Just Transitions: a comparative perspective

Report prepared for the Just Transition Commission providing a comparison of just transitions in other countries.


Abraham, J. 2019. ‘Just transitions in a dual labor market: Right wing populism and austerity in the German energiewende’. Labor and Society 22: 679-693

Business for Social Responsibility (BSR). 2018. Climate + the Just Transition: The Business Case for Action.

Chamberlin, M and Dunn, N M.P.A. 2019. Success Factors, Challenges, and Early Impacts of the POWER Initiative: An Implementation Evaluation. Appalachian Regional Commission.

Che Piu, H. y García, T. 2011. Estudio REDD Perú: La Situación de REDD en el Perú. Derecho Ambiente y Recursos Naturales (DAR), Lima.

Che Piu H and Menton M. 2014. The context of REDD+ in Peru: Drivers, agents and institutions. Occasional Paper 106. Bogor, Indonesia: CIFOR.

Dehm, J. 2016. ‘Indigenous Peoples and REDD Safeguards: Rights as Resistance or as Disciplinary Inclusion in the Green Economy?’ Journal of Human Rights and the Environment 7 (2): 170–217. Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=2864618

Diedrich, R-M. 2000. You can't beat us! Class, work and masculinity on a council estate in the South Wales coalfield. PhD Dissertation. University of Hamburg.

E3G. 2018. How to ensure a just and fast transition to a competitive low-carbon economy for the EU? Paper prepared for the Think 2030 Platform.

Eisenberg, A. 2019. ‘Just Transitions’. Southern California Law Review 92 (2): 273-330

Espinoza Llanos, R and Feather, C. 2018. A marathon, not a sprint: The role of international climate finance in securing indigenous lands in Peru - Progress, setbacks and challenges. AIDESEP and Forest Peoples Programme.

Espinoza Llanos, R and Feather, C. 2011. The reality of REDD+ in Peru: Between theory and practice. AIDESEP and Forest Peoples Programme.

Fisher, A D. 2013. Human rights in the transition to a ‘green economy’ – Norway and a ‘just transition’ to a low-carbon economy. Dissertation. Faculty of Law: University of Oslo.

Galgóczi, B. 2014. ‘The long and winding road from black to green: Decades of structural change in the Ruhr region’. International Journal of Labour Research 6 (2).

Gambhir, A, Green, F, and Pearson, P J G. 2018. ‘Towards a just and equitable low-carbon energy transition’. Grantham Institute Briefing paper (26).

Generation Energy Council. 2018. Canada’s energy transition: Getting to our energy future, together.

Godzimirski J.M. 2014. ‘The Norwegian Energy Security Debate: Domestic and International Dimensions’. In: Moe E., Midford P. (eds) The Political Economy of Renewable Energy and Energy Security. Energy, Climate and the Environment. Palgrave Macmillan, London

Government of Canada. 2018a. Taking action to phase out coal power.

Government of Canada. 2018b. A Just and Fair Transition for Canadian Coal Power Workers and Communities.

Government of Norway. 2016. Executive Summary Report from The Norwegian Government’s Expert Committee for Green Competitiveness.

Griscom, B W, et al. 2017. ‘Natural climate solutions’. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences114 (44): 11645-11650.

Healy, N, and J Barry. 2017. ‘Politicizing Energy Justice and Energy System Transitions:

Fossil Fuel Divestment and a “Just Transition”’. Energy Policy 108: 451–459.

Heffron, R, and D McCauley. 2018. “What is the ‘Just Transition’?” Geoforum 88: 74–77.

Hopwood, B, M Mellor, and G O’Brien. 2005. ‘Sustainable Development: Mapping Different Approaches.’ Sustainable Development. 13:38–52.

Hughes, J. D. 2018. Canada’s Energy Outlook: Current Realities and Implications for a Carbon-Constrained Future. Vancouver: Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives, Corporate Mapping Project and Parkland Institute. https://ccpabc2018.files.wordpress.com/2018/05/cmp_canadas-energy-outlook-2018_full.pdf.

International Energy Agency. 2017. Energy Policies of IEA Countries: Norway 2017 Review.

International Energy Agency. 2011. Energy Policies of IEA Countries: Norway 2011 Review.

Jackson, S. 1998. Britain’s Population: Demographic Issues in Contemporary Society. London:


Just Transition Research Collaborative (JTRC). 2018. Mapping Just Transitions to a Low Carbon World.

Lederer, M, et al. 2016. State, society and the environment: The prospects for a green transformation in Costa Rica and Vietnam. Presentation. The Berlin Conference on Global Environmental Change, Berlin.

McCauley, D, and R J. Heffron. 2018. ‘Just Transition: Integrating Climate, Energy

and Environmental Justice.’ Energy Policy. 119: 1–7.

McCauley, D, R J Heffron, H Stephan, and K Jenkins. 2013. ‘Advancing Energy Justice: The Triumvirate of Tenets and Systems Thinking.’ International Energy Law Review 32(3): 107–116.

Mertins-Kirkwood, H. 2018. Making Decarbonization Work for Workers: Policies for a Just Transition to a Zero-Carbon Economy in Canada. Ottawa: Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives. https://www.policyalternatives.ca/publications/reports/making-decarbonization-work-workers.

National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences. 2015. The Economic Impact of the Environmental Career Worker Training Program.

Newell, P, and Dustin M. 2013. ‘The Political Economy of the “Just Transition”.’ Geographical Journal 179:132–140.

Nordbø, E W and Stensland, N. 2015. The petroleum sector and the Norwegian economy. Economic Commentaries 4. Norges Bank.

Pai, S; Harrison, K; Zerriffi, H. 2020. A Systematic Review of the Key Elements of a Just Transition for Fossil Fuel Workers. Clean Economy Working Paper Series. Smart Prosperity Institute.

Panitch, L. 1998. ‘“The state in a changing world”: Social-democratizing global capitalism?’ Monthly Review 50 (5): 11.

Piggot, G, et al. 2019. Realizing a just and equitable transition away from fossil fuels. Stockholm Environment Institute.

PWC. 2012. Coal Association of Canada: Economic impact analysis of the coal mining industry in Canada.

Reitzenstein, A and Popp, R. 2019. The German Coal Commission – A Role Model for Transformative Change? Third Generation Environmentalism Ltd (E3G).

Rotmans, J; Loorbach, D. 2010. Towards a Better Understanding of Transitions and their Governance: A Systemic and Reflexive Approach in Grin, John; Rotmans, Jan; Schor, Johan (with contributions by Geels, F; Loorbach, D), Part II: Transitions to Sustainable Development: New Directions in the Study of Long Term Structural Change. New York: Routledge, 105-221.

Schepelmann, P, Kemp, R, and Schneidewind, U. 2016. ‘The Eco-restructuring of the Ruhr District as an Example of a Managed Transition’, in Hans Günter Brauch, et al. (eds.), Handbook on Sustainability Transition and Sustainable Peace. Springer: Switzerland.

Sovacool, B. 2017. Contestation, contingency, and justice in the Nordic low-carbon energy transition. Energy Policy 104: 569-582.

Sweeney, S, and J Treat. 2018. Trade Unions and Just Transition. The Search for a Transformative Politics. TUED Working Paper No. 11. New York: Trade Unions for Energy Democracy, Rosa Luxemburg Stiftung – New York Office and Murphy Institute. http://www.rosaluxnyc.org/wp-content/files_mf/tuedworkingpaper11_web.pdf.

Stevis, D, and R Felli. 2015. ‘Global Labour Unions and Just Transition to a Green

Economy.’ International Environmental Agreements: Politics, Law and Economics 15:29–43.

The White House, Washington. 2016. United States Mid-Century Strategy for Deep Decarbonization.

Velarde S, Prieto R and Ugarte-Guerrera, J. 2010. Percepciones sobre la equidad y eficiencia en la cadena de valor de REDD en Perú. Reporte de talleres en Ucayalo, San Martin, y Loreto. Perú: Proyecto REALU.

Voss, D. 2018. The Political Economy of European populism: Labour market dualization and protest voting in Germany and Spain. http://aei.pitt.edu/93611/

Wei, D. 2018. Climate and the Just Transition: The Business Case for Action. Report. BSR, San Francisco

Zinecker, A, et al. 2018. Real People, Real Change – Strategies for just energy transitions. Report. The International Institute for Sustainable Development: Winnipeg, Canada.


Email: justtransitioncommission@gov.scot

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