Scottish Survey of Literacy and Numeracy 2015 (Numeracy)

Numeracy results from the 2015 survey which covers assessment of school pupils at stages P4, P7 and S2. Questionnaire results from a pupil and a teacher questionnaire are also provided

Chapter 1: Introduction

1.1 What is the SSLN?

The Scottish Survey of Literacy and Numeracy ( SSLN) is an annual sample survey which monitors national performance of school children at P4, P7 and S2 in literacy and numeracy in alternate years. The 2015 survey focused on numeracy. All mainstream publicly funded and independent schools are invited to participate in the SSLN. For more information on the survey design see Chapter 6: Background Notes.

The SSLN also provides information which informs improvements in learning, teaching and assessment at classroom level through the development of Professional Learning Resources ( PLRs) by Education Scotland. All PLRs are available on the Education Scotland website.

The SSLN replaced the Scottish Survey of Achievement ( SSA) which ran from 2004 to 2009. The SSLN was developed in 2009 to support assessment approaches for Curriculum for Excellence ( CfE), and so results are not comparable with the SSA. The guidance for assessment for CfE is set out in Assessment for Curriculum for Excellence: Strategic vision and key principles, published in September 2009, and in Building the Curriculum 5: A Framework for Assessment and its supporting suite of publications, first published in January 2010.

The SSLN is undertaken in partnership between the Scottish Government, Education Scotland, the Scottish Qualifications Authority ( SQA), the Association of Directors of Education in Scotland ( ADES) and local authorities.

We would like to thank the 10,500 pupils and 4,700 teachers in the 2,200 schools who participated in SSLN 2015.

1.2 Survey components

The numeracy assessments consisted of two paper booklets, each lasting about an hour, and a pupil-teacher interactive assessment. Each booklet contained short answer tasks, consisting of a single question, and a multi-item (extended) task, which was based on a source datasheet with multiple associated questions. All questions were worth one mark each. The exact score composition of the assessments differed between the stages but overall around 60 per cent of marks were derived from short answer tasks. At P4, each booklet contained 16 short answer tasks and one multi-item task consisting of six questions. For P7 and S2 pupils, each booklet contained 20 short answer tasks and a multi-item task consisting of eight questions.

All pupils also completed a pupil-teacher interactive assessment, which consisted of 12 questions for all stages and was worth 12 marks. This assessment included questions on mental maths, an 'estimation and rounding' task and a task on one of 'money', 'measurement' or 'chance and uncertainty'.

The assessments used in the survey were designed to assess the wide range of knowledge, skills, capabilities and attitudes across learning identified in the numeracy experiences and outcomes. They were designed to reflect the requirements that pupils have achieved breadth, challenge and application of learning. The pupil questionnaire collected information on factors that are likely to affect learning, such as pupil attitudes and experience in class. The teacher questionnaire collected information on teachers' experiences of delivering numeracy across the curriculum.

Assessment tasks were either specifically developed for the SSLN by practising teachers and assessment experts or, where previous SSA tasks were used or revised, these were re-assessed against curriculum levels and experiences and outcomes. The assessments were constructed to include tasks with different degrees of challenge and across the range of numeracy organisers set out by the curriculum at each level.

Pupils were assessed at the following curriculum levels [1] :

P4: First Level (covers P2 to P4, but earlier or later for some)

P7: Second Level (covers P5 to P7, but earlier or later for some)

S2: Third Level (Third and Fourth level span S1 to S3, but earlier for some)

1.3 Reporting SSLN results

SSLN results are presented by categories for ease of reporting. A summary of the categories used is given in Table 1.1. They refer to performance in the survey and are not meant to be used for general classroom reporting of performance.

Headline numeracy results are based on pupils performing well or very well at the level.

Table 1.1: Summary of SSLN reporting categories

Reporting Category

Pupils are:

Performing very well at the level

meeting almost all the outcomes at that level

Performing well at the level

meeting most of the outcomes at that level

Working within the level

meeting some of the expected outcomes for their level, but they are not yet meeting the others

Not yet working within the level

not yet meeting any of the CfE outcomes of the level assessed

In contrast to the SSA, the SSLN does not assess pupils against other levels. For example, although pupils in P4 may be reported as 'performing very well at First Level', it is possible that some may be achieving many of the Second Level outcomes as well; however, the SSLN does not capture this information. The principles of CfE are clear, however, that the curriculum levels are not a barrier to pupils' progression in learning. In progressing through a level pupils must demonstrate breadth and depth of learning and be able to apply their learning in different and unfamiliar contexts.

There are three deprivation categories reported in the SSLN: the least deprived 30 per cent of datazones, the middle 40 per cent and the most deprived 30 per cent. These are based on the Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation (SIMD) 2012 and pupils are assigned to a category according to their home postcode.

The SSLN samples a proportion of pupils rather than the whole population, therefore the SSLN results are presented as estimates. There is an element of uncertainty around the estimates and these are denoted by confidence intervals. Where appropriate, confidence intervals are represented on charts by error bars to help demonstrate this level of uncertainty. Statistical tests were used to test for differences between estimates. All references to differences in this report are statistically significant differences. For more information on calculation and interpretation of confidence intervals please see Chapter 6: Background notes.

All SSLN estimates in this report are rounded to zero decimal places. Differences in estimates are calculated using unrounded estimates, therefore apparent differences may differ from actual calculated differences.


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