Information

Scottish Fish Farm Production Survey 2014

This report is based on the returns of an annual survey questionnaire sent to all active authorised fish farming businesses in Scotland.

This document is part of a collection


1. Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

Production survey information was collected from all 24 companies actively involved in rainbow trout production, farming 46 active sites. This figure represents the entire industry operating in Scotland.

Production

Table 1a: Total production (tonnes) of rainbow trout during 2000-2014 and projected production in 2015

Year Tonnes Year Tonnes
2000 5,154 2008 7,670
2001 5,466 2009 6,766
2002 6,659 2010 5,139
2003 7,085 2011 4,619
2004 6,352 2012 5,670
2005 6,989 2013 5,611
2006 7,492 2014 5,882
2007 7,414 2015 7,452*

* Industry estimate based on stocks currently being on-grown.

Production increased in 2014 by 271 tonnes, an increase of 4.8%, to 5,882 tonnes.

Table 1b: Production (tonnes) for the table trade during 2004-2014 according to weight category

Year <450 g
<1 lb
450-900 g
1-2 lbs
>900 g
>2 lbs
Total
Tonnes
2004 1,553 1,946 1,917 5,416
2005 2,856 1,203 2,111 6,170
2006 2,182 1,810 2,636 6,628
2007 2,499 1,663 2,407 6,569
2008 2,375 1,950 2,487 6,812
2009 2,232 1,143 2,620 5,995
2010 2,125 727 1,606 4,458
2011 1,421 1,004 1,433 3,858
2012 1,195 1,655 2,209 5,059
2013 1,908 825 2,268 5,001
2014 2,334 290 2,704 5,328

Production for the table in 2014 was 5,328 tonnes, an increase of 327 tonnes (6.5%) on the 2013 total, and accounted for 90.6% of the total rainbow trout production, a small increase on the proportion to that produced in 2013. Increases in the number of fish in the small and large size ranges and a decrease in the number of fish in the medium size range were highlighted.

Table 1c: Production (tonnes) for the restocking trade during 2004-2014 according to weight category

Year <450 g
<1 lb
450-900 g
1-2 lbs
>900 g
>2 lbs
Total
Tonnes
2004 64 509 363 936
2005 21 390 408 819
2006 36 357 471 864
2007 24 413 408 845
2008 27 351 480 858
2009 32 294 444 770
2010 19 201 461 681
2011 8 419 334 761
2012 22 266 323 611
2013 24 221 365 610
2014 28 256 270 554

In 2014, production for the restocking of angling waters decreased to 554 tonnes representing a decrease of 56 tonnes (9.2%) on the 2013 total. This accounted for 9.4% of total rainbow trout production in 2014. These figures represent the tonnage of fish supplied to angling waters for restocking purposes; they do not account for the catch taken by anglers. The production of large sized fish showed a decrease, while this increased for small and medium sized fish.

Production by Site

Table 2: Numbers of sites grouped by tonnage produced during 2004-2014

Year Number of sites per production tonnage Total number of sites
<1-25 26-100 101-200 >200
2004 14 14 5 10 43
2005 18 12 6 11 47
2006 16 15 6 13 50
2007 14 15 3 16 48
2008 8 15 7 14 44
2009 10 11 7 11 39
2010 7 13 9 7 36
2011 9 10 6 8 33
2012 10 10 6 8 34
2013 6 11 5 8 30
2014 6 11 5 9 31

Production was reported from 31 of the 46 active sites. The number of producers in the size brackets <1-25 tonnes, 26-100 tonnes and 101-200 tonnes remained the same as in 2014, while those producers in the >200 tonnes size bracket increased by one. These figures do not include those sites specialising in the production of ova or young fish for on-growing.

Production by Method

Table 3: Grouping of rainbow trout sites by production tonnages, main methods of production in 2014 and comparison with production in 2013

Production method Production grouping (tonnes) in 2014 Total tonnage and (%) by method Number of sites
<10 10-25 26-50 51-100 >100 2013 2014 2013 2014
FW cages 0 0 0 0 5 2,424
(43.2%)
2,611
(44.4%)
6 5
FW ponds and raceways 1 2 7 3 4 1,213
(21.6%)
1,291
(21.9%)
15 17
FW tanks and hatcheries 3 0 0 1 0 10
(<1%)
71
(1.2%)
3 4
SW cages 0 0 0 0 5 1,964
(35.0%)
1,909
(32.5%)
6 5
SW tanks 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Total 4 2 7 4 14 5,611 5,882 30 31

Freshwater production accounted for 3,973 tonnes (67.5%) and seawater production for the remaining 1,909 tonnes (32.5%). Production from freshwater cages, ponds and raceways and tanks and hatcheries increased whilst there was a small decrease in production from seawater cages.

Company and Site Data

Table 4: Number of companies and sites in production during 2001-2014

Year No. of companies No. of sites
2001 50 57
2002 39 57
2003 37 56
2004 38 62
2005 42 70
2006 36 66
2007 38 70
2008 31 66
2009 27 56
2010 25 51
2011 23 48
2012 25 48
2013 24 46
2014 24 46

In 2014 the number of companies authorised by the Scottish Government and actively engaged in rainbow trout production was 24. The number of sites registered and in production was 46.

Staffing and Productivity

Table 5: Number of staff employed and productivity per person during 2001-2014

Year Full-time Part-time Total Productivity
(tonnes/person)
2001 118 41 159 34.4
2002 114 46 160 41.6
2003 107 41 148 47.9
2004 115 37 152 41.8
2005 108 35 143 48.9
2006 112 35 147 51.0
2007 111 32 143 51.8
2008 107 34 141 54.4
2009 111 27 138 49.0
2010 98 31 129 39.8
2011 95 23 118 39.1
2012 79 28 107 53.0
2013 89 21 110 51.0
2014 93 20 113 52.1

The overall number of staff employed in 2014 increased by three to 113. The number of full-time staff increased by four while the number of part-time staff decreased by one. Productivity, measured as tonnes produced per person, increased by 2.2% in 2014 with no distinction between full and part-time employees being made for this calculation.

Production by Area

Table 6: Production and staffing by area in 2014

Area No. of sites Table production
(tonnes)
Restocking production
(tonnes)
Mean tonnes per site Staffing Productivity
(tonnes/person)
F/T P/T Total
North 6 5 40 7.5 9 2 11 4.1
East 13 1,070 215 98.8 30 7 37 34.7
West 13 3,692 33 286.5 19 7 26 143.3
South 14 561 266 59.1 35 4 39 21.2
All 46 5,328 554 127.9 93 20 113 52.1

Productivity was greatest in the West at 286.5 tonnes per site and 143.3 tonnes per person.

Figure 1: The distribution of active rainbow trout sites in 2014

Figure 1: The distribution of active rainbow trout sites in 2014

Type of Ova Laid Down

Table 7: Number (000's) and proportions (%) of eyed ova types laid down to hatch during 2003-2014

Year All female diploid no. (%) Triploid no. (%) Mixed sex diploid no. (%) Total ova
2003 24,692 (94) 1,586 (6) 60 (<1) 26,338
2004 29,272 (90) 3,146 (10) 138 (<1) 32,556
2005 16,773 (83) 1,729 (8) 1,745 (9) 20,247
2006 22,378 (84) 2,804 (10) 1,626 (6) 26,808
2007 23,630 (83) 2,531 (9) 2,140 (8) 28,301
2008 22,978 (88) 2,526 (9) 725 (3) 26,229
2009 15,469 (87) 2,341 (13) 35 (<1) 17,845
2010 13,352 (89) 1,052 (7) 675 (4) 15,079
2011 12,673 (84) 2,254 (15) 215 (1) 15,142
2012 10,967 (85) 2,005 (15) 7 (<1) 12,979
2013 7,857 (80) 1,955 (20) 77 (<1) 9,889
2014 8,321(75) 2,710 (25) 9(<1) 11,040

Source of Ova Laid Down

Table 8: Number (000's) and sources of eyed ova laid down to hatch in 2003-2014

Year Ova produced in Great Britain ( GB) Imported ova Total
Own stock Other stock Total Northern hemisphere Southern hemisphere Total
2003 430 280 710 25,578 50 25,628 26,338
2004 330 320 650 31,906 0 31,906 32,556
2005 281 105 386 16,977 2,884 19,861 20,247
2006 541 2,169 2,710 22,588 1,510 24,098 26,808
2007 936 230 1,166 26,650 485 27,135 28,301
2008 582 487 1,069 25,160 0 25,160 26,229
2009 603 220 823 17,022 0 17,022 17,845
2010 415 50 465 14,614 0 14,614 15,079
2011 215 189 404 14,738 0 14,738 15,142
2012 14 230 244 12,735 0 12,735 12,979
2013 77 537 614 9,275 0 9,275 9,889
2014 9 655 664 10,376 0 10,376 11,040

In 2014, the total number of eyed ova laid down to hatch increased by over 1.1 million (11.6%) on the 2013 figure. The proportion of ova from GB broodstock decreased to 6.0% of the total and the rainbow trout industry remained reliant on imported ova. Data on the importation of ova into Scotland are also available from the health certificates and are shown in Table 9a. Any discrepancy between the figures in Tables 8 and 9a is due to data being obtained from two independent sources.

Imports from Official Import Health Certificates

Table 9a: Number (000's) and sources of ova imported into Scotland from outwith GB during 2007-2014

Source 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014
Denmark 13,070 5,530 4,070 1,715 5,250 1,950 1,315 2,500
Isle of Man 3,767 775 290 1,400 520 300 800 1,000
N. Ireland 7,721 16,130 10,090 9,247 7,320 8,332 5,125 4,780
Norway 1,200 1,500 750 200 130 300 175 710
South Africa 485 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
USA 890 1,490 2,240 2,340 1,580 1,800 2,350 1,700
Totals 27,133 25,425 17,440 14,902 14,800 12,682 9,765 10,690

Table 9b: Seasonal variation in numbers (000's) and sources of ova imported into Scotland from outwith GB during 2014

Month Denmark Isle of Man N. Ireland Norway USA
January 50 500 700 200 0
February 370 0 10 0 0
March 0 500 350 510 0
April 210 0 350 0 0
May 500 0 0 0 0
June 100 0 650 0 700
July 0 0 350 0 200
August 200 0 650 0 100
September 0 0 1,720 0 200
October 0 0 0 0 500
November 1,070 0 0 0 0
December 0 0 0 0 0
Totals 2,500 1,000 4,780 710 1,700

Table 9c: Number (000's) and sources of fish imported into Scotland from outwith GB during 2007-2014

Source 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014
N. Ireland 18 33 0 <1 72 155 537 674
Republic of Ireland 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0

Suppliers within the European Union ( EU) accounted for 77.5% of ova imported into Scotland during 2014 with the USA and Norway accounting for 15.9% and 6.6% respectively. To maintain their ability to regulate production throughout the year and produce a constant supply of fish for their markets, producers have to rely upon supplies of out of season ova. In recent years there has been an increasing trend for producers to import part grown rainbow trout into Scotland from outwith GB.

Trade in Fry and Fingerlings

Table 10: Number (000's) of fry and fingerlings traded during 2003-2014

Year Fry and fingerlings bought Total number bought Total number sold
All female diploid no. (%) Triploid no. (%) Mixed sex diploid no. (%)
2003 17,500 (94) 1,007 (5) 193 (1) 18,700 17,451
2004 18,859 (91) 1,536 (7) 364 (2) 20,759 19,166
2005 14,618 (83) 1,532 (9) 1,480 (8) 17,630 16,919
2006 19,731 (89) 1,675 (7) 790 (4) 22,196 20,460
2007 14,830 (89) 1,140 (7) 675 (4) 16,645 23,631
2008 24,298 (95) 1,082 (4) 118 (0.5) 25,498 31,036
2009 21,113 (94) 1,358 (6) 0 22,471 20,597
2010 15,539 (95) 585 (4) 141 (1) 16,265 14,686
2011 16,288 (88.5) 1,970 (10.7) 138 (0.8) 18,396 16,612
2012 12,543 (91) 1,226 (9) 0 13,769 12,088
2013 6,734 (84) 1,239 (16) 0 7,973 6,749
2014 5,911 (81) 1,423 (19) 0 7,334 6,719

The established trade between hatcheries and on-growing farms continued in 2014. Some companies specialised in the production of fry and fingerlings. The total number of fry and fingerlings bought and sold decreased by 8.0% and 0.4% respectively. The disparity between supply and demand is due to trade with England and Wales.

Use of Vaccines

Table 11: Number of sites rearing fish vaccinated against enteric redmouth disease ( ERM) and number of fish vaccinated (millions) during 2003-2014

Year 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014
No. of sites 38 42 37 31 28 28 31 27 26 24 19 21
No. of fish 32.9 30.6 30.0 36.4 41.4 29.1 27.5 20.0 20.3 20.4 9.9 10.0

Vaccines continued to be widely used as a preventative treatment against enteric redmouth disease ( ERM), a potentially serious bacterial infection, caused by Yersinia ruckeri. Vaccination is generally carried out as a bath treatment at the fingerling stage, although some vaccines are administered by intra-peritoneal injection. A total of 10 million fish were vaccinated on 21 sites.

Organic Production

Of the 46 sites recorded as being active in rainbow trout production in 2014, none were certified as organic.

Escapes

There was one incident involving the loss of 4 fish from rainbow trout sites in 2014. There were two additional reported incidents where the companies confirmed there was no loss of fish.

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