Publication - Report

Analysis of Ethnicity in the 2001 Census - Summary Report

Published: 9 Feb 2004
Part of:
Statistics

The report presents results across the main policy areas covered in the Census analysed by ethnic group

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Contents
Analysis of Ethnicity in the 2001 Census - Summary Report
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57 page PDF

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Analysis of Ethnicity in the 2001 Census - Summary Report

3. LABOUR MARKET

Student population

Table 3.1: Student population by ethnic group - Full time students aged 18 years and over
Percentages

Ethnic Group

Percentage of population aged 18 years+ who are full-time students

Base

White Scottish

4

3,453,254

Other White British

8

329,740

White Irish

9

46,126

Other White

17

65,461

Indian

16

11,107

Pakistani

12

19,974

Bangladeshi

18

1,302

Other South Asian

20

4,273

Chinese

26

12,178

Caribbean

13

1,407

African

31

3,745

Black Scottish or Other Black

12

756

Any Mixed Background

22

6,534

Other ethnic group

24

7,290

All People aged 18 years and over

4

3,963,147

  • The African and Chinese populations have the highest percentage of full-time students, with 31% and 26% respectively. This compares to only 4% of the White Scottish population being full-time students.

Economic Activity

chart

The 'economically active population' includes all people of working age who were working in the week before the Census (those in employment), those people who were not working but were looking for working and were available to start within 2 weeks (the unemployed) and full-time students who are economically active (they are identified separately). The economic activity rate is the ratio of the economically active population to the working age population (16-59 years for women and 16-64 years for men).

  • Chart 3.1 shows that the Other White British and White Scottish groups have the highest rate of economically active people (76% for both groups). In contrast, Pakistanis and Other South Asians have the lowest rate of economically active people (53% for both groups).
  • All minority ethnic groups, excluding the Caribbean, have a lower percentage of people economically active compared to the White population. The economically active rate for Caribbeans (71%) is similar to that of the White population.

Chart 3.2 shows the percentage of the working age population who are in employment.

chart

  • The employment rates match closely with the economic activity rates shown in Chart 3.1. Again, employment rates of the ethnic minority groups continue to be lower than the employment rates of the White population with the exception being the Caribbean group who have similar employment rates to those of the White groups.
  • The Other White British and White Scottish groups have the highest employment rates with 72% and 70% of their working age populations being employed.
  • The lowest employment rates are among Other South Asians and people from Other Ethnic Group with only 46% of the working age population in these groups being employed. This is followed closely by Pakistanis and Bangladeshis with employment rates of 47% and 49% respectively.

Unemployed

chart

  • Ethnic minority groups have higher unemployment rates compared to all four White groups. Those groups experiencing the highest rates of unemployment are the Africans (15%), Black Scottish (15%) and Other South Asians (14%).

chart

  • There are considerable differences between both ethnic group and sex in the proportion of people of working age who have never worked. All minority ethnic groups have a higher proportion than the White group of people of working age who have never worked.
  • For the White groups, there is very little difference between males and females: in all cases, less than 10% of the working age population have never worked.
  • In contrast, there are large differences between the sexes for minority ethnic groups. This is most prominent within the Asian groups - Indian, Pakistani, Bangladeshi and Other South Asian - with a much higher percentage of females of working age never having worked. Pakistani women have the highest proportion (46%) followed by Bangladeshi women (40%).

Self-employed

The proportion of all people in employment who are self-employment is shown in Chart 3.5.

chart

  • The groups with the highest levels of self-employment are the Pakistani (32%), Chinese (23%) and Indian (22%) ethnic groups. Bangladeshi and Other South Asian also have high rates of self-employment (19.9% and 19.5% respectively). Africans have the lowest rate of self-employment (8.4%).

Size of organisations

Chart 3.6 shows the size of the organisations for which people work by ethnic group.

chart

  • 60% of Chinese and 59% of Pakistani adults work in organisations employing less than 9 people (micro-businesses) compared with 28% of White Scottish adults. The large proportion of Chinese and Pakistani adults working in small organisations may be explained by the high levels of self-employment within these groups as shown in Chart 3.5.
  • According to DTi classifications, a firm which employees less than 50 employees is classed as 'small'. Therefore at least 70% of Pakistanis and Chinese and at least 66% of Bangladeshis who are in employment work in 'small' businesses. (The actual figure will be higher since the banded information provided from the census does not include all organisations which would be classed as 'small').
  • DTi classes any organisation employing more than 250 people as 'large'. Again, the banded categories do not match, but Chart 3.6 shows that at least 24% of Africans and at least 22% of Indians and Other South Asians who are in employment work for 'large' businesses.

Occupation, Industry and Hours Worked

Table 3.2: Occupation by ethnic group

All People aged 16-74 years in Employment
Percentages

Managers and senior officials

Professional Occupations

Associate Professional and Technical Occupations

Administrative and Secretarial Occupations

Skilled Trades Occupations

Personal Service Occupations

Sales and Customer Service Occupations

Process, Plant and Machine Operatives

Elementary Occupations

Base

White Scottish

11

10

13

13

13

7

9

10

13

1,968,679

Other White British

18

19

19

10

8

6

6

5

9

196,665

White Irish

14

20

19

10

8

6

6

7

10

23,408

Other White

15

25

16

10

7

6

7

4

11

37,472

Indian

20

30

9

8

6

3

12

4

8

6,527

Pakistani

28

10

7

7

7

3

25

4

8

9,379

Bangladeshi

16

16

7

4

19

2

9

3

24

638

Other South Asian

17

23

15

8

7

5

10

5

10

1,923

Chinese

14

15

7

6

28

3

9

2

17

6,436

Caribbean

11

17

23

10

8

6

8

5

12

840

African

8

24

17

9

6

10

9

3

15

2,013

Black Scottish or Other Black

10

10

21

13

9

5

9

8

14

368

Any Mixed Background

11

18

16

10

7

7

12

4

14

3,542

Other ethnic group

14

22

15

7

9

7

8

5

14

3,391

All People in Employment

12

11

14

13

12

7

9

10

13

2,261,281

Table 3.2 shows the occupational breakdown (using the 1 digit breakdown of the 2000 SOC categories).

  • Pakistanis have the highest proportion of the workforce who describe themselves as 'managers and senior officials'.
  • Within the Indian group, 30% of people are in professional occupations.
  • The Bangladeshi group has the highest proportion of people in 'elementary' occupations (24%). This category covers occupations such as farm workers, construction labourers, packers etc.

Table 3.3: Hours worked by ethnic group - All occupations
All People aged 16-74 years in Employment
Percentages

1-15 hours

16-30 hours

31-37 hours

38-48 hours

49 hours and over

Base

White Scottish

7

17

21

42

13

1,968,679

Other White British

8

16

17

40

19

196,665

White Irish

7

16

21

39

17

23,408

Other White

9

16

16

40

19

37,472

Indian

8

16

16

34

26

6,527

Pakistani

9

22

13

28

27

9,379

Bangladeshi

11

24

13

32

20

638

Other South Asian

9

16

15

36

24

1,923

Chinese

11

15

13

36

25

6,436

Caribbean

7

16

20

41

16

840

African

11

19

22

34

15

2,013

Black Scottish or Other Black

8

21

17

42

12

368

Any Mixed Background

14

18

18

36

14

3,542

Other ethnic group

10

18

17

37

18

3,391

All People in Employment

7

17

20

41

14

2,261,281

Table 3.3 shows the breakdown of the hours worked by ethnic group.

  • Overall 7% of people in Scotland normally work 1-15 hours in their main job. The highest proportion is in the Mixed group (14%) and the lowest is White Scottish, White Irish and Caribbean (all 7%).
  • At the higher end of working hours, 14% of people in Scotland normally work more than 49 hours in their main job. The highest proportion is for the Pakistani group (27%) and the lowest proportion for the Black Scottish/Other Black group (12%).

Table 3.4: Industry by ethnic group
All People aged 16-74 years in Employment
Percentages

A

B

C

D

E

F

G

H

I

J

K

L

M

N

O

Base

White Scottish

2

0

1

14

1

8

15

5

7

5

11

7

7

12

5

1,968,679

Other White British

2

0

2

10

1

4

11

6

5

4

14

10

10

13

6

196,665

White Irish

1

0

1

9

1

8

10

6

5

5

13

7

11

18

6

23,408

Other White

1

0

3

9

1

3

9

13

4

4

17

4

14

12

6

37,472

Indian

1

0

1

6

1

2

22

11

6

5

14

4

7

19

4

6,527

Pakistani

0

0

0

5

1

2

45

12

7

4

9

3

3

6

3

9,379

Bangladeshi

1

0

1

7

0

3

13

45

1

3

8

1

4

11

3

638

Other South Asian

1

0

2

8

1

2

16

14

6

3

10

6

8

19

4

1,923

Chinese

1

0

0

5

0

2

8

51

2

3

8

2

7

8

3

6,436

Caribbean

1

0

3

9

0

3

11

7

5

6

13

9

10

18

5

840

African

0

0

2

6

0

2

11

11

4

4

15

4

11

23

5

2,013

Black Scottish or Other Black

1

0

2

13

0

4

17

7

5

4

12

5

6

15

9

368

Any Mixed Background

1

0

1

7

1

3

13

12

5

4

14

6

8

15

7

3,542

Other ethnic group

1

0

2

11

1

2

10

16

4

3

12

4

10

19

6

3,391

All People in Employment

2

0

1

13

1

7

14

6

7

5

11

7

7

12

5

2,261,281

Notes:

Industry A: Agriculture, Hunting and Forestry

Industry I: Transport, Storage and Communication

Industry B: Fishing

Industry J: Financial Intermediaries

Industry C: Mining and Quarrying

Industry K: Real Estate, Renting and Business Activities

Industry D: Manufacturing

Industry L: Public Administration and Defence; Social Security

Industry E: Electricity, Gas and Water Supply

Industry M: Education

Industry F: Construction

Industry N: Health and Social Work

Industry G: Wholesale and Retail Trade; Repairs

Industry O: Other

Industry H: Hotels and Restaurants

Table 3.4 shows the breakdown of employment by industry by ethnic group. Overall the industry groups which employ the largest proportion of people are Wholesale and Retail trade (14%), Manufacturing (13%), Health and Social Work (12%) and Real Estate, Renting and Business Activities (11%). However, there are some striking differences between different ethnic groups.

  • 45% of Pakistanis and 22% of Indians aged 16-74 who are currently in employment, work in the Wholesale and Retail trade.
  • 51% of Chinese and 45% of Bangladeshis aged 16-74 who are currently in employment work in Hotels and Restaurants.
  • 23% of Africans, 19% of Indians and 19% of Other South Asians aged 16-74 years who are currently in employment work in Health and Social Work.