2. Atlantic Salmon ( Salmo salar) - Ova and Smolts
Production survey information was collected from all 25 companies actively involved in the freshwater production of Atlantic salmon, farming 87 active sites. This figure represents the entire freshwater industry operating in Scotland.
Company and Site Data
Table 12: Number of companies and sites in production during 2006-2015
|Year||No. of companies||No. of sites|
In 2015 the number of companies authorised by the Scottish Government for freshwater production of Atlantic salmon decreased by one to 25. A total of 87 sites were actively engaged in commercial production, a decrease of nine sites from the 2014 figure.
Production and Staffing
Table 13: Number (000s) of smolts produced, staff employed and smolt productivity during 2005-2015
|Number (000s) of smolts produced||36,326||40,827||38,125||36,450||36,868||36,872||43,626||44,324||40,457||45,004||44,571|
|Productivity, 000s of smolts per person||132.6||150.6||136.6||138.6||136.5||127.6||148.9||135.1||142.0||145.6||151.6|
Smolt production in 2015 decreased by 1% compared to 2014. The number of staff employed in 2015 decreased by 15 and productivity increased by 4.1% to a figure of 151.6 smolts produced per person. Data for staffing and productivity in 2013 are shown, however, there are uncertainties with these data due to consolidation within the industry.
Smolts by Age Group
Table 14: Number of smolts (000s) produced by type during 2003-2015
In 2015, there was an increase (6.6%) in the number of S½ smolts produced but a decrease (7.8%) in the number of S1 smolts produced. A small amount of S1½ smolts were produced while there was no production of S2 smolts.
Table 15: Number and capacity of production systems during 2011-2015
|System||No. of sites with system||Total capacity, 000s cubic metres|
|Tanks and Raceways||54||57||58||55||49||49||51||64||65||47|
The principal types of facility used for the production of smolts in freshwater are cages or tanks and raceways. In 2015, the number of farms using cages decreased by three and the number of farms using tanks and raceways decreased by six. In terms of volume, cage capacity increased by 4,000 m³ and tank and raceway capacity decreased by 18,000 m³. This resulted in a net decrease in volume of 14,000 m³ available for the production of smolts in Scotland during 2015.
Table 16: Number (000s) of smolts produced and stocking densities by production system during 2011-2015
|Number of smolts produced (000s)||Stocking densities (smolts/m 3 )|
The average stocking densities of cages decreased from 65 to 51 fish per m³ in 2015 compared to 2014 while densities in tanks and raceways increased from 341 to 562 fish per m³.
Table 17: Number (000s) of salmon ova produced during 2008-2015
|No. of ova||135,230||91,964||91,655||78,208||57,489||56,904||33,450||11,605|
In 2015, 11.6 million ova were stripped, a decrease of 65% from the number of ova produced in 2014.
Table 18: Source, number (000s) and previous year's estimate of ova laid down to hatch during 2004-2016
|Year||In-house broodstock||Out-sourced GB broodstock||GB wild broodstock||Foreign ova||Total||Previous year's estimate|
The number of ova laid down to hatch was 68.2 million, a decrease of 2.7 million (3.8%) on the 2014 figure. The majority of the ova (90.2%) were derived from foreign sources, this being an increase of 7.8 million (14.5%) on the 2014 figure. Supplies derived from GB broodstock decreased by 10.4 million, a 60.9% decrease on the 2014 figure. Ten thousand ova from GB wild broodstock were laid down in 2015, however, the ova derived from wild stocks are generally held and hatched for wild stock enhancement by the aquaculture industry in cooperation with wild fisheries managers.
Smolts Produced and Put to Sea
Table 19: Actual and projected smolt production and smolts put to sea (millions) during 2006-2017
|Actual smolts put to sea||41.1||37.8||36.6||38.5||38.5||42.7||41.1||40.9||48.1||45.5|
|Ratio of ova laid down to smolts produced||1.6||2.0||1.7||1.8||1.9||1.5||1.4||1.6||1.6||1.5|
The figure for the number of smolts put to sea includes smolts produced in England and fish imported from elsewhere, whereas smolt production data relate only to those produced in Scotland. Farmers estimate putting 36.6 million smolts to sea in 2016. The ratio of ova laid down to hatch to smolts produced in 2015 was less than the ratio in 2014.
Scale of Production
Table 20: Smolt-producing sites grouped by numbers (000s) of smolts produced during 2002‑2015
|Year||Scale of production||No. of sites in production||Total smolts produced|
Note: These data refer only to sites producing smolts. The sites holding only ova, fry or parr are excluded.
The number of sites producing smolts in 2015 was 55. The number of sites producing less than 101,000 smolts has increased by five and there has also been an increase of two in the number of sites producing between 101,000 and one million smolts. The number of sites producing in excess of one million smolts per year decreased by two.
Production of Ova and Smolt by Production Area
Table 21: Staffing in 2015, ova laid down to hatch in 2014-2015, smolt production in 2014-2015 and estimated production in 2016-2017 by region
|Region||Number of staff employed in 2015||Ova laid down to hatch (000s)||Smolt production (000s)||Estimated smolt production (000s)|
|East and South||9||0||6,576||950||1,611||1,821||899||800|
In 2015, the North West and the West were the main areas where ova were laid down to hatch. The North West, the West and the Western Isles were the main smolt producing areas. The greatest number of staff were employed in the North West region.
Figure 2: The distribution of active Atlantic salmon smolt sites in 2015
International Trade in Ova
Since the introduction of the EU single market on 1 st January 1993 and the associated Fish Health Regulations common to all EU member states, a trade in live salmon and ova has been established. In addition, the European Economic Area ( EEA) agreement allows trade between the EU and the member states of the European Free Trade Association ( EFTA). Trade is based on the same rules as are established within the EU regarding compartments and zones declared free from listed diseases.
Trade with Third Countries has also been established, but only from sites that have met the same health standards as are established within the EU regarding the approval of farms and zones for listed diseases. Exports to countries outside the EU are subject to the health conditions placed by the importing country. Marine Scotland Science advises potential exporters to ascertain with the importing country any specific health testing requirements that may be a condition of import.
Imports and Exports
Table 22a: Source and number (000s) of salmon ova, parr and smolts imported during 2003-2015 derived from health certificates
|Import Year||Ova||Parr and Smolts|
|EU Member States||EFTA||Third Countries||Total||EU Member States||EFTA - Norway|
The numbers of ova imported increased by 1.5%. The number of parr and smolts imported decreased from that observed in 2014, with 2.1 million parr and smolts imported from EU member states and almost 0.4 million from Norway.
Table 22b: Destination and number (000s) of salmon ova, parr and smolts exported during 2004-2015 derived from health certificates
|Export year||Farmed origin ova||Total||Parr and Smolts|
In 2015, 95,000 ova were exported. Parr and smolt exports decreased by 97% on the 2014 figure.
Table 23: Number of sites using vaccines and number (millions) of fish vaccinated during 2007-2015
|No. of sites||73||80||68||70||67||63||63||56||55|
|No. of fish (millions) vaccinated||41.0||36.7||39.6||42.6||49.2||48.1||47.5||44.7||48.0|
Vaccines were used to provide protection against furunculosis, infectious pancreatic necrosis ( IPN), ERM, vibriosis and salmonid alphavirus ( SAV). The majority of fish were vaccinated against furunculosis and IPN, with smaller numbers of fish being vaccinated against ERM, vibriosis and SAV. A total of 48 million fish were vaccinated across 55 sites.
In 2015, there was one incident reported where the company confirmed there was no loss of fish.
Email: Lorna Munro, firstname.lastname@example.org
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