Scottish Greenhouse Gas Emissions 2012

This publication provides estimates of greenhouse gas emissions in Scotland for the years 1990 to 2012.

This document is part of a collection

Section E. Further information and Glossary

Further Information

Methodology and Source data

Full details of the methodology used to estimate Scottish greenhouse gas emissions together with further breakdowns are provided on the National Atmospheric Emissions Inventory website in the publication Greenhouse Gas Inventories for England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland: 1990-2012.

Scotland's Carbon Footprint

Scottish Greenhouse Gas Emissions on a Consumption Basis ("Scotland's Carbon Footprint")

Climate Change (Scotland) Act 2009:

This legislation outlines the requirements for percentage reductions targets for 2020 and 2050 and fixed annual targets

Relevant Secondary Legislation associated with Climate Change (Scotland) Act 2009

Climate Change (Annual Targets) (Scotland) Order 2010

This Order sets the first batch of annual emissions reduction targets, for the period 2010-2022.

Climate Change (Annual Targets) (Scotland) Order 2011

This Order sets the second batch of annual emissions reduction targets, for the period 2023-2027.

The Carbon Accounting Scheme (Scotland) Regulations 2010

These Regulations establish the scheme for monitoring compliance with the annual emissions reduction targets set for 2010-2012. They also cover a range of administrative issues relating to emissions accounting

National Performance Framework Sustainability Purpose Targets

Department of Energy and Climate Change (DECC) statistics

UK greenhouse gas inventory national system

Committee on Climate Change (CCC)

The CCC is an independent body established under the Climate Change Act to advise the UK Government and devolved administrations on reducing greenhouse gas emissions.

United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC)

The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) is an international environmental treaty. The objective of the treaty is to stabilize greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system.

The treaty itself set no binding limits on greenhouse gas emissions for individual countries and contains no enforcement mechanisms. In that sense, the treaty is considered legally non-binding. Instead, the treaty provides a framework for negotiating specific international treaties (called "protocols") that may set binding limits on greenhouse gases.

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change

The IPCC assesses the scientific, technical and socio-economic information relevant for the understanding of the risk of human-induced climate change. They provide advice to the UNFCCC on the scientific evidence and developments which are used to inform National Inventories.

EU Emissions Trading System (EU ETS)

Further information can be found in the Department for Energy and Climate Change (DECC) website.

Scottish Energy Statistics

An overview of trends from energy generation statistics in Scotland can be found in the Scottish Government report: Energy in Scotland 2014 - statistics compendium

This publication provides a statistical overview of current and historic energy production, transformation, and consumption in Scotland. It includes sections on:

  • the economic contribution of the energy sector
  • fossil fuel extraction
  • electricity
  • energy consumption
  • energy prices
  • low carbon economy

Table E1. Mapping between Scottish Government sectors, National Communication sectors, International Panel for Climate Change sectors and source

SG Sector NC Category IPCC Sector Source Name
Energy Supply Energy Supply 1A1a Public Electricity & Heat Production Miscellaneous industrial/commercial combustion
Power stations
Public sector combustion
1A1b Petroleum Refining Refineries - combustion
1A1ci Manufacture of Solid Fuels-coke Coke production
Solid smokeless fuel production
1A1cii Other Energy Industries Collieries - combustion
Gas production
Nuclear fuel production
Town gas manufacture
Upstream Gas Production - fuel combustion
Upstream oil and gas production - combustion at gas separation plant
Upstream Oil Production - fuel combustion
1B1a Post-MiningActivities Coal storage and transport
1B1a Surface Mines Open-cast coal
1B1a Underground Mines Deep-mined coal
1B1b Solid Fuel Transformation Charcoal production
Coke production
Iron and steel - flaring
Solid smokeless fuel production
1B1c Closed Coal Mines Closed Coal Mines
1B2a Oil Exploration Upstream Oil Production - Offshore Well Testing
1B2a Oil Other Upstream Oil Production - Onshore Oil Loading
1B2a Oil Production Upstream Oil Production - process emissions
1B2a Oil Transport Upstream Oil Production - Offshore Oil Loading
1B2a Refining/Storage Petroleum processes
Upstream Oil Production - Oil terminal storage
1B2b Distribution Gas leakage
1B2b Gas Exploration Upstream Gas Production - Offshore Well Testing
1B2b Gas Production Upstream Gas Production - Gas terminal storage
Upstream Gas Production - process emissions
1B2b Transmission Gas leakage
1B2c Flaring Gas Upstream Gas Production - flaring
1B2ci Venting Gas Upstream Gas Production - venting
1B2ci Venting Oil Upstream Oil Production - venting
1B2cii Flaring Oil Upstream Oil Production - flaring
2A3 Limestone & Dolomite Use Power stations - FGD
Business and Industrial process Business 1A2a Manufacturing Industry&Construction:I&S Blast furnaces
Iron and steel - combustion plant
1A2b Non-Ferrous Metals Non-Ferrous Metal (combustion)
1A2c Chemicals Ammonia production - combustion
Chemicals (combustion)
1A2d Pulp Paper Print Pulp, Paper and Print (combustion)
1A2e Food drink tobacco Food & drink, tobacco (combustion)
1A2f Manufacturing Industry&Construction:Other Autogeneration - exported to grid
Cement production - combustion
Lime production - non decarbonising
Other industrial combustion
1A2fii Manufacturing Industry&Construction:Off-road Industrial engines
Industrial off-road mobile machinery
1A4a Commercial/Institutional Miscellaneous industrial/commercial combustion
2B5 Carbon from NEU of products Other industrial combustion
2F1 Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Equipment Commercial Refrigeration
Domestic Refrigeration
Industrial Refrigeration
Mobile Air Conditioning
Refrigerated Transport
Stationary Air Conditioning
2F2 Foam Blowing Foams
2F3 Fire Extinguishers Firefighting
2F5 Solvents Other PFC use
Precision cleaning - HFC
2F9 Other SF6 used as a tracer gas
2F9 Other (one component foams) One Component Foams
2F9 Other (semiconductors electrical sporting goods) 2F9 other
Industrial Process 1A2a Manufacturing Industry&Construction:I&S Sinter production
2A1 Cement Production Cement - decarbonising
2A2 Lime Production Lime production - decarbonising
2A3 Limestone & Dolomite Use Basic oxygen furnaces
Sinter production
2A7 (Fletton Bricks) Brick manufacture - Fletton
2A7 Glass Production Glass - general
2B1 Ammonia Production Ammonia production - feedstock use of gas
2B2 Nitric Acid Production Nitric acid production
2B3 Adipic Acid Production Adipic acid production
2B5 Chemical Industry Other Chemical industry - ethylene
Chemical industry - general
Chemical industry - methanol
2C1 Iron&Steel Electric arc furnaces
Iron and steel - flaring
Ladle arc furnaces
2C3 Aluminium Production Primary aluminium production - general
Primary aluminium production - PFC emissions
2C4 Cover gas used in Al and Mg foundries Magnesium cover gas
2E1 Production of Halocarbons and Sulphur Hexafluoride Halocarbons production - by-product
2E2 Production of Halocarbons and Sulphur Hexafluoride Halocarbons production - fugitive
3 Solvent and Other Product Use Solvent use
Transport (excluding international aviation and shipping) Transport 1A3aii Civil Aviation Domestic Aircraft - domestic cruise
Aircraft - domestic take-off and landing
1A3b Road Transportation Road transport - all vehicles LPG use
Road transport - buses and coaches - motorway driving
Road transport - buses and coaches - rural driving
Road transport - buses and coaches - urban driving
Road transport - cars - cold start
Road transport - cars - motorway driving
Road transport - cars - rural driving
Road transport - cars - urban driving
Road transport - HGV articulated - motorway driving
Road transport - HGV articulated - rural driving
Road transport - HGV articulated - urban driving
Road transport - HGV rigid - motorway driving
Road transport - HGV rigid - rural driving
Road transport - HGV rigid - urban driving
Road transport - LGVs - cold start
Road transport - LGVs - motorway driving
Road transport - LGVs - rural driving
Road transport - LGVs - urban driving
Road transport - mopeds (<50cc 2st) - urban driving
Road transport - motorcycle (>50cc 2st) - rural driving
Road transport - motorcycle (>50cc 2st) - urban driving
Road transport - motorcycle (>50cc 4st) - motorway driving
Road transport - motorcycle (>50cc 4st) - rural driving
Road transport - motorcycle (>50cc 4st) - urban driving
Road vehicle engines
1A3c Railways Rail - coal
Railways - freight
Railways - intercity
Railways - regional
1A3dii National Navigation Inland goods-carrying vessels
Marine engines
Motorboats / workboats (e.g. canal boats, dredgers, service boats, tourist boats, river boats)
Personal watercraft e.g. jet ski
Sailing boats with auxiliary engines
Shipping - coastal
1A3e Other Transportation Aircraft - support vehicles
1A4a Commercial/Institutional Railways - stationary combustion
1A4ciii Fishing Fishing vessels
1A5b Other:Mobile Aircraft - military
Shipping - naval
Residential Residential 1A4bi Residential Domestic combustion
1A4bii Residential:Off-road House and garden machinery
2B5 Chemical Industry Other Non-aerosol products - household products
2F4 Aerosols Aerosols - halocarbons
Metered dose inhalers
6C Waste Incineration Accidental fires - vehicles
Public Public 1A4a Commercial/Institutional Public sector combustion
Waste Management Waste Management 6A1 Managed Waste Disposal on Land Landfill
6B1 Industrial Wastewater Handling Industrial Waste Water Treatment
6B2 Wastewater Handling Sewage sludge decomposition
6C Waste Incineration Incineration
Incineration - chemical waste
Incineration - clinical waste
Incineration - sewage sludge
Agriculture and related land use Agriculture 1A4ci Agriculture/Forestry/Fishing:Stationary Agriculture - stationary combustion
Miscellaneous industrial/commercial combustion
1A4cii Agriculture/Forestry/Fishing:Off-road Agricultural engines
Agriculture - mobile machinery
2B5 Chemical Industry Other Agriculture - agrochemicals use
4A10 Enteric Fermentation Deer Agriculture livestock - deer enteric
4A1a Enteric Fermentation Dairy Agriculture livestock - dairy cattle enteric
4A1b Enteric Fermentation Non-Dairy Agriculture livestock - other cattle enteric
4A3 Enteric Fermentation Sheep Agriculture livestock - sheep enteric
4A4 Enteric Fermentation Goats Agriculture livestock - goats enteric
4A6 Enteric Fermentation Horses Agriculture livestock - horses enteric
4A8 Enteric Fermentation Swine Agriculture livestock - pigs enteric
4B10 Manure Management Deer Agriculture livestock - deer wastes
4B12 Liquid Systems Agriculture livestock - manure liquid systems
4B13 Solid Storage and Drylot Agriculture livestock - manure solid storage and dry lot
4B14 Other Agriculture livestock - manure other
4B1a Manure Management Dairy Agriculture livestock - dairy cattle wastes
4B1b Manure Management Non-Dairy Agriculture livestock - other cattle wastes
4B3 Manure Management Sheep Agriculture livestock - sheep goats and deer wastes
4B4 Manure Management Goats Agriculture livestock - goats wastes
4B6 Manure Management Horses Agriculture livestock - horses wastes
4B8 Manure Management Swine Agriculture livestock - pigs wastes
4B9 Manure Management Poultry Agriculture livestock - broilers wastes
Agriculture livestock - laying hens wastes
Agriculture livestock - other poultry wastes
4D Agricultural Soils Agricultural soils
4F1 Field Burning of Agricultural Residues Field burning
4F5 Field Burning of Agricultural Residues Field burning
Land Use, Land Use Change and Forestry 5B Cropland (Biomass Burning - controlled) Cropland - Biomass Burning\Controlled Burning
5B Cropland (Biomass Burning - wildfires) Cropland - Biomass Burning\Wildfires
5B Liming Cropland - Liming
5B1 Cropland Remaining Cropland Cropland remaining Cropland
5B2 Land Converted to Cropland Land converted to Cropland
5B2 N2O emissions from disturbance associated with land-use conversion to cropland N2O emissions from disturbance associated with land-use conversion to cropland
5C Grassland (Biomass burning - controlled) Grassland - Biomass Burning\Controlled Burning
5C Grassland (Biomass Burning - wildfires) Grassland - Biomass Burning\Wildfires
5C Liming Grassland - Liming
5C1 Grassland Remaining Grassland Grassland remaining Grassland
5C2 Land converted to grassland Land converted to Grassland
5D1 Wetlands remaining wetlands Wetlands remaining Wetland
5D2 Land converted to wetlands Land converted to Wetland
5D2 Non-CO2 emissions from drainage of soils and wetlands Non-CO2 emissions from drainage of soils and wetlands
Development (land use change) Land Use, Land Use Change and Forestry 5E Settlements (Biomass burning - controlled) Settlements - Biomass Burning\Controlled Burning
5E1 Settlements remaining settlements Settlements remaining Settlements
5E2 Land converted to settlements Land converted to Settlements
Forestry Land Use, Land Use Change and Forestry 5A Forest Land (Biomass Burning - wildfires) Forest Land - Biomass Burning\Wildfires
5A Forest Land (Drainage of soils) Forest Land - Drainage of Organic Soils
5A1 Forest Land Remaining Forest Land Forest Land remaining Forest Land
5A2 Forest Land (N fertilisation) Direct N2O emission from N fertilisation of forest land
5A2 Land Converted to Forest Land Land converted to Forest Land
5G Other (Harvested wood) Harvested Wood Products
International Aviation and Shipping International Aviation and Shipping International aviation Aircraft - international cruise
Aircraft - international take-off and landing
Aircraft between UK and CDs - Cruise
Aircraft between UK and CDs - TOL
Aircraft between UK and Gibraltar - Cruise
Aircraft between UK and Gibraltar - TOL
Aircraft between UK and other Ots (excl Gib.) - Cruise
Aircraft between UK and other OTs (excl Gib.) - TOL
International shipping Shipping - international IPCC definition
Shipping between UK and Gibraltar
Shipping between UK and OTs (excl. Gib)


Adjusted emissions

Greenhouse gas emissions that have taken into account purchases/sales through the EU ETS. Adjusted emissions may be higher or lower than actual emitted emissions depending on the quantity of purchases or sales. Scottish Government emission reduction targets are assessed using adjusted emissions.


The act or process of establishing a forest on land that has not been forested in recent history.


Emissions reduction is based on a baseline. For the greenhouse gases CO2, CH4 and N2O, 1990 was specified as the baseline. 1995 is the baseline for emissions of the F-gases.

Carbon dioxide (CO2)

Carbon dioxide is one of the main gases responsible for climate change. It is mostly emitted through the oxidation of carbon in fossil fuels, e.g. burning coal.

Carbon sink

A carbon sink is a natural or artificial reservoir that accumulates and stores CO2 compound for an indefinite period.

Climate change

Climate change is a long-term change in the earth's climate. This can be accelerated by human activity, e.g. releasing CO2 into the atmosphere.


The removal of forest stands by cutting and burning to provide land for agricultural purposes, residential or industrial building sites, roads, etc., or the harvesting of trees for building materials or fuel.


The European Union Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trading System (EU ETS) is the largest multi-national emissions trading system in the world. Operating across Europe the system is mandatory for large energy-intensive industrial installations. Compared with 2005 levels, the EU ETS aims to deliver a 21 per cent reduction in emissions by 2020 and a 43 per cent reduction by 2030.

Over 10,000 installations throughout the EU are covered by the system, accounting for nearly 50 per cent of the EU's total CO2 emissions.

The EU ETS began in 2005. Phase II commenced in January 2008 and runs to December 2012.

Fluorinated gases (F-gases)

F-gases are the generic name given to HFCs, PFCs and SF6. These have been used as replacements for CFCs, which are ozone depleting substances that have been banned under the Montreal Protocol. They have very high GWPs.

Greenhouse effect

The greenhouse effect is the process by which heat from the sun is trapped within the Earth's atmosphere by greenhouse gases. This process is also known as radiative forcing.

Greenhouse gas

A greenhouse gas is a gas which absorbs infrared radiation emitted from the surface of the Earth, helping to retain a portion of that energy in the atmosphere as heat.

Global warming potential (GWP)

GWP is a measure of how much a greenhouse gas is estimated to contribute to global warming. It is a relative scale which compares a gas to CO2.

Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs)

HFCs are produced commercially as a substitute for chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs). HFCs are largely used in refrigeration and insulating foam. Their Global Warming Potentials range from 140 to 11,700 times that of CO2, depending on the gas type.


The contains greenhouse gas emissions estimates for Scotland and the UK. The Inventory is a disaggregation of the UK Inventory, which is based on six major sectors: energy, industrial processes, solvents and other product use, agriculture, land-use change and forestry, and waste.


Estimates of emissions and removals from land use, land use change and forestry (LULUCF) depend critically on assumptions made on the rate of loss or gain of carbon in Scotland's carbon rich soils. In Scotland, LULUCF activities, taken as a whole, acts as a sink, absorbing more greenhouse gas emissions than it releases.

Methane (CH4)

Methane is a greenhouse gas that is around 21 times more potent in the atmosphere than CO2 over a 100-year time horizon. Main sources include agriculture and landfill.

National Communication (NC) Sectors

The UK NC sectors are agreed groupings of the more detailed sectors reported to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change by the UK. This report uses Scottish Government sectors. Mapping of these to NC sectors and IPCC sectors can be seen in Section E.

Nitrous oxide (N2O)

Nitrous oxide is a greenhouse gas that is around 310 times more potent in the atmosphere than CO2 over a 100-year time horizon. The main source is agricultural soil

Other Petroleum Gas (OPG)

This consists mainly of ethane plus some other hydrocarbons, excluding butane and propane.

Perfluorocarbons (PFCs)

PFCs are a by-product of aluminium smelting. They are also the replacement for CFCs in manufacturing semiconductors. The Global Warming Potentials of PFCs ranges from 6,500 - 9,200 times that of CO2 over a 100-year time horizon.

Radiative forcing

An externally imposed perturbation in the radiative energy budget of the Earth's atmosphere. Such a perturbation can be brought about by changes in the concentrations of radiatively active species (e.g. greenhouse gases), changes in the solar irradiance incident upon the planet, or other changes that affect the radiative energy absorbed by the surface (e.g. changes in surface reflection properties).


The process by which carbon sinks remove carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere.

Source (UNFCCC definition)

Any process or activity which releases a greenhouse gas or a precursor GHG to the atmosphere.

Sulphur hexafluoride (SF6)

It is largely used in heavy industry to insulate high-voltage equipment and to assist in the manufacturing of cable-cooling systems. Its GWP is some 23,900 times that of CO2 over a 100-year time horizon.


In 1992, the was adopted as the basis for a global response to climate change. The ultimate objective of the Convention is to stabilise greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that will prevent dangerous human interference with the climate system.


Email: Martin Macfie

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