Publication - Independent report

Ultra-deep water port: feasibility study

Published: 27 Nov 2018

Report compiled by Ernst & Young following their feasibility study looking at the most cost effective locations for an ultra-deep water port in the UK.

122 page PDF

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122 page PDF

2.0 MB

Contents
Ultra-deep water port: feasibility study
Appendix C: Location assessment by Arch Henderson LLP

122 page PDF

2.0 MB

Appendix C: Location assessment by Arch Henderson LLP

Document Control

Notice

This document has been produced by Arch Henderson LLP for Ernst & Young LLP solely for the purpose of proving port assessments to facilitate compilation of an Ultra-deep water port feasibility study.

It may not be used by any person for any other purpose other than that specified without the express written permission of Arch Henderson LLP. Any liability arising out of use by a third party of this document for purposes not wholly connected with the above shall be the responsibility of that party who shall indemnify Arch Henderson against all claims costs damages and losses arising out of such use.

Document Information

©

Information

Document Id

185014 - Ultra-deep Water Port Feasibility Study

Document Owner

Ernst & Young LLP

Issue Date

29th May 2018

Last Saved Date

4th July 2018

File Name

185014 _Ultra-deep Water Port Feasibility Study

Document History

Version

Issue Date

Changes

Draft

29th May 2018

Draft

4th June 2018

Draft Updated

Rev 2

7th June 2018

Updated - Assessment Complete

Rev 3

4th July 2018

Updated

Document Approvals

Role©

Name

Signature

Date

Project Partner

A Kilbride

Alan Kilbride

04/07/18

Project Engineer

Tom Rea

Tom Rea

04/07/18

1 Introduction

This report accompanies and provides supporting narrative to a spreadsheet which was developed to capture all relevant marine infrastructure criteria necessary to assess the feasibility of an Ultra-deep water port in the UK. The spreadsheet in question is included in Appendix A.

1.1 Description of Study

A list of ports to be considered for use as ultra-deep water ports was provided to Arch Henderson by EY and had input from various parties.

As most selected ports have multiple quays, the most appropriate quay(s) within each port for use as an ultra-deep water quay were identified and these are used in the criteria assessment. This approach results in some ports having multiple quays for consideration, which ensures that the optimum location within a port is considered for use, especially with regards to quay length and depth of water available. If a port, supposed to a specific quay, was used in the assessment then the figures would be misleading as not all quay length is continuous or has the same depth of water available.

A list of assessment criteria was developed between EY and AH to allow for a comparison of quays in relation to their suitability for use as an ultra-deep water quay.

Where port development is underway or planning for expansion is known to be in advanced stages then the developed quay in question has been included in the list so as to capture the future parameters of the quay.

2 Criteria

2.1 Hard Criteria

Depth below CD (m)

The depth of water below chart datum available adjacent to the quay. Chart datum is approximately the lowest tide level therefore this depth can be considered the minimum depth of water that is always available.

Tidal Range MHWS - MLWS (m)

The mean spring range which represents the difference in height between spring high water and spring low water. This is generally considered the largest tidal range within a typical calendar month.

Quay Length (m)

The length of the quay that is being assessed.

Approach Channel

Details of the approach including the limiting approach depth (m below CD). In a number of cases the limited depth of the approach channel does not permit access of heavy lift vessels.

2.2 Soft Criteria

LOA (m)

The overall length of a vessel. In this context the value given refers to the maximum vessel size that can berth at the quay. This could be governed by quay length and also port access.

Area of external laydown (m2)

Represents the approximate land available for laydown within the port that is readily accessible from the quay. In some ports all laydown area is reasonably accessible due to the port layout. However in some ports, normally within a city, some port land is not easily accessed from a particular quay. In this instance the area considered accessible is given. The area given does not consider existing land leases that may be in place.

Distance to NNS Basin (km)

The distance from the port to a location in the NNS basin which has been calculated by averaging the coordinates of all platforms located within the NNS basin which have a fixed base and weigh more than 10,000 tonnes.

Distance to CNS Basin (km)

The distance from the port to a location in the CNS basin which has been calculated by averaging the coordinates of all platforms located within the MFD basin and the CNS basin which have a fixed base and weigh more than 10,000 tonnes.

General Quay Capacity (kN/m2)

The load rating of the quay, excluding any heavy lift zones.

Heavy Load Length (m)

The length of any heavy lift zones on the quay.

Heavy Load Capacity (kN/m2)

The load rating of any heavy lift zones on the quay.

Load ratings have been given in kN/m2. It is the case for a lot of quays that they have been designed to accommodate certain outrigger / crane track loadings which will facilitate specific heavy lifts. Where this information is known, it has been included in the comments column.

3 Assessment

3.1 Hard Criteria - Stage 1

A common requirement of an ultra-deep water quay is that it should have at least a depth of water adjacent to the quay of -24m CD. This is to accommodate the depth of water required by a heavy lift vessel during a lift. In transit, a fully laden heavy lift vessel may only require 11 to 14m of water depth, however when lifting, the ballast tanks are flooded and the depth of water required can increase to 24m+. Clearly very few of the existing facilities meet this criteria at present therefore the first stage of the assessment was to eliminate quays where it is felt that the extent of works required to upgrade the facility are simply not feasible or would require an exceptional engineering solution.

It should be noted that some heavy lift vessels require water depths of up to 34m to facilitate a lift of 10,000T +, however for the purposes of this report, Arch Henderson have been asked to use a value of 24m as a bench mark for an ultra-deep water port.

As a starting point for this stage of the assessment, any quay with a depth of water less than -9m CD at the quay or with an approach channel depth of less than -9m CD was considered not to be a viable and favoured option for an ultra-deep water quay. To increase a quay depth by 15m would take considerable re-engineering and significant large scale dredging operations to accommodate the deeper berthing pocket. Similarly to significantly deepen the approach channel depths would involve extensive capital and maintenance dredging.

The quays considered non-viable due to the following hard criteria requirements are included in the table below:

  • Depth of water at quay of less than -9m CD
  • Limiting depth of water in approach channels of less than -9m CD

Harland & Wolff

Current

Steel Wharf (DRY)

Port of Blyth

Current

South Harbour - West Quay

Montrose - Norsea Support Base

Current

Berths 1 & 2

Kishorn

Current

Dry Dock

Lyness

Current

Lyness Wharf

Aberdeen Harbour

Current

Torry Quay (3-6)

Aberdeen Harbour

Current

Albert Quay

Aberdeen Harbour

Current

Clipper Quay

Leith

Current

Imperial Dock

Hartlepool (Able Seaton)

Current

Dry Dock

Harland & Wolff

Current

Belfast Quay

Energy Park Fife

Current

EPF One

Energy Park Fife

Current

EPF Two

Arnish

Current

Materials Quay

Harland & Wolff

Current

Belfast Quay

Peterhead - ASCO South Base

Current

ASCO South Base

Wick

Current

Commercial Quay 1

Hunterston - Platform

Current

Construction Jetty

Inverkeithing

Current

Main Quay

Ardersier

Current

Main Quay

Dundee

Current

New Quayside

Swan Hunter Yard

Current

Main Quay

3.2 Practicality Assessment - Stage 2

Of the remaining quays, a high level practicality assessment was undertaken to ascertain the feasibility of increasing the dredge depth to -24m CD at the quay side and of increasing the approach channel depth to -14m CD. This was undertaken using admiralty charts and where applicable, local knowledge of the marine conditions.

The quays that were considered non-viable at this stage are listed below, together with the reasoning:

Greenhead Base - Shetland

The depth of the approach channel to Greenhead base is limited to -9m CD and it would be difficult to significantly increase this due to the width of the channel. Creating a dredge pocket of -24m CD would also be difficult due to the width of the channel.

Peterhead - Smith Quay

Much of Peterhead Port (Peterhead Bay) is dredged to -12m CD and the approach channels are deep. It would therefore be feasible to get fully laden heavy lift vessels in to the Port. Smith Quay however only has a dredge depth of -10m CD adjacent to the quay. To increase this to -24m CD would take a significant extension to the quay and also considerable additional dredging within the port to maintain the lower dredge pocket. This would impact on much of the existing quayside.

Hunterston - Dry Dock

The dry dock at Hunterston is currently at design stage. To increase the depth of the dry dock to -24m CD would require exceptionally increased engineering costs and would also require extensive dredging within a SSSI area.

Hunterston - Platform

The new platform quay at Hunterston is currently at design stage. The make the quay any deeper would require extensive dredging in a SSSI area.

Nigg - Dry Dock

The level of the dry dock is -9.1m CD and to deepen this would require significant construction work. The dry dock is restricted by the fact that it cannot be extended out in to the deep channel.

Aberdeen Harbour South

There has been a large investment into wave modelling at the Aberdeen Harbour South development. Deepening the entrance channel would require significant re-modelling and potentially lead to high swell conditions in the harbour. The result may be a new breakwater for vessels to manoeuvre around or increasing the size of all the rock armour. There is also the logistics of closing the harbour to dredge rock out the inner basin while rebuilding or strengthening the surrounding structures.

Hull Greenport

Hull Greenport is located on the river Humber approximately 40 kilometres from the estuary mouth. The Humber channel is presently dredged to a depth of -8.8m CD and any increase to this would require extensive dredging and maintenance dredging operations.

Hartlepool (Able Seaton)

Quays 10 & 11 are currently dredged to -11m CD however they have been designed for a -15m CD dredge. A greater water depth could be achieved with the construction of a new quay however this would have considerable impact on adjacent infrastructure and ultimately there is no naturally deep water present adjacent to the quay so considerable capital and maintenance dredging would be required.

The Tees approach channel is dredged to approximately -14mCD, however the Seaton-on-Tees Channel which is the direct approach to Able Seaton is only currently dredged to -6mCD (although it has been design for a -9.5m dredge). In order to provide a deeper approach, considerable capital and maintenance dredging would be required.

Great Yarmouth

Extensive development would be required to increase the depth of water at Great Yarmouth. Considerable lengths of the quay structures would need extending and significant dredging would be required within the port which would likely undermine much of the existing infrastructure and the breakwaters.. The Holm Channel is currently the deepest approach to Great Yarmouth with limiting water depths of approximately -11m CD.

The heavy lift vessels have large turning circles and it is very unlikely these can be accommodated at the required depth within Great Yarmouth Port.

3.3 Soft Criteria - Stage 3

Following the assessments in stages 1 and 2, the ports listed in the table below are remaining and are therefore considered the most appropriate for an ultra-deep water quay development. It was therefore necessary to assess the soft criteria to identify the Port / Ports which are considered the most viable.

Dales Voe - Shetland

After Expected Development

Dales Voe (extension)

Dales Voe - Shetland

Current

Dales Voe

Invergordon

Current

SB5

Invergordon

After Expected Development

SB5

Invergordon

Current

Queens Dock

Hunterston - Ore jetty

Current

Outer Berth

Nigg

Current

Quay 3

Redcar Bulk Terminal

Current

Main Quay

Invergordon

Of the quays at Invergordon, the most suitable will be SB5 following the extension works which are currently underway. The existing dredge depths are not suitable for an ultra-deep water port, however further development could be undertaken to increase the depth of water available. The works would be considerable however it is feasible. The general quay capacity will be 70kN/m2 which is considered too small for operation of fully loaded SPMT's, however there are strengthened sections of quayside to facilitate heavy crane lifts and additional strengthening could potentially be carried out.

The Cromarty firth is generally deep and the channel adjacent to Invergordon Port has a water depth of approximately -14m CD.

Post development, there will be approximately 130,000m2 of laydown available at Invergordon.

The Cromarty Firth is well located to the North Sea basins, with Invergordon located 445 kilometres to the NNS basin and 310 kilometres to the CNS basin.

It should be noted that the depth of the Cromarty Firth is greater adjacent to Nigg Energy Park and for this reason it would be a better engineering solution to develop an UDW quay Nigg rather than Invergordon. As the depth of the channel adjacent to Invergordon is only -14m CD, significant capital and maintenance dredging would be required to develop and maintain the quay. At Nigg natural deep water is present in the channel.

Redcar Bulk Terminal

Redcar bulk terminal has a 300m long quay with a dredge pocket of -17.1m CD. The Tees approach channel is dredged to -14.1m CD. The facility is equipped for bulk handling and there is appropriate processing plant and infrastructure on-site suited to a bulk facility. Whether this facility is compatible with an UDWP would need to be determined. The quay has two ship to shore cranes which it is assumed operate along two strengthen rail positions. It is unknown what the UDL quay load capacity is.

Hunterston - Ore Jetty

The jetty head originally facilitated the operation of a STS crane which ran along two rails beams. The jetty head does therefore not provide a large quay area for offloading, transporting or storage. Much of the jetty is rated at 25kN/m2 only, however the two longitudinal beams which served the STS Crane can accommodate a greater load and there is a central strongpoint in the jetty head which could likely accommodate greater loadings.

The jetty head is connected to land via an approach jetty which is not rated to accommodate SPMT loads. This facility would therefore only be suitable for lifting platform sections on to smaller barges located on the inner berth of the jetty head. Alternatively the approach jetty could be strengthened to accommodate SPMT's.

Hunterston is located off the West coast of Scotland with a distance to the NNS and CNS basins in the order of 1,000km. The steaming time to reach the Port from the North Sea is therefore considerably greater than the Ports located on the East and quite possibly economically unviable.

Dales Voe - Shetland

The Dales Voe channel provides water depths of -32m CD which reduces down to approximately - 20m CD in the centre of the channel adjacent to the quay. Therefore if the proposed development works and associated dredging have been carried out, a -24m CD depth of water will be provided at the quay and along the approach channels.

High quay loading capacities ensure that Dales Voe can facilitate heavy lifts, operation of SPMT's and accommodate laydown of heavy components lifted from heavy lift vessels.

The quay is close to both the NNS basin and the CNS basin.

Laydown area is not extensive but at 90,100m2, following the proposed development, there is still sufficient space for landside operations. It is considered that 100,000m[2] of additional laydown area could be generated by excavating in to the hill behind the port if required.

Nigg Energy Park

Quay 3 at Nigg Energy Park has a dredge depth of -12m CD adjacent to the quay. The quay could be extended out further in to the Cromarty firth in order to increase the depth of water available. This would be a costly development however it would be feasible without disturbance of adjacent infrastructure.

The Cromarty Firth is deep adjacent to Nigg Energy Park with water depths in the order of -30m CD in the centre of the channel. There is however a straight of shallower water (-14m CD) just before the Cromarty Firth meets the Moray Firth. This should still however be able to accommodate heavy lift vessels in transit.

Existing quay loadings are sufficient to accommodate SPMT loads at 100kN/m2.

The Cromarty Firth is well located to the North Sea basins, with Nigg located 440 kilometres to the NNS basin and 305 kilometres to the CNS basin.

The depth of the Cromarty Channel adjacent to the quay at Nigg is greater than the depth at Invergordon. This reduces the required dredging operation associated with upgrading to an ultra-deep water quay. Ultimately the close proximity of natural deep water to the existing quay means there is a sensible engineering solution for creation of an UDW quay at Nigg.

4 Conclusion

Based on the port assessments carried out, it is apparent that there are, at present, no facilities which can serve as a conventional Ultra-deep water port.

The assessment has however, identified the two ports which are conceivably best equipped for upgrading to an Ultra-deep water port; Nigg Energy Park and Dales Voe. The governing factors are largely due to the depth of water adjacent to the existing quay. In the case of both of these quays, deep water is naturally present in the approach channels and near to the existing quay edge. By extending the quay, this deep water can be reached to allow for a vertical quay face with a berthing pocket of -24m CD that extents in to a channel of the same depth or deeper.

Dales Voe:

Existing quay capacity of 600 kN/m2 can facilitate very heavy lifts.

Approach channels are very deep.

Plan for development of Ultra-deep water quay in place.

Close proximity to both the NNS and the CNS.

Nigg Energy Park:

Existing quay capacity of 100 kN/m2. Suitable for operation of SPMT's but not necessarily suitable for all requirements of an Ultra-deep water quay. May have to be strengthened.

Approach channel is deep, however there is a straight of shallower water (-14m CD) just before the Cromarty Firth meets the Moray Firth.

No known current plan for development of Ultra-deep water quay.

Close proximity to both the NNS and the CNS basins.

Appendix A

Ultra-deep water port feasibility study

Date: 04/07/2018

Ports Port Status Specific Quay Hard Criteria Soft Criteria Comments
Tidal Range MHWS - MLWS (m) Depth below CD at Quay (m) Quay Length (m)* Limiting Approach Channel Depths - below CD (m) Passes Hard Criteria Requirements (√/x) Distance to NNS Basin (km) Distance to CNS (km) Max LOA (m) Area of External Laydown (m2) General Quay Capacity (kN/m2) Heavy Load Out Length (m) Heavy Load Out Capacity (kN/m2)
Dales Voe - Shetland Current Dales Voe 2.2 12.5 127 25 145 302 330 59,600 600 75 600 8,000kN/m line load capacity
Dales Voe - Shetland After development (Currently development a proposal only) Dales Voe (extension) 2.2 24 100 25 145 302 250 90,100 100 100 500 Opportunity to develop a further 100,000m2 of laydown.
Greenhead base - Shetland Current Greenhead Base 2.2 9.1 468 9 145 302 200 160,000 50 200 500
Peterhead - Smith Quay (Norsea) Current Smith Quay 3.3 10 120 12.5 370 170 130 60,000 30 30 50 Deck designed for local point loads of 80T
Peterhead - ASCO South Base Current ASCO South Base 3.3 5.9 486 12.5 x 370 170 280 8,000 27 27 Small local heavy lift zone. Too small for most cranes. Recent very specific lift.
Invergordon Current SB5 3.7 13.5 154 14 446 310 185 80,000 70 120
Invergordon Current Queens Dock 3.7 12 150 14 445 310 150 80,000 70 70
Invergordon After development (Currently at construction tender) SB5 3.7 13.5 369 14 445 310 300 130,000 70 120
Aberdeen Harbour Current Clipper Quay 3.7 9 174 6.6 x 410 195 7,000 40 40
Aberdeen Harbour Current Torry Quay (3-6) 3.7 7.5 400 6.6 x 410 195 40,000 50 60 100 115T outrigger load (1.5m by 1.5m spreader pad)
Aberdeen Harbour Current Albert Quay 3.7 7.5 490 6.6 x 410 195 40 40
Aberdeen - (Aberdeen Harbour South) After development (Currently at construction stage) East Quay 3.7 10.5 400 10.5 410 195 125,000 150 150
Aberdeen - (Aberdeen Harbour South) After development (Currently at construction stage) North Quay 3.7 9 540 10.5 410 195 125,000 150 150
Montrose - Norsea Support Base Current Berths 1 & 2 5.2 8.2 225 5.5 x 470 235 164 8,000 75 150
Dundee Current New Quayside 4.8 9 200 6 x 530 285 200 145,000 200 800 80T/m2 ultra heavy lift pad
Nigg Current Quay 3 3.7 12 370 14 440 305 241 700,000 100 100 230,000m2 storage adjacent to quay. 700,000 across site
Nigg Current Dry Dock 3.7 9.1 240 14 440 305 260 700,000 200 230,000m2 storage adjacent to quay. 700,000 across site. 122m opening
Energy Park Fife Current EPF One 4.8 6.5 184 6 x 560 310 190 380,000 200 Up to 60T/m2 patch loads)
Energy Park Fife Current EPF Two 4.8 6.5 176 6 x 560 310 180 380,000 200 200
Inverkeithing Current 5 3 1 x 580 335
Ardersier Current 3.7 2.8 14 x 445 Closed in 2001
Kishorn Current Dry Dock 4.6 8 166 30 x 625 570 200 100,000 166 Dry dock. Lifting positions possibly restricted to dock gate
Leith Current Imperial Dock 4.8 6.7 1396 6.7 x 570 325 210 90,000 50 50 Port is locked, depth governed by cill height
Wick Current Commercial Quay 1 3.1 4.5 140 4 x 335 255 110 6,600 75 115 Proposals to develop Shaltigoe deep water berthing basin
Hunterston - Platform Current Construction Jetty 3.5 3.8 66 7 x 1025 965 80 404,686 TBC TBC
Hunterston - Platform After Development (Currently at design stage) Construction Jetty 3.5 10.5 101 10 1025 965 120 404,000 150 101 150
Hunterston Dry Dock After Development (Currently at design stage) Dry Dock 3.5 9.5 10 1025 965 404,000 Dry Dock
Hunterston - Ore jetty Current Outer Berth 3.5 20 443 30 1025 965 300+ 404,000 25 TBC Heavy lifts possible from central strongpoint (approx 40m by 20m)
Lyness Current Lyness Wharf 3 8 122 14 x 335 280 180 310,000 50
Arnish Current Materials Quay 4.1 6.5 100 8 x 540 485 100 48,000 40 50 100 50m general quay can also takie 100T outrigger loads on quay edge
Greater Yarmouth (Veolia & Peterson) Current Outer Harbour 2.5 10 875 11 870 570 200 360,000 360,000m2 of land potential?
Hartlepool (Able Seaton) Current Dry Dock 4.6 6.6 350 6 (design of 9.5) x 655 370 350 300,000 100 50 600 Dry Dock
Hartlepool (Able Seaton) Current Quays 10 & 11 4.6 15 306 6 (design of 9.5) 655 370 300 300,000 200 20 600 Seaton Channel currently-6m CD. Design depth -9.5m CD
Quays currently at -11m however have been designed for -15m dredge.
Harland & Wolff Current Belfast Quay 301 6.6 432 9.3 x 976 920 300 60,000 40T crane @ 30m radius
Harland & Wolff Current Steel Wharf (DRY) 3.1 8.5 170 9.3 x 976 920 160 60,000 Kroll Tower Crane 20T @ 19m radius.
Harland & Wolff Current Belfast Dock (DRY) 3.1 6 270 9.3 x 976 920 250 60,000 Gantry Cranes - 2 * 840T. Tower Cranes 2 * 60T. Dock Floor 23,600m2
Hull Greenport Current Main River Quay 6.9 11.5 420 11 790 500 350 580,000 80 100
Swan Hunter Yard Current 4.3 9.1 6 x 630 345
Redcar bulk terminal (Teeside) Current Bulk Terminal 4.6 17.3 300 14.1 655 370 300 1,000,000 Currently used for bulk offload to serve Redcar Steelworks. Served by STS cranes.
Port of Blyth Current South Harbour - West Quay 3.3 8.5 175 6 x 610 330 150 40,000 Max 120 T capacity craneage
Benchmark
Vats - AF Decom Main Quay 23 182 325 355 68,000 100 100
Stord Kvaener Main Quay 15 149 258 343 63,000 150 150

* Details are provided for what is considerd the most appropriare quay / quays in the Port for use as an UDWQ
* Laydown area shown is approximately the total area accessable within the port boundary
* Hard Criteria requirement is considered to be a Quay depth of -9m CD and an approach depth of -9m CD.


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