Publication - Research and analysis

Analysis of Ethnicity in the 2001 Census - Summary Report

Published: 9 Feb 2004
Part of:
Statistics

The report presents results across the main policy areas covered in the Census analysed by ethnic group

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Analysis of Ethnicity in the 2001 Census - Summary Report
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Analysis of Ethnicity in the 2001 Census - Summary Report

Ascribed ethnicity of children by ethnicity of parents

The ethnicity of children in the census will generally have been ascribed by their parents. It is possible to look at the ethnicity of children both from single parent families and from couple families and to cross tabulate the ascribed ethnicity with the ethnicity of the parents. Table 1.5 and table 1.6 present results for couple families only. Whilst the ascribed ethnicity of children can differ from that of the parent in single parent families we cannot make any inferences without knowing the ethnicity of the other parent. In both these tables, the data relate to dependent children only, where a dependent child is defined as: 'a person aged 0-15 in a household or aged 16-18 in full-time education and living in a family with his/her parents'.

Table 1.5 shows the percentage of children in each ethnic group where both parents reported the same ethnic group.

Table 1.5: Ascribed ethnicity of children by ethnicity of parents - All Children with Parents in a Couple
Percentages

Ethnicity of parents
White
Indian
Pakistani
Bangladeshi
Other South Asian
Chinese
Caribbean
African
Black Scottish or Other Black
Any Mixed Background
Other Ethnic Group

Ethnic group of child

White

99.8

1.8

1.4

3.5

3.7

2.5

17.4

2.7

0.0

14.9

3.1

Indian

0.0

94.7

0.3

0.0

2.4

0.3

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.1

Pakistani

0.0

1.4

96.3

1.1

4.1

1.0

2.2

0.1

0.0

0.0

0.4

Bangladeshi

0.0

0.0

0.2

94.8

0.1

0.2

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

Other South Asian

0.0

1.4

1.2

0.0

85.0

0.5

0.0

1.0

0.0

1.8

1.6

Chinese

0.0

0.2

0.2

0.0

0.1

95.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.2

Caribbean

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

76.1

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

African

0.0

0.1

0.0

0.2

0.2

0.0

0.0

93.8

5.0

0.0

0.2

Black Scottish or Other Black

0.0

0.0

0.1

0.0

0.6

0.0

4.3

1.7

95.0

0.9

0.4

Any Mixed Background

0.1

0.2

0.2

0.2

0.6

0.4

0.0

0.4

0.0

78.9

1.3

Other Ethnic Group

0.0

0.2

0.2

0.2

3.0

0.1

0.0

0.3

0.0

3.5

92.8

Base

658,213

2,804

9,237

522

828

2,831

46

706

20

114

1,113

Note: The four 'White' categories have been collapsed into one to compress the table.

  • Over 90% of children from White, Indian, Pakistani, Bangladeshi and Chinese parents are ascribed the same ethnicity as their parents.
  • 85% of children of Other South Asian parents are also described as Other South Asian. 3.7% are described as White, 4.1% as Pakistani and 3.0% as 'Other Ethnic group'.
  • 17.4% of children of Caribbean parents are described as White. However, the numbers involved here are very small.

All possible combinations of parental ethnicity were analysed, but given the small numbers involved, data are only presented for children where one of their parents is white.

Table 1.6: Ascribed ethnicity of children by ethnicity of parents where one parent is white - All Children with Parents in a Couple
Percentages

Ethnicity of non-white parent

Indian

Pakistani

Bangladeshi

Other South Asian

Chinese

Caribbean

African

Black Scottish or Other Black

Any Mixed Background

Other Ethnic Group

Ethnicity of child

White

36.5

36.5

42.9

37.0

25.4

40.3

34.7

55.2

63.9

33.7

Indian

39.7

0.5

0.0

1.1

0.2

0.4

0.1

0.0

0.3

0.1

Pakistani

0.2

38.1

1.3

1.6

0.4

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.4

0.2

Bangladeshi

0.0

0.3

22.1

0.2

0.0

0.4

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

Other South Asian

7.0

6.6

5.2

11.5

0.7

0.2

1.5

0.5

0.6

1.7

Chinese

0.0

0.4

0.0

0.0

50.9

0.0

0.3

1.0

0.9

0.1

Caribbean

0.1

0.0

0.0

0.5

0.0

15.7

0.0

0.0

0.5

0.0

African

0.1

0.1

0.0

0.1

0.0

0.8

20.0

0.0

0.5

0.2

Black Scottish or Other Black

0.4

0.1

0.0

0.1

0.0

1.7

4.5

11.9

0.5

0.0

Any Mixed Background

15.8

17.1

26.8

45.7

22.3

39.8

38.5

31.0

31.8

47.1

Other Ethnic Group

0.3

0.4

0.0

2.1

0.1

0.8

0.3

0.5

0.8

16.9

Base

1,001

1,063

77

806

1,026

528

711

210

1,746

2,472

  • Children with one White and one parent from a Mixed background are most likely to be described as White (63.9%).
  • Children with one White parent and one Indian parent are more likely to be described as Indian (39.7%). However, 36.5% of these children are described as White and 15.8% as mixed.
  • The same is true for children of White/Pakistani parents: 38.1% are described as Pakistani, 36.5% as White and 17.1% as Mixed.
  • More than half of the children born to White and Chinese parents are described as Chinese (50.9%).

Table 1.6 presents results for children where either one of the parents is White. It would be interesting to examine whether the ascribed ethnicity of a child differs depending whether it is the father or the mother who is from an ethnic minority. It would also be possible to analyse the data by country of birth of both the parents and the child; does this make any difference to the ascribed ethnicity of the child?

Family structure and number of dependent children

Table 1.7 shows the proportion of families 1 within each ethnic group who have no dependent children 2.

Table 1.7: Families with no dependent children by ethnic group
Percentages

Ethnic group of family reference person3

% of families with no dependent children

Base number of families

White Scottish

56.8

1,246,932

Other White British

58.8

119,473

White Irish

63.3

15,197

Other White

56.1

18,595

Indian

42.2

3,760

Pakistani

27.9

7,329

Bangladeshi

29.8

443

Other South Asian

32.5

1,420

Chinese

39.7

3,599

Caribbean

43.9

435

African

29.3

1,106

Black Scottish or Other Black

44.7

219

Any Mixed Background

47.1

1,708

Other Ethnic Group

34.9

2,099

All families

56.7

1,422,315

White families are more likely to have no dependent children than families from minority ethnic groups but no conclusions can be drawn as to whether White couples are less likely to have children than couples from other ethnic groups. These data only refer to dependent children and do not cover children who are not classed as dependent who are still at home (see footnote for definition of dependent) or children who have left home. Given the older age structure within the White population, it is likely that many couples will have adult children who will no longer be classed as dependent. There are no current sources in Scotland for information on the average number of children by ethnic group.

Table 1.8 presents information on the number of children per family for families who have dependent children.

Table 1.8: Proportion of families with different number of dependent children - (for families with dependent children)
Percentages

Ethnic group of family reference person4

One dependent child

Two dependent children

Three or more dependent children

Base

White Scottish

46.7

39.1

14.2

539,265

Other White British

42.2

41.1

16.7

49,177

White Irish

44.4

37.4

18.2

5,578

Other White

45.5

38.5

16.0

8,164

Indian

42.3

38.7

19.0

2,174

Pakistani

32.5

30.5

37.0

5,283

Bangladeshi

36.0

35.7

28.3

311

Other South Asian

39.9

38.3

21.8

958

Chinese

44.3

39.2

16.5

2,169

Caribbean

50.0

33.6

16.4

244

African

39.4

35.4

25.2

782

Black Scottish or Other Black

44.5

38.8

16.5

121

Any Mixed Background

49.1

35.9

15.1

903

Other Ethnic Group

41.0

37.1

21.9

1,366

Some differences can be seen between the numbers of children by ethnic group. For example, for all White groups, there are three times as many families who only have one dependent child compared to the families with three or more dependent children. This is not the case for Pakistani families: 37% of families have 3 or more children compared to 32.5% of families who have only one child. White Scottish people appear to be the least likely to have 3 or more children (only 14.2% of families. However these data only represent a picture at one point in time (the Census day). Families who only had one child on Census day may well have more than one child now. Some further work could be done on these data by making assumptions based on the age of the children (and the age of the mother) which might yield more information on whether there are significant differences in family size between ethnic groups.

Lone parent families

Table 1.9 shows the proportion of families with dependent children who are lone parent families.

Table 1.9: Lone parent families with dependent children
Proportion of all families with dependent children

Ethnic group of family reference person5

% of families who are lone parent families

Base number of families

White Scottish

29.5

539,265

Other White British

17.7

49,177

White Irish

19.8

5,578

Other White

18.5

8,164

Indian

13.6

2,174

Pakistani

16.1

5,283

Bangladeshi

9.6

311

Other South Asian

17.1

958

Chinese

13.4

2,169

Caribbean

28.7

244

African

28.8

782

Black Scottish or Other Black

38.0

121

Any Mixed Background

39.8

903

Other Ethnic Group

17.2

1,366

The Mixed ethnic group has the highest proportion of lone parent families (39.8%). 38% of Black Scottish families who have dependent children are lone parent families (the numbers involved are quite small). In contrast, only 9.6% of Bangladeshi families, 13.4% of Chinese families and 13.6% of Indian families who have dependent children are lone parent families.

Multiple family households

Table 1.10 provides information on the number of families per household by ethnic group. The Census definition of a family is:

'A family comprises a group of people consisting of a married or cohabiting couple with or without child(ren), or a lone parent with child(ren). Cohabiting couples include same sex couples. The 2001 Census question asks for the relationship of each person in the household to every other member (except in large households). This enables the identification of concealed families (second or subsequent families in a household), families containing step-children and the relationship between families.

Each individual within a household is allocated to a single family or is classified as an 'ungrouped individual'. One or more of these families and/or one or more individual(s) makes up a household.'

What does this mean? Using the example of White Scottish households - the first section of the table refers to ungrouped individuals only, which will be people sharing a home with others who are not their 'family' under the Census definition 6. Hence, 14.6% of White Scottish people live on their own and 1.6% share a home with one other, 78% of White Scottish people live in single family households and 3.4% of them live in households with one family plus one other individual (grandparent?, sibling?). 1.1% of White Scottish people live in households which contain 2 families.

Table 1.10: Household Structure by ethnic group of people in household - All People in Households
Percentages

White Scottish

Other White British

White Irish

Other White

Indian

Pakistani

Bangladeshi

Other South Asian

Chinese

Caribbean

African

Black Scottish or Other Black

Any Mixed Background

Other Ethnic Group

0 - Couple/Lone Parent families

Ungrouped Individuals

17.0

21.0

30.0

26.6

14.4

5.3

12.2

18.1

18.6

24.8

25.7

21.4

17..3

20.9

0

1

14.6

14.3

20.3

13.9

6.9

3.3

6.0

10.9

9.0

17.7

15.3

15.1

9.4

9.6

2

1.6

2.5

3.9

4.2

2.8

1.0

2.5

3.8

3.4

2.8

4.7

3.8

3.3

4.7

3

0.5

1.7

2.8

3.5

2.1

0.5

1.3

1.4

2.6

1.8

2.3

1.8

1.8

3.0

4+

0.3

2.4

3.0

4.9

2.5

0.5

2.4

2.0

3.6

2.5

3.5

0.7

2.7

3.6

1 - Couple/Lone Parent family

Ungrouped Individuals

81.8

78.1

69.1

72.2

76.6

79.7

79.8

79.7

78.7

74.5

73.3

78.0

81.3

77.9

0

78.0

74.1

65.1

66.5

67.0

67.4

66.8

71.9

70.6

69.1

65.3

70.3

75.4

71.0

1

3.4

3.4

3.3

4.4

8.0

9.8

9.3

6.6

6.9

4.7

6.9

6.4

4.8

5.4

2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.7

1.2

1.9

2.4

0.9

0.8

0.5

0.7

1.0

0.7

0.9

3

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.3

0.3

0.4

1.0

0.2

0.3

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.3

0.2

4+

0.0

0.1

0.1

1.2

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.1

0.2

0.2

0.2

0.0

0.1

0.3

2 - Couple/Lone Parent families

Ungrouped Individuals

1.1

0.9

0.9

0.9

7.5

12.7

7.4

1.8

2.6

0.7

1.0

0.5

1.3

1.2

0

1.0

0.9

0.8

0.2

5.7

9.6

4.7

1.3

2.3

0.5

0.9

0.5

1.2

1.0

1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

1.2

2.2

2.1

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

0.0

0.1

0.1

2

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.5

0.6

0.6

0.1

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

3

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.1

0.1

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

4+

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

3 or more Couple/Lone Parent families

Ungrouped Individuals

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.1

1.6

2.3

0.6

0.4

0.1

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.1

0.1

0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

1.1

1.8

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

1

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.3

0.2

0.5

0.3

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

2

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.2

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

3

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.1

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

4+

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.1

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

Note: Totals may not add up due to rounding

  • 20.3% of White Irish people and 17.7% of Caribbean people live in single person households. This compares with only 3.3% of Pakistani people.
  • Only 0.9% of people from White British, White Irish and Other White backgrounds and 0.5% of Black Scottish/Other Black people live in households which consist of 2 or more families compared with 7.4% of Indian people and 12.7% of Pakistani people.
  • 2.3% of Pakistani people live in households comprising 3 or more families.

These data can also be analysed by housing tenure (tables not shown here). Whilst the general patterns shown in the table above hold across all tenure types (most single households amongst White people and most multi-family households amongst Indian and Pakistanis), there are differences in the relative proportions between owned homes and rented homes. For owned homes, across all ethnic groups, there is a lower proportion of people living in single person/ungrouped individual households and there is a higher proportion of people who live in single family households (sometimes with other 'non family' members). In addition, for all ethnic groups, there are a higher proportion of people who live in households containing 2 or more families. The highest figure is for Pakistani people: 18.5% of Pakistani people who live in owned homes live in households comprising 2 or more families. This compares with 5.2% of Pakistani people in rented homes living in households of 2 or more families.

Table 1.11: Car availability by ethnic group - All People in Households
Percentages

No cars

1 car

2 cars

3 or more cars

Base

White Scottish

26

44

25

6

4,394,838

Other White British

17

45

31

7

361,146

White Irish

33

41

21

5

47,897

Other White

28

43

24

5

73,514

Indian

21

38

30

11

14,662

Pakistani

17

43

28

12

31,637

Bangladeshi

30

48

17

5

1,949

Other South Asian

33

41

22

5

5,960

Chinese

21

43

31

6

15,319

Caribbean

30

44

21

4

1,694

African

42

41

15

2

4,811

Black Scottish or Other Black

40

41

16

2

1,102

Any Mixed Background

32

42

22

4

12,383

Other ethnic group

33

44

20

3

9,093

All People in Households

26

44

25

6

4,976,005

Notes:

1. Table accounts for both cars and vans.
2. Data on car and van availability is collected at household level and this 'attribute' is then attached to every person living in that household. Thus 26% of the population live in households which have no cars etc.

  • Whilst most minority ethnic groups are less likely to have a car than the White group, Pakistani, Indian and Chinese people are more likely to have one or more car than White people. This is true despite the fact that the majority of people in these groups live in large urban areas (see table 1.12 below) and other research has shown that car ownership is related to where you live. (Results from the Scottish Household Survey show that 46% of households in large urban areas do not own a car compared with 21% of households in remote rural areas). Across all area types, Pakistani, Indian and Chinese people are more likely than White Scottish people to own at least one car.
  • The percentages of households that have 1 car are very similar across all ethnic groups.
  • Both Indians and Pakistanis are most likely to have 3 or more cars (11% and 12% respectively). In comparison, only 6% of White Scottish people live in households which have access to 3 or more cars. (Before drawing any conclusions from these data we would need to take into account the findings of table 1.10 which shows that people from minority ethnic groups are more likely to live in multi-family households. Do Pakistani and Indian families have more cars than other groups or are there more cars per household because there are more families per household?)

Geographic Analysis

Table 1.12: Urban and Rural Scotland by ethnic group - All People in Households
Percentages

Large Urban Areas

Other Urban Areas

Accessible Small Towns

Remote Small Towns

Accessible Rural

Remote Rural

Base

White Scottish

39

31

11

3

13

5

4,394,838

Other White British

30

22

11

3

21

13

361,146

White Irish

57

22

7

1

9

3

47,897

Other White

53

20

7

2

12

6

73,514

Indian

74

15

4

1

5

1

14,662

Pakistani

80

13

3

-

3

-

31,637

Bangladeshi

76

11

6

2

3

2

1,949

Other South Asian

75

14

4

1

5

1

5,960

Chinese

67

22

5

1

4

1

15,319

Caribbean

52

21

10

2

11

5

1,694

African

74

17

4

1

4

1

4,811

Black Scottish or Other Black

56

24

6

2

8

4

1,102

Any Mixed Background

54

22

8

2

10

4

12,383

Other ethnic group

65

18

6

1

8

3

9,093

All People in Households

39

29

10

3

13

6

4,976,005

The Scottish Household Survey Urban Rural Classification:

Large Urban Areas

Settlements of over 125,000 people.

Other Urban Areas

Settlements of 10,000 to 125,000 people.

Accessible Small Towns

Settlements of between 3,000 and 10,000 people and within 30 minutes drive of a settlement of 10,000 or more.

Remote Small Towns

Settlements of between 3,000 and 10,000 people and with a drive time of over 30 minutes to a settlement of 10,000 or more.

Accessible Rural

Settlements of less than 3,000 people and within 30 minutes drive of a settlement of 10,000 or more.

Remote Rural

Settlement of less than 3,000 people and with a drive time of over 30 minutes to a settlement of 10,000 or more.

A much higher percentage of people from minority ethnic backgrounds live in large urban areas, compared to White people. Only 39% of White Scottish people live in large urban areas but for Indians (74%), Pakistanis (80%), Bangladeshi people (76%), Other South Asians (75%), and Africans (74%) the proportions are much higher.

Table 1.13: Minority ethnic population by council area- All People
Percentages

Percentage of people in each council area that are minority ethnic

Percentage of total minority ethnic population living in each council area

Base

Aberdeen City

2.9

6.0

212,125

Aberdeenshire

0.7

1.6

226,871

Angus

0.8

0.8

108,400

Argyll & Bute

0.8

0.7

91,306

Clackmannanshire

0.8

0.4

48,077

Dumfries & Galloway

0.7

1.0

147,765

Dundee City

3.7

5.2

145,663

East Ayrshire

0.7

0.8

120,235

East Dunbartonshire

3.1

3.3

108,243

East Lothian

0.7

0.6

90,088

East Renfrewshire

3.8

3.4

89,311

Edinburgh, City of

4.1

18.0

448,624

Eilean Siar

0.6

0.2

26,502

Falkirk

1.0

1.5

145,191

Fife

1.3

4.4

349,429

Glasgow City

5.5

31.0

577,869

Highland

0.8

1.6

208,914

Inverclyde

0.9

0.7

84,203

Midlothian

0.9

0.7

80,941

Moray

0.9

0.8

86,940

North Ayrshire

0.7

0.9

135,817

North Lanarkshire

1.3

4.0

321,067

Orkney Islands

0.4

0.1

19,245

Perth & Kinross

1.0

1.3

134,949

Renfrewshire

1.2

2.1

172,867

Scottish Borders

0.6

0.6

106,764

Shetland Islands

1.1

0.2

21,988

South Ayrshire

0.7

0.8

112,097

South Lanarkshire

1.1

3.3

302,216

Stirling

1.5

1.3

86,212

West Dunbartonshire

0.7

0.7

93,378

West Lothian

1.3

2.1

158,714

SCOTLAND

2.0

-

5,062,011

  • Glasgow has the highest percentage of minority ethnic people with 31% of the total minority ethnic population living in the city. This is followed by Edinburgh with 18% of the total minority ethnic population residing in the city.

Table 1.14: Minority ethnic population by health board - All People
Percentages

Percentage of people in each health board that are minority ethnic

Percentage of total minority ethnic population living in each health board

Base

Argyll & Clyde

1.0

4.1

420,491

Ayrshire & Arran

0.7

2.5

368,149

Borders

0.6

0.6

106,764

Dumfries & Galloway

0.7

1.0

147,765

Fife

1.3

4.4

349,429

Forth Valley

1.1

3.1

279,480

Grampian

1.6

8.4

525,936

Greater Glasgow

4.5

38.7

867,150

Highland

0.8

1.6

208,914

Lanarkshire

1.2

6.5

552,819

Lothian

2.8

21.4

778,367

Orkney

0.4

0.1

19,245

Shetland

1.1

0.2

21,988

Tayside

1.9

7.4

389,012

Western Isles

0.6

0.2

26,502

SCOTLAND

2.0

-

5,062,011

  • Greater Glasgow health board has the highest percentage of the total minority ethnic population with 38.7% living within the boundary. This is followed by Lothian health board with 21.4% of minority ethnic people living in this health board.

Ward analysis of the ethnic make-up of Glasgow city and Edinburgh city show that certain wards have a high percentage of ethnic minority people:

Glasgow City

In Pollokshields East, 48% of the people living in this ward are minority ethnic. Maxwell Park (24%), Woodlands (23%) and Strathbungo (21%) also have a high percentage of people from minority ethnic backgrounds.

Edinburgh City

The ethnic minority population within Edinburgh city appears to be much more widely dispersed. Southside and Marchmont have the highest percentage of ethnic minority people with 9% of people living in these wards coming from a minority ethnic background.

Information on the size of population by broad ethnic group (using the 5 way classification) is also available from the Census by Output Area. An Output Area is the smallest geographic unit for which Census results are available. They are sets of postcodes grouped together in order to fit, as well as possible, into higher level geographies such as Council Areas and electoral wards. Output areas vary in size but generally they cover around 50 households. There are 42,600 output areas in Scotland.

Analysis of ethnicity by output area show that there is a high density of particular ethnic groups in certain output areas. Overall, the 250 output areas which have highest percentage of population from minority ethnic groups account for just under 13% of the total Scottish minority ethnic population. For the Indian group, 250 output areas account for 19.6% of the total Indian population; for Pakistani and Other South Asian people, almost 25% of the total population live in 250 output areas (and 10.6% live in the 'top 50' of these output areas). 21.6% of Chinese people live in 250 output areas and 10.2% of people from 'Other Groups' live in 250 output areas.