Avian influenza (bird flu) outbreaks

Latest situation including current outbreaks and measures in place to prevent the spread of the disease.


Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 has been confirmed in Scotland and in other parts of the UK. Restrictions and prevention measures are in place. 

Avian Influenza Prevention Zone (AIPZ)

An Avian Influenza Prevention Zone (AIPZ) was declared across the whole of the UK from 12pm on 17 October 2022. 

This means strict biosecurity measures for all bird keepers (including those who keep pet birds) to help prevent the spread of avian influenza from wild birds or any other source. All poultry gatherings are banned.

The AIPZ does not currently include a requirement to house birds in Scotland. However, this is being kept under constant review. You should always check as different arrangements may apply in England, Wales and Northern Ireland.

The grace period for free range egg production only applies where restriction of access to open-air runs is required – i.e. under a housing order. If a producer chooses to house voluntarily, the eggs don’t meet the free-range requirements and packs must be marked as “barn eggs”.

Cases and disease control zones

Check where disease control zones are currently located and if you are in a zone on the Animal and Plant Health Agency (APHA) interactive map.

In Clackmannan, Clackmannanshire

 

Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 was confirmed at a premises in Clackmannan, Clackmannanshire on 24 January 2023.

A 3 km Surveillance Zone (SZ) was declared, which took effect from 19:50 on 24 January 2023. This means there is a requirement:

  • for record keeping by the occupiers of premises where birds are kept, and persons transporting or marketing poultry or eggs 
  • to implement other biosecurity measures to reduce the risk of the spread of avian influenza to or from the premises (including the cleansing and disinfection of vehicles);
  • to prohibit bird gatherings and the release game birds.

Further information can be found in the Declaration.

Keepers can find out if their premises are in these zones via the APHA interactive map. You are in a SZ if the whole or part of your premises falls within the zone.

Vigilance by bird keepers is important and any suspicion of disease in Scotland must be reported immediately to the local APHA Field Services office.

In Grantown on Spey, Highland

 

Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 was confirmed at a premises in Grantown on Spey on 24 January 2023.

A 3 km Protection Zone (PZ) and 10 km Surveillance Zone (SZ) were declared, which took effect from 17:55 on 24 January 2023. This means movement restrictions within these zones – for example, poultry, carcasses, eggs, used poultry litter and manure – to prevent any further spread of disease. Further information can be found in the Declaration.

Keepers can find out if their premises are in these zones via the APHA interactive map. You are in a PZ or SZ if the whole or part of your premises falls within the zone.

Vigilance by bird keepers is important and any suspicion of disease in Scotland must be reported immediately to the local APHA Field Services office.

Near Tain, Highland

 

Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 was confirmed at a premises near Tain, Highland on 21 January 2023.

A 3 km Surveillance Zone (SZ) was declared, which took effect from 22:05 on 21 January  2023. This means there is a requirement:

  • for record keeping by the occupiers of premises where birds are kept, and persons transporting or marketing poultry or eggs 
  • to implement other biosecurity measures to reduce the risk of the spread of avian influenza to or from the premises (including the cleansing and disinfection of vehicles);
  • to prohibit bird gatherings and the release of game birds

Further information can be found in the Declaration.

Keepers can find out if their premises are in these zones via the APHA interactive map. You are in a SZ if the whole or part of your premises falls within the zone.

Vigilance by bird keepers is important and any suspicion of disease in Scotland must be reported immediately to the local APHA Field Services office.

Near Fraserburgh, Aberdeenshire

 

Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 was confirmed at a premises near Fraserburgh, Aberdeenshire on 12 January 2023.

A 3 km Protection Zone (PZ) and 10 km Surveillance Zone (SZ) were declared, which took effect from 7:05pm on 12 January 2023. This means movement restrictions within these zones – for example, poultry, carcasses, eggs, used poultry litter and manure – to prevent any further spread of disease. Further information can be found in the Declaration.

Keepers can find out if their premises are in these zones via the APHA interactive map. You are in a PZ or SZ if the whole or part of your premises falls within the zone.

Vigilance by bird keepers is important and any suspicion of disease in Scotland must be reported immediately to the local APHA Field Services office.

Near Forfar, Angus

 

Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 was confirmed at a premises near Forfar, Angus on 29 December 2022.

A 3 km Protection Zone (PZ) and 10 km Surveillance Zone (SZ) were declared, which took effect from 4:55pm 29 December 2022. This means movement restrictions within these zones – for example, poultry, carcasses, eggs, used poultry litter and manure – to prevent any further spread of disease. Further information can be found in the Declaration.

Keepers can find out if their premises are in these zones via the APHA interactive map. You are in a PZ or SZ if the whole or part of your premises falls within the zone.

Vigilance by bird keepers is important and any suspicion of disease in Scotland must be reported immediately to the local APHA Field Services office.

 

Near Ladybank, Fife

 

Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 was confirmed at a premises near Ladybank, Fife on 22 December 2022.

A 3 km Protection Zone (PZ) and 10 km Surveillance Zone (SZ) were declared, which took effect from 5:25pm on 22 December 2022. This means movement restrictions within these zones – for example, poultry, carcasses, eggs, used poultry litter and manure – to prevent any further spread of disease. Further information can be found in the Declaration.

Keepers can find out if their premises are in these zones via the APHA interactive map. You are in a PZ or SZ if the whole or part of your premises falls within the zone.

Vigilance by bird keepers is important and any suspicion of disease in Scotland must be reported immediately to the local APHA Field Services office.

Near Crieff, Perth and Kinross

 

Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 was confirmed at a premises near Crieff, Perth and Kinross on 17 December 2022.

A 3 km Protection Zone (PZ) and 10 km Surveillance Zone (SZ) were declared, which took effect from 6:50pm on 17 December 2022.

This means movement restrictions within these zones – for example, poultry, carcasses, eggs, used poultry litter and manure – to prevent any further spread of disease. Further information can be found in the Declaration.

Keepers can find out if their premises are in these zones via the APHA interactive map. You are in a PZ or SZ if the whole or part of your premises falls within the zone.

Vigilance by bird keepers is important and any suspicion of disease in Scotland must be reported immediately to the local APHA Field Services office.

In Forres, Moray

 

Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 was confirmed at a premises in Forres, Moray on 14 December 2022.

A 3 km Protection Zone (PZ) and 10 km Surveillance Zone (SZ) were declared, which took effect from 8.35pm on 14 December 2022.

This means movement restrictions within these zones – for example, poultry, carcasses, eggs, used poultry litter and manure – to prevent any further spread of disease. Further information can be found in the Declaration.

Keepers can find out if their premises are in these zones via the APHA interactive map. You are in a PZ or SZ if the whole or part of your premises falls within the zone.

Vigilance by bird keepers is important and any suspicion of disease in Scotland must be reported immediately to the local APHA Field Services office.

Near Banff, Aberdeenshire

 

Second premises – 7 December 2022

Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 was confirmed at a premises near Banff, Aberdeenshire on 7 December 2022. 

A 3 km Protection Zone (PZ) and 10 km Surveillance Zone (SZ) were declared, which took effect from 7.30 pm on 7 December 2022. This means movement restrictions within these zones – for example, poultry, carcasses, eggs, used poultry litter and manure – to prevent any further spread of disease. Further information can be found in the Declaration.

Keepers can find out if their premises is in these zones via the APHA interactive map. You are in a PZ or SZ if the whole or part of your premises falls within the zone.

Vigilance by bird keepers is important and any suspicion of disease in Scotland must be reported immediately to the local APHA Field Services office.

First premises – 18 November 2022

Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 was confirmed at a premises near Banff, Aberdeenshire on 18 November 2022.

A 3 km Protection Zone (PZ) and 10 km Surveillance Zone (SZ) were declared, which took effect from 18.10 on 18 November 2022. This means movement restrictions within these zones – for example, poultry, carcases, eggs, used poultry litter and manure – to prevent any further spread of disease. Further information can be found in the Declaration.

Keepers can find out if their premises are in these zones via the APHA interactive map. You are in a PZ or SZ if the whole or part of your premises falls within the zone.

Vigilance by bird keepers is important and any suspicion of disease in Scotland must be reported immediately to the local APHA Field Services office.

Near Turriff, Aberdeenshire

 

Third premises - 27 November 2022

Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 was confirmed at a premises near Turriff, Aberdeenshire on 27 November 2022.

A 3 km Protection Zone (PZ) and 10 km Surveillance Zone (SZ) were declared, which took effect from 16:45 on 27 November 2022. This means movement restrictions within these zones – for example, poultry, carcasses, eggs, used poultry litter and manure – to prevent any further spread of disease.

Following completion of preliminary cleansing and disinfection, and mandatory surveillance requirements, Scottish Ministers declared the end of the Protection Zone on Thursday 19 January 2023. The area which formed the Protection Zone has now become part of the Surveillance Zone, which remains in place. Further information can be found in the Declaration.

Keepers can find out if their premises are in these zones via the APHA interactive map. You are in a PZ or SZ if the whole or part of your premises falls within the zone.

Vigilance by bird keepers is important and any suspicion of disease in Scotland must be reported immediately to the local APHA Field Services office.

Second premises - 20 November 2022

Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 was confirmed at a premises near Turriff, Aberdeenshire on 20 November 2022.

A 3 km Protection Zone (PZ) and 10 km Surveillance Zone (SZ) were declared, which took effect from 18:25 on 20 November 2022. This means movement restrictions within these zones – for example, poultry, carcasses, eggs, used poultry litter and manure – to prevent any further spread of disease.

Following completion of preliminary cleansing and disinfection, and mandatory surveillance requirements, Scottish Ministers declared the end of the Protection Zone on Thursday 19 January 2023. The area which formed the Protection Zone has now become part of the Surveillance Zone, which remains in place. Further information can be found in the Declaration.

Keepers can find out if their premises are in these zones via the APHA interactive map. You are in a PZ or SZ if the whole or part of your premises falls within the zone.

Vigilance by bird keepers is important and any suspicion of disease in Scotland must be reported immediately to the local APHA Field Services office.

First premises - 5 November 2022

Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 was confirmed at a premises near Turriff, Aberdeenshire on 5 November 2022.

A 3km Protection Zone (PZ) and 10km Surveillance Zone (SZ) were declared, which took effect from 5:55pm on 5 November 2022. This meant movement restrictions within these zones – for example, poultry, carcases, eggs, used poultry litter and manure – to prevent any further spread of disease.

Following completion of preliminary cleansing and disinfection, and mandatory surveillance requirements, Scottish Ministers declared the end of the Protection Zone on 5 December 2022. The area which formed the Protection Zone has now become part of the Surveillance Zone, which remains in place. Further information can be found in the Declaration.

Keepers can find out if their premises is in the zone via the APHA interactive map. You are in the SZ if the whole or part of your premises falls within the zone.

Vigilance by bird keepers is important and any suspicion of disease in Scotland must be reported immediately to the local APHA Field Services office.

Near Cumnock, East Ayrshire

 

Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 was confirmed at a premises near Cumnock, East Ayrshire on 4 November 2022.

A Protection Zone and Surveillance Zone were declared at the time.​​​​​ Following completion of preliminary cleansing and disinfection and mandatory surveillance requirements, Scottish ministers declared the end of these zones on 21 December 2022. 

Further information can be found in the Declaration.

Near Kirkwall, Orkney Islands

 

Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 was confirmed at a premises near Kirkwall, Orkney Islands on 30 October 2022.

A Protection Zone and Surveillance Zone were declared at the time.​​​​​Following completion of preliminary cleansing and disinfection and mandatory surveillance requirements, Scottish ministers declared the end of these zones on 5 December 2022.

This means all zonal restrictions within this area have been lifted. Further information can be found in the Declaration.

Near Huntly, Aberdeenshire

 

Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 was confirmed at a premises near Huntly, Aberdeenshire on 29 October 2022.

In line with legislative requirements, a 3km Protection Zone (PZ) and 10km Surveillance Zone (SZ) were declared, which took effect from 7:25pm on 29 October 2022. This meant that movement restrictions within these zones – for example, poultry, carcases, eggs, used poultry litter and manure – to prevent any further spread of disease.

Following completion of preliminary cleansing and disinfection, and mandatory surveillance requirements, Scottish Ministers declared the end of the Protection Zone on Sunday 27 November 2022. The area which formed the Protection Zone has now become part of the Surveillance Zone, which remains in place. Further information can be found in the Declaration.

Keepers can find out if their premises are in these zones via the APHA interactive map. You are in a PZ or SZ if the whole or part of your premises falls within the zone.

Vigilance by bird keepers is important and any suspicion of disease in Scotland must be reported immediately to the local APHA Field Services office.

Near Tankerness, Orkney Islands

 

Highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 was confirmed at a premises near Tankerness, Orkney Islands on 14 October 2022.

A Protection Zone and Surveillance Zone were declared. Following completion of preliminary cleansing and disinfection and mandatory surveillance requirements, Scottish ministers declared the end of these zones on the 19 November 2022.

This means all zonal restrictions within this area have been lifted. Further information can be found in the declaration.

On Great Bernera, Uig, Isle of Lewis

 

Highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 was confirmed at a premises on Great Bernera, Uig, Isle of Lewison 12 October 2022.

A Protection Zone and Surveillance Zone were declared at the time.​​​​​Following completion of preliminary cleansing and disinfection and mandatory surveillance requirements, Scottish ministers declared the end of these zones on 12 November 2022.

This means all zonal restrictions within this area have been lifted. Further information can be found in theDeclaration. 

Other parts of Great Britain

 

HPAI H5N1 has also been confirmed in parts of England and Wales. Find out more at:

Dead wild bird findings

During the 2022 to 2023 HPAI outbreak season - from 1 October 2022, positive wild bird findings have been identified in the Highland and Stirling areas.

Wild Birds

Do not touch or pick up any dead or visibly sick birds that you find. Wild birds can carry several diseases that are infectious to people.

In Great Britain, if you find:

  • a single dead bird of prey
  • three dead gulls or wild waterfowl (swans, geese or ducks)
  • or five or more dead wild birds of any other species

at the same time, you should report them to: Report dead wild birds - GOV.UK (www.gov.uk).

Alternatively, you can phone the GB phone helpline: 03459 33 55 77.

If you do not wish to provide your contact details

If you wish to submit a report without providing contact details, then the telephone helpline should be used. You must be 18 or over to use this service to report dead wild birds.

Dead wild mammal findings

Where appropriate, wild mammals are tested for influenza of avian origin in collaboration with the APHA avian influenza national reference laboratory (NRL). See confirmed findings of influenza of avian origin in non-avian wildlife (published on gov.uk). 

Bird keepers - what you should do

Good biosecurity

Good biosecurity improves the overall health and productivity of your flock by helping keep out poultry diseases and limiting the spread of disease during an outbreak.

If you keep poultry (including game birds or as pets), you should also:

Keepers with over 500 birds

Keepers with more than 500 birds need to:

  • restrict access for non-essential personnel on their sites
  • ensure workers change clothing and footwear before entering bird enclosures
  • clean and disinfect site vehicles regularly to limit the risk of disease spreading

Small flocks

Backyard owners with smaller numbers of poultry, including chickens, ducks and geese must also take steps to limit the risk of the disease spreading to their animals. This also applies if you only have a few birds as pets.

An outbreak of avian influenza in backyard poultry results in the same restrictions on movement of birds. It has the same impact on farmers and trade in poultry as an outbreak on a commercial farm would have.

Posters for land managers and local authorities

Gov.uk has published posters for land managers and local authorities to warn the public that either bird flu has been detected in the area or to not risk spreading the virus:

Bird gatherings

The Scottish bird gatherings general licence was amended to prohibit gatherings of specified species of birds. Changes took effect from 12 December 2022.

This means gatherings are prohibited of:

  • kept galliformes (chickens, turkeys, pheasants, partridges, quails and other land fowl)
  • kept anseriformes, (ducks, geese, swans and other water fowl)
  • poultry

Organisers of all gatherings are encouraged to ensure their gathering complies with the conditions of the bird gathering general licence.

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