3.1 Conducted annually since 2008, the Anholt-GfK Roper Nation Brands Index SM examines the reputation of 50 countries. Each year, approximately 20,000 adults aged 18 and over in 20 core panel countries are interviewed online. The Anholt-GfK Roper Nation Brands Index SM explores a country's image by examining six dimensions of national competence, all of which are weighted equally. The six dimensions are: Exports, Governance, Culture, People, Tourism, Immigration and Investment.
3.2 The NBI SM score is an average of the scores from these six dimensions, given as a value out of 100. There are between 3 and 5 questions for each of these dimensions, resulting in a total of 23 'attributes' across the six dimensions. Ratings are based on a scale from 1 to 7, with 7 being the highest (best), 1 being the lowest (worst), and 4 being the middle position (neutral). Each dimension also has a word choice question which gives some depth to how those surveyed perceive a country's image.
3.3 Given the increasing global role played by developing countries, the survey strived to represent regional balance as well as balance between high-income and middle-income countries. The list of 50 rated countries in 2016 is as follows, listed by region: 
- North America: The United States of America, Canada and Cuba*
- Western Europe: United Kingdom, Germany, France, Italy, Spain, Ireland, Sweden, Denmark, Holland, Switzerland, Finland, Austria, Greece, Belgium*, Northern Ireland* and Scotland
- Central/Eastern Europe: Russia, Poland, Czech Republic, Hungary, Turkey, Kazakhstan*
- Asia-Pacific: Japan, South Korea, China, India, Thailand, Indonesia, Singapore, Taiwan, Australia and New Zealand
- Latin America: Argentina, Brazil, Mexico, Chile, Peru, Colombia and Ecuador
- Middle East/Africa: United Arab Emirates, Iran, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, Kenya, Nigeria and Qatar
3.4 The 2016 NBI SM survey was conducted in 20 major developed and developing countries. Scotland was included as a 21 st panel country in 2016 to enable an analysis of how Scotland views itself.
3.5 The 21 countries included in the 2016 core panel were: the United States of America, Canada, United Kingdom, Germany, France, Italy, Sweden, Scotland, Russia, Poland, Turkey, Japan, China, India, South Korea, Australia, Argentina, Brazil, Mexico, Egypt and South Africa.
3.6 Data collection was achieved through online self-administered interviews. Consequently, the sample was not representative of the populations in individual countries. Interviews were conducted with a total of 20,353 adults (aged 18 and over). The sample size per country was a minimum of 1000. Interviews were carried out between 7 July and 25 July 2016. 
3.7 In each panel country the list of 50 countries was randomly assigned to respondents, each of whom rated 25 countries. This resulted in each country receiving approximately 500 ratings per panel country.  Thus approximately half of the total sample was asked to rate and compare Scotland's reputation.
Interpreting the 2016 NBI SM data
3.8 In the long term, the NBI SM represents a useful tool to track and monitor Scotland's reputation internationally. However, it does not provide an evaluative measure of policy interventions.
3.9 The contractors, GfK Roper and Simon Anholt, own the concept, data and intellectual rights. The Scottish Government is therefore restricted in what it can publish from the Nation Brands Index SM. The data published and analysed in this report represent the core information on Scotland's position on the NBI SM. The report has been checked by the contractors to ensure it complies with the Scottish Government's contractual obligations.
3.10 The NBI SM provides both a rank and score of the overall and individual elements of a country's reputation. It is important to note that the rank is responsive to changes in the sample of evaluated countries and is therefore informative about the relative rankings in a particular year only. The score enables direct comparison between years.
3.11 GfK supplied the Scottish Government with a methodology report, and three datasets:
- The 2016 Data Dashboard. This included data for the six dimensions, the attributes that comprise the dimensions, and other fundamental brand metrics covered in the NBI SM (for example: familiarity and favourability). The data dashboard was structured into the ratings and rankings for all 50 countries for all questions asked of the 21 panel countries and data for Scotland as a 21 st panel country.
- The Demographic Dashboard. This comprised data for the ratings and rankings from the 21 panel countries combined (on a global level), disaggregated by some basic demographic variables: three age groups (18-29; 30-44; 45+); two categories of occupation (business/executives and other occupations); whether respondents have visited Scotland for either business or vacation (Yes or No), and whether respondents have visited a Scottish Website (Yes or No).
- Word association tables. For each of the six dimensions, respondents were presented with a list of words that might best describe a country in terms of that dimension. Each question had between eight to ten words to select from. For the Exports, Culture, People and Tourism dimensions, multiple words were permitted. For the Governance and Immigration and Investment dimensions, only one word was permitted.
3.12 The NBI SM is used to assess progress against one of the indicators from the Scottish Government's National Performance Framework, 'Improve Scotland's Reputation' . Assessment of any change in Scotland's performance is based on Scotland's absolute score as it compares to the previous year's score. An increase of 1 point or more in Scotland's absolute score suggests that the position is "improving", whereas a decrease of 1 point or more in Scotland's absolute score suggests that the position is "worsening". This report will comply with these guidelines and will only consider an increase/decrease in score exceeding 1 point to be representing change, and otherwise treat the score as unchanged.
Email: Angela Hallam
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