Unconventional oil and gas

We have taken a cautious, evidence-led approach to considering unconventional oil and gas (UOG) in Scotland. 

On 28 January 2015, we put in place a moratorium on UOG development in Scotland which prevents hydraulic fracturing and coalbed methane extraction taking place.

The moratorium allowed us to undertake a far-reaching investigation into UOG, which included:

 A separate moratorium and review into Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) was put in place in October 2015.

Having taken the evidence into account, our preferred policy position on UOG – subject to statutory assessments before the policymaking process is complete – is that we do not support the development of UOG in Scotland.

The Chief Planner issued a letter to planning authorities confirming that the moratorium will remain in place.

More information about the techniques used to extract UOG is available on our unconventional oil and gas techniques factsheet.

Evidence gathering

We have compiled a comprehensive evidence base on hydraulic fracturing and coalbed methane extraction to examine the potential environmental, health and economic impacts, and to inform our evidence-led approach.

This has included commissioning a report by an Independent Expert Scientific Panel, and commissioning a series of research projects that produced the following reports:

Public consultation

In January  2017 we launched Talking “Fracking”: a consultation on unconventional oil and gas, which invited views on the evidence of the potential impacts of unconventional oil and gas in Scotland, and on the future of the industry.

The consultation received more than 60,000 responses, and we published an analysis of the responses on 3 October 2017.

In response to the analysis, the Minister for Business, Innovation and Energy made a statement to the Scottish Parliament saying that the Scottish Government’s preferred policy position is not to support the development of UOG in Scotland. The preferred policy position is subject to statutory and other assessments before the policy-making process is completed.

We published a Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) and a Business and Regulatory Impact Assessment (BRIA) of unconventional oil and gas development in Scotland in October2018.

Meetings with stakeholders

In 2016, officials held a series of meetings with stakeholders to give them an opportunity to discuss participation and engagement in the consultation on unconventional oil and gas. 

The meetings resulted in a participation commitment report which informed the consultation.

Health Impact Assessment

We commissioned Health Protection Scotland (HPS) to carry out a health impact assessment looking into the potential health risks and wider implications associated with exploration and exploitation of shale oil and gas and coal bed methane.

HPS co-ordinated the work, drawing on the expertise of others including NHS Health Scotland and the Scottish Environment Protection Agency (SEPA).

HPS published their report on 8 December 2016. Read the report on the HPS website.

Regulation workshop

In October 2016 we hosted an unconventional oil and gas regulation workshop in which key regulators met to consider the current regulatory framework and the range of observations made about it to date.

We are not proposing to make any changes to regulation at this time. 

Review of Underground Coal Gasification

On 8 October 2015, we put in place a moratorium on Underground Coal Gasification (UCG), so that we could gather and consider evidence on:

  • its potential to contribute to Scottish industry and energy
  • the potential environmental, health and regulatory issues associated with UCG
  • whether the technology exists to allow for safe extraction and/or on specific gaps and actions

The resulting independent review of underground coal gasification report was published on 6 October 2016. Having considered the report’s findings, Scottish Ministers determined that UCG poses numerous serious environmental risks and should not be used in Scotland at this time.