12 Proposals for Monitoring
12.1.1 The requirement for reporting of GHG emissions and Scotland's performance against established emissions reduction targets is set out in the 2009 Act. The publication of the annual Official Statistics release "Scottish Greenhouse Gas Emissions"  fulfils this requirement by detailing emissions levels for a range of gases, including CO 2 and methane. The publication also provides information on whether or not the statutory annual targets have been met.
12.1.2 Scotland's emissions are adjusted to take into account trading in the EU ETS for the purpose of reporting progress towards statutory targets as outlined within the 2009 Act. The EU ETS is an EU policy aimed at mitigating climate change by limiting GHG emissions from large point source emitters (primarily electricity generation and energy-intensive industries) and in aviation. Under accounting rules of the 2009 Act, the contribution of those sectors to the annual targets is determined by the Scottish share of emissions allowances in the EU ETS, rather than the actual level of emissions.
12.1.3 Since 2012, CO 2 emissions from domestic and international aviation have been included within the scope of the EU ETS. As the emissions are attributed to the country where the airline operator is registered, the aviation emissions attributable to Scotland is estimated directly from the Scottish greenhouse gas inventory and compared to the EU ETS cap for aviation  .
12.1.4 Once implemented, the CORSIA will require all airlines to monitor emissions on all international routes  . All EU countries will join the scheme from the start.
12.1.5 In March 2017, the Committee on Climate Change provided advice to the Scottish Government on the new Scottish Climate Change Bill  . Advice was provided on a range of issues and included a recommendation that the overall accounting framework shift to one based on actual emissions, rather than adjusting for activity as currently undertaken for purposes of the EU ETS. It was further recommended that Scotland's shares of international aviation emissions should continue to be included within Scottish targets. This recommendation will be considered alongside others provided as work in developing the draft Climate Change Bill progresses.
12.1.6 The draft Climate Change Plan: the draft Third Report on Policies and Proposals 2017-2032  sets out proposals for a monitoring framework. The framework builds on the approaches to assess the previous reports on policy and proposals and on the method applied by the Committee on Climate Change to monitor progress against the UK carbon budgets. Work is expected to continue to progress on this and it is intended that an update will be published alongside the final version of the Climate Change Plan.
12.1.7 Beyond the monitoring of GHG emissions, and given the known spatial location of Scotland's airports, monitoring at the local and project levels will be an important consideration. A wide range of environmental monitoring programmes are currently in place and are relevant to the potential local level impacts identified. This includes the monitoring of designated sites that have been identified as being located in near proximity to airports and transport routes. For example, Black Cart SPA and SSSI and Inner Moray Firth SPA and SAC.
12.1.8 Glasgow, Edinburgh and Aberdeen airports have noise maps produced by the CAA  . Noise maps are updated every five years as required by the EU Directive.
12.1.9 Air quality monitoring is currently undertaken locally at 95 sites across Scotland  . The monitoring of air quality largely targets emissions emitted from road transport, and monitoring sites include those are that located along important transport links to and from some airports.
12.1.10 Consideration is also likely to be given to the monitoring of noise and air quality when undertaking future airport expansion and infrastructure works. For example, the development of civil and building works ( e.g. roads, rail lines and other associated infrastructure) typically involve the development of site-specific monitoring programmes - either through project-level assessment process ( e.g. EIA) and/or set out as a condition of planning permission. This can include an appropriate programme of background monitoring prior to activities commencing on site, and monitoring during the construction, operation and decommissioning periods.