The Anholt - GFK Roper Nation Brands Index(SM): 2012 Report for Scotland

This publication reports the 2012 findings of the Anholt-GfK Roper Nation Brands Index (NBI) on Scotland's international reputation in terms of exports, governance, culture, people, tourism and investment and immigration.

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3 Methodology

3.1 Conducted annually from 2008, the Anholt-GfK Roper Nation Brands IndexSM examines the image of 50 nations. Each year, approximately 20,000 adults aged 18 and up are interviewed online in 20 core panel nations. The Anholt - GfK Roper Nation Brands IndexSM looks at a country's image by examining six dimensions of national competence all of which are treated equally with no weighting. This gives an indication of a country's reputation as a whole. The six dimensions are:

3.2 Exports. Examines panellists' image of products and services from each country, their view of a country's contribution to innovation in science and technology and the degree to which a country is recognised as a creative place.

3.3 Governance. Considers public opinion regarding the level of national government competency and fairness, as well as its perceived commitment to global issues such as peace, poverty and the environment.

3.4 Culture. Reveals global perceptions of each nation's cultural heritage and appreciation for its contemporary culture and recognition of its sporting excellence.

3.5 People. Explores the population's reputation for employability, openness and welcome, as well as appeal of the people on a personal level.

3.6 Tourism. Captures the level of interest in visiting a country and the draw of its natural beauty, historic built environment and vibrant city attractions.

3.7 Immigration and Investment. Looks at a country's appeal as a place to live, work, invest or study, and reveals how people perceive a country's economic and social situation.

3.8 The NBISM score is an average of the scores from the six dimensions mentioned above. There are between 3 and 5 questions for each of the dimensions, resulting in total 23 'attributes' across the six dimensions. Ratings are based on a scale from 1 to 7, with 7 being the highest and best, 1 being the lowest and worst, and 4 being the middle position which is neither positive nor negative. Each dimension also has a word choice question which gives some depth to how those surveyed perceive a nation's image.

3.9 The 2012 NBISM survey was conducted in 20 major developed and developing countries. The core 20 rating panel countries are:

  • North America: the US, Canada
  • Western Europe: the UK, Germany, France, Italy, Sweden
  • Central and Eastern Europe: Russia, Poland, Turkey
  • Asia-Pacific: Japan, China, India, South Korea, Australia
  • Latin America: Argentina, Brazil, Mexico
  • Middle East/Africa: Egypt, South Africa

3.10 20,378 interviews have been conducted with at least 1,000 interviews per country for the 2012 NBISM survey between July 5th and July 24th, 2012. Using the most up-to-date online population parameters, the achieved sample in each country has been weighted to reflect key demographic characteristics such as age, gender, and education of the 2012 online population in that country. Additionally, in the United States, the United Kingdom, South Africa, India and Brazil, race/ethnicity has been used for sample balancing.

3.11 The NBISM measures the image of 50 nations. In each panel nation the list of 50 nations is randomly assigned to panellists, each of whom rates 25 nations, resulting in each nation getting approximately 500 ratings per panel country.[10] Thus approximately half of the total sample will have been asked to rate and compare Scotland's reputation. The weighting for survey panellists from each country and their thoughts on each of the six dimensions are treated equally.

3.12 The list of 50 rated nations in 2012 is as follows, listed by region:

  • North America: the US, Canada
  • Western Europe: the UK, Germany, France, Italy, Spain, Ireland, Scotland, Sweden, Denmark, Holland, Belgium, Switzerland, Finland, Austria, Greece*, Luxembourg**, Flanders**
  • Central/Eastern Europe: Russia, Poland, Czech Republic, Hungary, Turkey, Georgia*, Croatia*, Romania**, Slovakia**
  • Asia Pacific: Japan, South Korea, China, India, Thailand, Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, Taiwan, Australia, New Zealand
  • Latin America: Argentina, Brazil, Mexico, Chile, Peru, Cuba**, Colombia, Ecuador*
  • Middle East/Africa: The United Arab Emirates, Iran, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, Angola**, Kenya, Nigeria*, Qatar*.

Note: '*' indicates nations included in the 2012 survey but not in 2010;

'**' indicates nations included in the 2010 survey but not in 2012.

Scotland Performs and National Indicator 'Improve Scotland's Reputation'

3.13 The NBISM is used to assess progress against the National Indicator 'Improve Scotland's Reputation'.

3.14 For the National Performance Framework, assessment of any change in Scotland's performance is based on Scotland's absolute score as it compares to the previous year's score. If change is within +/- 1 point, this suggests that the position is within measurement error and is more likely to be "maintaining" than showing any change. An increase of 1 point or more in Scotland's absolute score suggests that the position is "improving", whereas a decrease of 1 point or more in Scotland's absolute score suggests that the position is "worsening". This report will comply with these guidelines and will only consider an increase/decrease in score exceeding 1 point to be representing change, and otherwise treat the score as unchanged.

3.15 Like the vast majority of nations in the Top 20 of the NBISM, Scotland's reputation does not appear to have undergone any significant change between 2010 and 2012. Scotland's performance on the Scotland Performs indicator 'Scotland's reputation' is therefore "maintaining".

3.16 While occasional dramatic shifts from year-to-year[11] in how reputations are perceived are captured by the NBISM, in general the reputations of established nation brands tend to be stable. Across the index, the score profile of all countries has largely remained the same from 2010 to 2012. The relative overall rankings have changed moderately in response to changes in the sample of countries and moderate relative changes in individual country scores.

Interpreting the 2012 NBISM Data

3.17 The NBISM, in the long-term, will represent a useful tool to track and monitor Scotland's reputation at a high-level. However, the NBISM is not an evaluative tool of government, or any of its agencies or any policy intervention. The NBISM is not designed to specifically explore or test people's awareness or understanding of any government policy. The NBISM is ultimately a test of how Scotland's reputation as a whole exists in the minds of people online around the world. Explicitly targeting a change in Scotland's position on the NBISM or claiming that the Scottish Government has a direct impact, positive or negative, would not be a proper use of the NBISM information.

3.18 The contractors GfK Roper and Simon Anholt own the concept, data and intellectual rights. The Scottish Government is therefore restricted in what it can publish from the Nation Brands IndexSM. The data published and analysed in this report represents the core information on Scotland's position on the NBISM and has been checked by the contractors to ensure it complies with the Scottish Government's contractual obligations.


Email: Wendy Van Rijswijk

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