2.12 Fire and rescue service access
Vehicle access to the exterior of a building is needed to enable high reach appliances, such as turntable ladders and hydraulic platforms, to be used, and to enable pumping appliances to supply water and equipment for fire-fighting and rescue activities. The access arrangements increase with building size and height.
Conversions - in the case of conversions, as specified in regulation 4, the building as converted shall meet the requirements of this standard in so far as is reasonably practicable, and in no case be worse than before the conversion (regulation 12, schedule 6).
Access from a public road should be provided to assist fire and rescue personnel in their rescue and fire-fighting operations. Whilst the access will depend to some extent on the vehicles and equipment used, assistance may be provided from adjoining fire and rescue services when the need arises. For this reason, the more demanding guidance for high reach appliances may be recommended by the fire and rescue service. This may have a significant impact on planning and a feasibility study may be appropriate. Consultation with the fire and rescue service at the earliest opportunity is strongly recommended.
Vehicle access should be provided to at least one elevation of all domestic building to assist in fire-fighting and rescue operations.
Flats or maisonettes with a common entrance, a vehicle access route for fire-fighting vehicles from a public road should be provided not more than 45m from the common entrance.
In addition, where dry or wet fire mains are installed in a building, parking spaces should be provided for fire and rescue service vehicles a distance not more than 18m from riser inlets. The intention is to assist fire and rescue service personnel connect a short length of hose between the pumping appliance and the inlets to the fire mains quickly and efficiently therefore saving operational time.
However vehicle access routes to more than one elevation may not always be possible due to the constraints of the site, and pedestrian access for fire and rescue service personnel, as described in clause 2.12.4, may be sufficient. In such cases, advice from the fire and rescue service should be sought.
Every house should be provided with a vehicle access route for fire-fighting vehicles from a public road to not more than 45m from any door giving direct access to the interior of the dwelling.
Access routes to buildings for fire and rescue service vehicles or personnel should not be assessed in isolation and the proposed vehicle access routes will in effect, will be dictated by need for water hydrants and other fire-fighting facilities such as fire mains (see clause 2.14.7).
Dead end route - fire and rescue service vehicles should not have to reverse more than 20m from the end of an access road. Where any dead-end route is more than 20m long, turning facilities should be provided. This can be a turning circle or a hammerhead designed on the basis of the diagram and table below.
In rural areas, access from a public road may not be possible to within 45m of an entrance to the building, and access from a private road will suffice provided the guidance in the table below has been followed. The vehicle access route assumes that access for pumping appliances will be sufficient for houses, but that provision for high reach appliances should be made to buildings containing flats or maisonettes. Where, in consultation with the fire and rescue service access is only needed for pumping appliances, the smaller dimensions for a house may be used.
Table 2.5. Access route for fire and rescue service vehicles
|Access||Flats and maisonettes||Houses|
|Minimum width of road between kerbs||3.7m||3.7m|
|Minimum width of gateways etc||3.5m||3.5m|
|Minimum clearance height||4.0m||3.7m|
|Minimum turning circle between kerbs||26.0m||16.8m|
|Minimum turning circle between walls||29.0m||19.2m|
|Minimum axle loading||14 tonnes||14 tonnes|
Following consultation with the fire and rescue service, if it is recommended that an operating space, or spaces, for a high reach appliance should be provided, the operating space(s) should:
have a ground loading capacity of not less than 8.3kg/cm2, and
be level or not have a gradient more than 1 in 12.
The operating space shown in the diagram below is suitable for either a hydraulic platform or turntable ladder. Where the building has obstructions such as balconies or other projections, the building line should be taken to be the outer edge of the balconies or other projections.
It is common practice for fire and rescue service personnel to enter a domestic building through the normal entrances and fight the fire head on. This is termed ‘offensive fire-fighting’.
In order to allow unobstructed access to a domestic building for fire and rescue service personnel, a paved (or equivalent) footpath at least 900mm wide (see also Section 4 Safety) should be provided to the normal entrances, of a building.
In addition, where vehicle access is not possible to within 18m of the dry riser inlets (see clause 2.12.1), a footpath should also be provided to the riser inlets. This will allow the fire and rescue service to deploy portable pumps to relay water supplies to where the water is needed. Whilst this method of water distribution is quite common, it should be avoided for new developments because of the time delay in supplying water to the fire-fighters.
Every elevation which is provided with vehicle or pedestrian access for fire and rescue service personnel should have a door giving access to the interior of the building. Inward opening doors are preferable because this allows easier forced entry by fire and rescue service personnel should the need arise. However an outward opening final exit door or emergency door should also be considered as providing suitable access.