Section E. Further information and Glossary
Methodology and Source data
Full details of the methodology used to estimate Scottish greenhouse gas emissions together with further breakdowns are provided on the National Atmospheric Emissions Inventory website in the publication Greenhouse Gas Inventories for England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland: 1990-2012.
Scotland's Carbon Footprint
Scottish Greenhouse Gas Emissions on a Consumption Basis ("Scotland's Carbon Footprint")
Climate Change (Scotland) Act 2009:
This legislation outlines the requirements for percentage reductions targets for 2020 and 2050 and fixed annual targets
Relevant Secondary Legislation associated with Climate Change (Scotland) Act 2009
Climate Change (Annual Targets) (Scotland) Order 2010
This Order sets the first batch of annual emissions reduction targets, for the period 2010-2022.
Climate Change (Annual Targets) (Scotland) Order 2011
This Order sets the second batch of annual emissions reduction targets, for the period 2023-2027.
The Carbon Accounting Scheme (Scotland) Regulations 2010
These Regulations establish the scheme for monitoring compliance with the annual emissions reduction targets set for 2010-2012. They also cover a range of administrative issues relating to emissions accounting
National Performance Framework Sustainability Purpose Targets http://www.scotland.gov.uk/About/Performance/scotPerforms/purpose/sustainability
Department of Energy and Climate Change (DECC) statistics https://www.gov.uk/government/organisations/department-of-energy-climate-change/about/statistics#emissions-and-climate-change-statistics
UK greenhouse gas inventory national system
Committee on Climate Change (CCC)
The CCC is an independent body established under the Climate Change Act to advise the UK Government and devolved administrations on reducing greenhouse gas emissions.
United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC)
The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) is an international environmental treaty. The objective of the treaty is to stabilize greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system.
The treaty itself set no binding limits on greenhouse gas emissions for individual countries and contains no enforcement mechanisms. In that sense, the treaty is considered legally non-binding. Instead, the treaty provides a framework for negotiating specific international treaties (called "protocols") that may set binding limits on greenhouse gases.
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
The IPCC assesses the scientific, technical and socio-economic information relevant for the understanding of the risk of human-induced climate change. They provide advice to the UNFCCC on the scientific evidence and developments which are used to inform National Inventories.
EU Emissions Trading System (EU ETS)
Further information can be found in the Department for Energy and Climate Change (DECC) website.
Scottish Energy Statistics
An overview of trends from energy generation statistics in Scotland can be found in the Scottish Government report: Energy in Scotland 2014 - statistics compendium
This publication provides a statistical overview of current and historic energy production, transformation, and consumption in Scotland. It includes sections on:
- the economic contribution of the energy sector
- fossil fuel extraction
- energy consumption
- energy prices
- low carbon economy
|SG Sector||NC Category||IPCC Sector||Source Name|
|Energy Supply||Energy Supply||1A1a Public Electricity & Heat Production||Miscellaneous industrial/commercial combustion|
|Public sector combustion|
|1A1b Petroleum Refining||Refineries - combustion|
|1A1ci Manufacture of Solid Fuels-coke||Coke production|
|Solid smokeless fuel production|
|1A1cii Other Energy Industries||Collieries - combustion|
|Nuclear fuel production|
|Town gas manufacture|
|Upstream Gas Production - fuel combustion|
|Upstream oil and gas production - combustion at gas separation plant|
|Upstream Oil Production - fuel combustion|
|1B1a Post-MiningActivities||Coal storage and transport|
|1B1a Surface Mines||Open-cast coal|
|1B1a Underground Mines||Deep-mined coal|
|1B1b Solid Fuel Transformation||Charcoal production|
|Iron and steel - flaring|
|Solid smokeless fuel production|
|1B1c Closed Coal Mines||Closed Coal Mines|
|1B2a Oil Exploration||Upstream Oil Production - Offshore Well Testing|
|1B2a Oil Other||Upstream Oil Production - Onshore Oil Loading|
|1B2a Oil Production||Upstream Oil Production - process emissions|
|1B2a Oil Transport||Upstream Oil Production - Offshore Oil Loading|
|1B2a Refining/Storage||Petroleum processes|
|Upstream Oil Production - Oil terminal storage|
|1B2b Distribution||Gas leakage|
|1B2b Gas Exploration||Upstream Gas Production - Offshore Well Testing|
|1B2b Gas Production||Upstream Gas Production - Gas terminal storage|
|Upstream Gas Production - process emissions|
|1B2b Transmission||Gas leakage|
|1B2c Flaring Gas||Upstream Gas Production - flaring|
|1B2ci Venting Gas||Upstream Gas Production - venting|
|1B2ci Venting Oil||Upstream Oil Production - venting|
|1B2cii Flaring Oil||Upstream Oil Production - flaring|
|2A3 Limestone & Dolomite Use||Power stations - FGD|
|Business and Industrial process||Business||1A2a Manufacturing Industry&Construction:I&S||Blast furnaces|
|Iron and steel - combustion plant|
|1A2b Non-Ferrous Metals||Non-Ferrous Metal (combustion)|
|1A2c Chemicals||Ammonia production - combustion|
|1A2d Pulp Paper Print||Pulp, Paper and Print (combustion)|
|1A2e Food drink tobacco||Food & drink, tobacco (combustion)|
|1A2f Manufacturing Industry&Construction:Other||Autogeneration - exported to grid|
|Cement production - combustion|
|Lime production - non decarbonising|
|Other industrial combustion|
|1A2fii Manufacturing Industry&Construction:Off-road||Industrial engines|
|Industrial off-road mobile machinery|
|1A4a Commercial/Institutional||Miscellaneous industrial/commercial combustion|
|2B5 Carbon from NEU of products||Other industrial combustion|
|2F1 Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Equipment||Commercial Refrigeration|
|Mobile Air Conditioning|
|Stationary Air Conditioning|
|2F2 Foam Blowing||Foams|
|2F3 Fire Extinguishers||Firefighting|
|2F5 Solvents||Other PFC use|
|Precision cleaning - HFC|
|2F9 Other||SF6 used as a tracer gas|
|2F9 Other (one component foams)||One Component Foams|
|2F9 Other (semiconductors electrical sporting goods)||2F9 other|
|Industrial Process||1A2a Manufacturing Industry&Construction:I&S||Sinter production|
|2A1 Cement Production||Cement - decarbonising|
|2A2 Lime Production||Lime production - decarbonising|
|2A3 Limestone & Dolomite Use||Basic oxygen furnaces|
|2A7 (Fletton Bricks)||Brick manufacture - Fletton|
|2A7 Glass Production||Glass - general|
|2B1 Ammonia Production||Ammonia production - feedstock use of gas|
|2B2 Nitric Acid Production||Nitric acid production|
|2B3 Adipic Acid Production||Adipic acid production|
|2B5 Chemical Industry Other||Chemical industry - ethylene|
|Chemical industry - general|
|Chemical industry - methanol|
|2C1 Iron&Steel||Electric arc furnaces|
|Iron and steel - flaring|
|Ladle arc furnaces|
|2C3 Aluminium Production||Primary aluminium production - general|
|Primary aluminium production - PFC emissions|
|2C4 Cover gas used in Al and Mg foundries||Magnesium cover gas|
|2E1 Production of Halocarbons and Sulphur Hexafluoride||Halocarbons production - by-product|
|2E2 Production of Halocarbons and Sulphur Hexafluoride||Halocarbons production - fugitive|
|3 Solvent and Other Product Use||Solvent use|
|Transport (excluding international aviation and shipping)||Transport||1A3aii Civil Aviation Domestic||Aircraft - domestic cruise|
|Aircraft - domestic take-off and landing|
|1A3b Road Transportation||Road transport - all vehicles LPG use|
|Road transport - buses and coaches - motorway driving|
|Road transport - buses and coaches - rural driving|
|Road transport - buses and coaches - urban driving|
|Road transport - cars - cold start|
|Road transport - cars - motorway driving|
|Road transport - cars - rural driving|
|Road transport - cars - urban driving|
|Road transport - HGV articulated - motorway driving|
|Road transport - HGV articulated - rural driving|
|Road transport - HGV articulated - urban driving|
|Road transport - HGV rigid - motorway driving|
|Road transport - HGV rigid - rural driving|
|Road transport - HGV rigid - urban driving|
|Road transport - LGVs - cold start|
|Road transport - LGVs - motorway driving|
|Road transport - LGVs - rural driving|
|Road transport - LGVs - urban driving|
|Road transport - mopeds (<50cc 2st) - urban driving|
|Road transport - motorcycle (>50cc 2st) - rural driving|
|Road transport - motorcycle (>50cc 2st) - urban driving|
|Road transport - motorcycle (>50cc 4st) - motorway driving|
|Road transport - motorcycle (>50cc 4st) - rural driving|
|Road transport - motorcycle (>50cc 4st) - urban driving|
|Road vehicle engines|
|1A3c Railways||Rail - coal|
|Railways - freight|
|Railways - intercity|
|Railways - regional|
|1A3dii National Navigation||Inland goods-carrying vessels|
|Motorboats / workboats (e.g. canal boats, dredgers, service boats, tourist boats, river boats)|
|Personal watercraft e.g. jet ski|
|Sailing boats with auxiliary engines|
|Shipping - coastal|
|1A3e Other Transportation||Aircraft - support vehicles|
|1A4a Commercial/Institutional||Railways - stationary combustion|
|1A4ciii Fishing||Fishing vessels|
|1A5b Other:Mobile||Aircraft - military|
|Shipping - naval|
|Residential||Residential||1A4bi Residential||Domestic combustion|
|1A4bii Residential:Off-road||House and garden machinery|
|2B5 Chemical Industry Other||Non-aerosol products - household products|
|2F4 Aerosols||Aerosols - halocarbons|
|Metered dose inhalers|
|6C Waste Incineration||Accidental fires - vehicles|
|Public||Public||1A4a Commercial/Institutional||Public sector combustion|
|Waste Management||Waste Management||6A1 Managed Waste Disposal on Land||Landfill|
|6B1 Industrial Wastewater Handling||Industrial Waste Water Treatment|
|6B2 Wastewater Handling||Sewage sludge decomposition|
|6C Waste Incineration||Incineration|
|Incineration - chemical waste|
|Incineration - clinical waste|
|Incineration - sewage sludge|
|Agriculture and related land use||Agriculture||1A4ci Agriculture/Forestry/Fishing:Stationary||Agriculture - stationary combustion|
|Miscellaneous industrial/commercial combustion|
|1A4cii Agriculture/Forestry/Fishing:Off-road||Agricultural engines|
|Agriculture - mobile machinery|
|2B5 Chemical Industry Other||Agriculture - agrochemicals use|
|4A10 Enteric Fermentation Deer||Agriculture livestock - deer enteric|
|4A1a Enteric Fermentation Dairy||Agriculture livestock - dairy cattle enteric|
|4A1b Enteric Fermentation Non-Dairy||Agriculture livestock - other cattle enteric|
|4A3 Enteric Fermentation Sheep||Agriculture livestock - sheep enteric|
|4A4 Enteric Fermentation Goats||Agriculture livestock - goats enteric|
|4A6 Enteric Fermentation Horses||Agriculture livestock - horses enteric|
|4A8 Enteric Fermentation Swine||Agriculture livestock - pigs enteric|
|4B10 Manure Management Deer||Agriculture livestock - deer wastes|
|4B12 Liquid Systems||Agriculture livestock - manure liquid systems|
|4B13 Solid Storage and Drylot||Agriculture livestock - manure solid storage and dry lot|
|4B14 Other||Agriculture livestock - manure other|
|4B1a Manure Management Dairy||Agriculture livestock - dairy cattle wastes|
|4B1b Manure Management Non-Dairy||Agriculture livestock - other cattle wastes|
|4B3 Manure Management Sheep||Agriculture livestock - sheep goats and deer wastes|
|4B4 Manure Management Goats||Agriculture livestock - goats wastes|
|4B6 Manure Management Horses||Agriculture livestock - horses wastes|
|4B8 Manure Management Swine||Agriculture livestock - pigs wastes|
|4B9 Manure Management Poultry||Agriculture livestock - broilers wastes|
|Agriculture livestock - laying hens wastes|
|Agriculture livestock - other poultry wastes|
|4D Agricultural Soils||Agricultural soils|
|4F1 Field Burning of Agricultural Residues||Field burning|
|4F5 Field Burning of Agricultural Residues||Field burning|
|Land Use, Land Use Change and Forestry||5B Cropland (Biomass Burning - controlled)||Cropland - Biomass Burning\Controlled Burning|
|5B Cropland (Biomass Burning - wildfires)||Cropland - Biomass Burning\Wildfires|
|5B Liming||Cropland - Liming|
|5B1 Cropland Remaining Cropland||Cropland remaining Cropland|
|5B2 Land Converted to Cropland||Land converted to Cropland|
|5B2 N2O emissions from disturbance associated with land-use conversion to cropland||N2O emissions from disturbance associated with land-use conversion to cropland|
|5C Grassland (Biomass burning - controlled)||Grassland - Biomass Burning\Controlled Burning|
|5C Grassland (Biomass Burning - wildfires)||Grassland - Biomass Burning\Wildfires|
|5C Liming||Grassland - Liming|
|5C1 Grassland Remaining Grassland||Grassland remaining Grassland|
|5C2 Land converted to grassland||Land converted to Grassland|
|5D1 Wetlands remaining wetlands||Wetlands remaining Wetland|
|5D2 Land converted to wetlands||Land converted to Wetland|
|5D2 Non-CO2 emissions from drainage of soils and wetlands||Non-CO2 emissions from drainage of soils and wetlands|
|Development (land use change)||Land Use, Land Use Change and Forestry||5E Settlements (Biomass burning - controlled)||Settlements - Biomass Burning\Controlled Burning|
|5E1 Settlements remaining settlements||Settlements remaining Settlements|
|5E2 Land converted to settlements||Land converted to Settlements|
|Forestry||Land Use, Land Use Change and Forestry||5A Forest Land (Biomass Burning - wildfires)||Forest Land - Biomass Burning\Wildfires|
|5A Forest Land (Drainage of soils)||Forest Land - Drainage of Organic Soils|
|5A1 Forest Land Remaining Forest Land||Forest Land remaining Forest Land|
|5A2 Forest Land (N fertilisation)||Direct N2O emission from N fertilisation of forest land|
|5A2 Land Converted to Forest Land||Land converted to Forest Land|
|5G Other (Harvested wood)||Harvested Wood Products|
|International Aviation and Shipping||International Aviation and Shipping||International aviation||Aircraft - international cruise|
|Aircraft - international take-off and landing|
|Aircraft between UK and CDs - Cruise|
|Aircraft between UK and CDs - TOL|
|Aircraft between UK and Gibraltar - Cruise|
|Aircraft between UK and Gibraltar - TOL|
|Aircraft between UK and other Ots (excl Gib.) - Cruise|
|Aircraft between UK and other OTs (excl Gib.) - TOL|
|International shipping||Shipping - international IPCC definition|
|Shipping between UK and Gibraltar|
|Shipping between UK and OTs (excl. Gib)|
Greenhouse gas emissions that have taken into account purchases/sales through the EU ETS. Adjusted emissions may be higher or lower than actual emitted emissions depending on the quantity of purchases or sales. Scottish Government emission reduction targets are assessed using adjusted emissions.
The act or process of establishing a forest on land that has not been forested in recent history.
Emissions reduction is based on a baseline. For the greenhouse gases CO2, CH4 and N2O, 1990 was specified as the baseline. 1995 is the baseline for emissions of the F-gases.
Carbon dioxide (CO2)
Carbon dioxide is one of the main gases responsible for climate change. It is mostly emitted through the oxidation of carbon in fossil fuels, e.g. burning coal.
A carbon sink is a natural or artificial reservoir that accumulates and stores CO2 compound for an indefinite period.
Climate change is a long-term change in the earth's climate. This can be accelerated by human activity, e.g. releasing CO2 into the atmosphere.
The removal of forest stands by cutting and burning to provide land for agricultural purposes, residential or industrial building sites, roads, etc., or the harvesting of trees for building materials or fuel.
The European Union Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trading System (EU ETS) is the largest multi-national emissions trading system in the world. Operating across Europe the system is mandatory for large energy-intensive industrial installations. Compared with 2005 levels, the EU ETS aims to deliver a 21 per cent reduction in emissions by 2020 and a 43 per cent reduction by 2030.
Over 10,000 installations throughout the EU are covered by the system, accounting for nearly 50 per cent of the EU's total CO2 emissions.
The EU ETS began in 2005. Phase II commenced in January 2008 and runs to December 2012.
Fluorinated gases (F-gases)
F-gases are the generic name given to HFCs, PFCs and SF6. These have been used as replacements for CFCs, which are ozone depleting substances that have been banned under the Montreal Protocol. They have very high GWPs.
The greenhouse effect is the process by which heat from the sun is trapped within the Earth's atmosphere by greenhouse gases. This process is also known as radiative forcing.
A greenhouse gas is a gas which absorbs infrared radiation emitted from the surface of the Earth, helping to retain a portion of that energy in the atmosphere as heat.
Global warming potential (GWP)
GWP is a measure of how much a greenhouse gas is estimated to contribute to global warming. It is a relative scale which compares a gas to CO2.
HFCs are produced commercially as a substitute for chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs). HFCs are largely used in refrigeration and insulating foam. Their Global Warming Potentials range from 140 to 11,700 times that of CO2, depending on the gas type.
The contains greenhouse gas emissions estimates for Scotland and the UK. The Inventory is a disaggregation of the UK Inventory, which is based on six major sectors: energy, industrial processes, solvents and other product use, agriculture, land-use change and forestry, and waste.
Estimates of emissions and removals from land use, land use change and forestry (LULUCF) depend critically on assumptions made on the rate of loss or gain of carbon in Scotland's carbon rich soils. In Scotland, LULUCF activities, taken as a whole, acts as a sink, absorbing more greenhouse gas emissions than it releases.
Methane is a greenhouse gas that is around 21 times more potent in the atmosphere than CO2 over a 100-year time horizon. Main sources include agriculture and landfill.
National Communication (NC) Sectors
The UK NC sectors are agreed groupings of the more detailed sectors reported to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change by the UK. This report uses Scottish Government sectors. Mapping of these to NC sectors and IPCC sectors can be seen in Section E.
Nitrous oxide (N2O)
Nitrous oxide is a greenhouse gas that is around 310 times more potent in the atmosphere than CO2 over a 100-year time horizon. The main source is agricultural soil
Other Petroleum Gas (OPG)
This consists mainly of ethane plus some other hydrocarbons, excluding butane and propane.
PFCs are a by-product of aluminium smelting. They are also the replacement for CFCs in manufacturing semiconductors. The Global Warming Potentials of PFCs ranges from 6,500 - 9,200 times that of CO2 over a 100-year time horizon.
An externally imposed perturbation in the radiative energy budget of the Earth's atmosphere. Such a perturbation can be brought about by changes in the concentrations of radiatively active species (e.g. greenhouse gases), changes in the solar irradiance incident upon the planet, or other changes that affect the radiative energy absorbed by the surface (e.g. changes in surface reflection properties).
The process by which carbon sinks remove carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere.
Source (UNFCCC definition)
Any process or activity which releases a greenhouse gas or a precursor GHG to the atmosphere.
Sulphur hexafluoride (SF6)
It is largely used in heavy industry to insulate high-voltage equipment and to assist in the manufacturing of cable-cooling systems. Its GWP is some 23,900 times that of CO2 over a 100-year time horizon.
In 1992, the was adopted as the basis for a global response to climate change. The ultimate objective of the Convention is to stabilise greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that will prevent dangerous human interference with the climate system.
Email: Martin Macfie
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