstery, weedkillers and pesticides.
Factory (Class 2) is any factory other than a factory (Class 1), including buildings used for generating or supplying power or slaughtering livestock.
Fire door means a door which, together with its frame and furniture as installed in a building, is intended, when closed, to resist the passage of fire and, where prescribed, smoke and is capable of meeting specified performance criteria in section 2.
Fire-stop means a seal provided to close an imperfection of fit or design tolerance between elements, components or construction so as to restrict the passage of fire and smoke through that imperfection. Fire-stopping and fire-stopped should be construed accordingly.
Flat means a dwelling on one storey, forming part of a building from some other part of which it is divided horizontally, and includes a dwelling of which the main entrance door and associated hall are on a different storey from the remainder of the dwelling.
Flue-block means factory-made chimney components with 1 or more flues.
Gallery means a raised floor or platform, including a raised storage floor, which is open to the room or space into which it projects and which:
has every part of its upper surface not less than 1.8 metres above the surface of the main floor of the said room or space and
detached from the dwelling or
attached to, but not entered from, the dwelling.
Greywater means wastewater not containing faecal matter or urine.
Ground storey means the storey of a building in which there is situated an entrance to the building from the level of the adjoining ground or, if there is more than one such storey, the lower or lowest of these.
Imposed load means the load assumed to be produced by the intended occupancy or use, including the weight of moveable partitions; distributed, concentrated, impact, inertia and snow loads, but excluding wind loads.
In-building physical infrastructure means physical infrastructure or installations at the end-user's location, including elements under joint ownership, intended to host wired or wireless access networks, where such access networks are capable of delivering electronic communications services and connecting the building access point with the network termination point.
Insulation envelope means the building elements which encapsulate the building or parts of the building which use fuel or power for heating or cooling the internal environment and will comprise all or some of the following:
elements exposed directly to the outside air
elements directly in contact with the ground
floors directly in contact with a solum space
elements that are buffered by an enclosed area
separating elements where the thermal transmittance should be ignored.
Note – the definition of ‘insulation envelope’ was amended on 1 May 2007.
Limited life building means a building intended to have a life of the period specified in regulation 6.
Notified body means a body (organisation), whose name is notified by individual countries or Member States, to the European Commission, that are designated to carry out conformity assessment (on harmonised technical specifications) according to a directive or regulation. The notification of a Notified Body and their withdrawal is the responsibility of the notifying Member State.
Office means a building or premises used for office, administrative or clerical purposes (including writing, book-keeping, sorting papers, filing, typing, duplicating, machine calculating, police and fire service work, drawing and editorial preparation of work for publication), financial transactions (including banking and building society work) and communications (including postal, telegraph and radio, television, film, audio or video recording or performance (not open to the public), communication or control).
Open-flued appliance means one that draws its air for combustion from the room or internal space within which it is installed and uses a flue system to discharge its products of combustion to the outside air.
Open sided car park means open sided car parks and parking garages, designed to admit or accommodate only passenger or light goods vehicles not exceeding 2500 kilograms gross mass. For the purposes of this description “open-sided” means naturally ventilated to provide an adequate supply of air in accordance with section 3.
Permanent ventilator means a ventilator which provides continuous ventilation.
an unenclosed space in the open air at ground level or
Place of special fire risk means any place within, or attached to, or on the roof of, a building in which there are installed one or more:
solid fuel appliances, with a total installed output rating more than 50 kW, other than kitchen appliances or
oil or gas fired appliances, with a total installed net input rating more than 70 kW, other than kitchen appliances and forced air convection or radiant heaters in buildings which are neither residential nor domestic or
fixed internal combustion engines, including gas turbine engines, with a total output rating more than 45 kW or
oil-immersed electricity transformers or switch gear apparatus with an oil capacity more than 250 litres and operating at a supply voltage more than 1000 volts or
fuel oil storage tanks having a capacity of more than 90 litres or
paint spray booths or rooms where cellulose or other flammable liquid spray is used.
Private road means a road not maintainable by the Scottish Ministers or a local roads authority (whether or not comprising a public right of way).
Private stair or ramp means a stair or ramp wholly within a dwelling.
Protected door means a fire door giving access to:
a fire-fighting shaft or
another compartment or
a place of safety or
an unenclosed external escape stair or
an open access balcony or
Protected lobby means a lobby within a protected zone but separated from the remainder of the protected zone so as to resist the movement of smoke from the adjoining accommodation to the remainder of the protected zone.
Protected zone means that part of an escape route which is within a building, but not within a room, and to which access is only by way of a protected door and from which there is an exit directly to a place of safety.
Public road means a road maintainable by the Scottish Ministers or a local roads authority.
Residential care building means a building used, or to be used, for the provision of:
a care home service or
a school care accommodation service
and for these purposes the expressions mentioned in sub-paragraphs a) and b) above have the same meaning as in the Regulation of Care (Scotland) Act 2001.
Road has the same meaning as in the Roads (Scotland) Act 1984 (c54) except that it also includes any drain or ditch at the side of a road.
Roof space means any space in a building between a part of the roof and the ceiling below.
Room means any enclosed part of a storey intended for human occupation or, where no part of any such storey is so enclosed, the whole of that storey, but excepting in either case any part used solely as a bathroom, shower room, washroom, toilet, stair or circulation area.
Sanitary accommodation includes bathrooms, shower rooms, washrooms and toilets.
Self-closing fire door means a fire door, fitted to close automatically from any angle of swing.
Service opening means any opening to accommodate a duct, pipe, conduit or cable (including fibre optics or similar tubing).
Shared residential accommodation means a unit of residential accommodation, other than a dwelling, having an occupancy capacity not exceeding 10, entered from the open air at ground level and having no storey at a height exceeding 7.5m.
two or more dwellings in the same building or
two or more dwellings on adjacent sites
where those dwellings are, in each case, designed and constructed for the purpose of providing residential accommodation for people who receive, or who are to receive, a support service; and, for these purposes, “support service” has the same meaning as in the Regulation of Care (Scotland) Act 2001.
Shop means a building or premises used for retail or wholesale trade or business, including sales by auction, self-selection and over the counter wholesale trading, hairdressing and beauty or body care and premises to which members of the public are invited to resort for the purposes of delivering or uplifting goods in connection with cleaning, repair, hire or other treatment or (except in the case of the repair of motor vehicles) of themselves carrying out such cleaning, repair or other treatment.
Smoke alarm means a device powered by mains electricity, with a secondary power source, containing within one housing all the components necessary for detecting fire and thereupon giving an audible alarm.
Note – the definition of 'stand-alone building' was added on 1 May 2007.
Storage building (Class 1) is any storage building containing hazardous goods or materials, and any storage of vehicles containing hazardous goods or materials, including: any compressed, liquefied or dissolved gas, any substance which becomes dangerous by interaction with either air or water, any liquid substance with a flash point below 65º Celsius including whisky or other spirituous liquor, any corrosive substance, any substance capable of emitting poisonous fumes, any oxidising agent, any substance liable to spontaneous combustion, any substance that changes or decomposes readily giving out heat when doing so, any combustible solid substance with a flash point less than 120º Celsius, any substance likely to spread fire by flowing from one part of a building to another.
Storage building (Class 2) is any storage building other than a storage building (Class 1), including car parks, parking garages designed to admit or accommodate only passenger or other light goods vehicles not more than 2500 kilograms gross mass, other than open sided car parks.
Storey means that part of a building which is situated between the top of any floor being the lowest floor level within the storey and the top of the floor next above it being the highest floor level within the storey or, if there is no floor above it, between the top of the floor and the ceiling above it or, if there is no ceiling above it, the internal surface of the roof; and for this purpose a gallery or catwalk, or an openwork floor or storage racking, shall be considered to be part of the storey in which it is situated.
Sub-compartment means a part of a building (which may contain one or more rooms, and includes, where relevant, the space above the top storey of the sub-compartment) constructed so as to aid horizontal evacuation.
Sub-compartment wall means a wall with the fire resistance required to create a sub-compartment.
System chimney (factory-made chimney) means a chimney that is installed using a combination of compatible chimney components, obtained or specified from one manufacturing source with product responsibility for the whole chimney.
Toilet means an enclosed part of a storey which contains a watercloset, a waterless closet or a urinal, which are properly installed for use.
using construction techniques that were commonly in use before 1919 and
with permeable components, in a way that promotes the dissipation of moisture from the building fabric.
Trickle ventilator means a closeable small ventilator which can provide minimum ventilation.
Unprotected zone means that part of an escape route, which is separated by walls, glazed screens or any other permanent form of demarcation from any space intended for human occupation, including a protected zone.
U-value (or thermal transmittance co-efficient) is a measure of how much heat will pass through one square metre of a structure when the temperatures on either side of the structure differ by 1 degree Celsius (expressed in W/m2K).
Wastewater means water that is contaminated by use and normally discharged from a watercloset, shower, bath, bidet, washbasin, sink, washing machine, floor gully and similar facility and also includes rainwater when discharging in a wastewater drainage system.