3 Housing

Main Findings

Note: The total number of households in Scotland has increased by 13 per cent from

2.19 million households in 1999 to 2.46 million households in 2017. This means that in the main findings presented below, a specific tenure can have reduced in relative proportion over time but have increased in absolute size.

Housing Tenure from 1999 to 2017

The proportion of households in the private rented sector grew steadily from five per cent in 1999 to 15 per cent in 2016, an estimated increase of 250,000 households, although the proportion has remained similar at 15 per cent in the latest year 2017.

The growth of the private rented sector over the years between 1999 and 2017 has largely been concentrated in urban areas. The increase in the private rented sector in these areas has equated to an increase of 200,000 households, from 80,000 households in 1999 to 280,000 households in 2017.

The percentage of households in the social rented sector declined from 32 per cent in 1999 to 23 per cent in 2007, an estimated drop of 150,000 households, and has remained at between 22 and 23 per cent of all households since then.

The percentage of households in owner occupation grew from 61 per cent in 1999 to 66 per cent in 2005, but then declined by an estimated 90,000 households between 2009 and 2014 to 60 per cent. The level has since remained around 61 and 62 per cent between 2015 and 2017.

Characteristics of households by tenure, 2017

Owned-outright properties (estimated 800,000 households):

Most properties were houses (82 per cent).

Nearly three quarters (72 per cent) of households had a highest-income householder aged 60 and over.

Over half (51 per cent) of adults in these properties have lived at their address for more than 20 years.

The vast majority (83 per cent) of adults in these properties did not expect to move from their current property in the future.

Properties owned with a mortgage or loan (estimated 720,000 households):

Forty per cent of households contained children.

Adults in properties owned with a mortgage or loan were more likely to be employed (82 per cent) than adults in other tenures.

Over eight in ten (84 per cent) households had a net income of more than £20,000.

Private rented properties (estimated 360,000 households):

Sixty two per cent of properties were flats and 47 per cent were located in large urban areas.

Over six in ten (61 per cent) of households contained one or two adults under 65 with no children.

Thirty five per cent of adults in these properties had been at their address for less than one year.

Social rented properties (local authority and housing association properties) (estimated 550,000 households):

Half (50 per cent) of local authority properties were flats. Forty three per cent of properties were located in the 20 per cent most deprived areas.

A little under two-thirds (64 per cent) of housing association properties were flats. Over half (53 per cent) of properties were located in the 20 per cent most deprived areas and 53 per cent were located in large urban areas.

Twelve per cent of adults in social rented properties were permanently sick or disabled, and a further nine per cent were unemployed and seeking work.

Over four in ten (44 per cent) of households in social rented accommodation stated that they would most like to live in an owner occupier property, with around half (48 per cent) preferring to live in social rented accommodation.

Households on housing lists:

An estimated 130,000 (5 per cent) of households were on a housing list in 2017, with a further 20,000 (1 per cent) of households estimated to have applied for social housing using a choice based letting system, or similar, within the last year.

Of the households on a housing list in 2017, over two-thirds (68 per cent) were on a single list and over half (59 per cent) had been on a housing list for 3 years or less.

For around a fifth (18 per cent) of social rented households on a housing list, the main reason for being on a list was to move to bigger or smaller property. The main reason for private rented households was that they cannot afford current housing or would like cheaper housing (identified by 27 per cent of private rented households on a housing list). The main reason for owner occupier households to be on a list was to move away from parents / partner (identified by 25 per cent of owner occupier households on a housing list).

Private Rented Sector – changes between 1999 and 2017:

The growth of the private rented sector over the years between 1999 and 2017 has largely been concentrated in urban areas, with the increase in the private rented sector in these areas equating to an increase of 200,000 households, from 80,000 households in 1999 to 280,000 households in 2017.

As a result, in 2017 nearly four-fifths (79 per cent) of privately rented households were living in urban areas.

There has been a large increase in the number of full time employed adults who are living in the private rented sector, with the number of adults increasing by an estimated 180,000 people between 1999 and 2017.

The average length of stay for adults living in private rented households in urban areas has been relatively steady between 1999 and 2017, with averages of 2 years being seen for most years.

3.1 Introduction and Context

The Scottish Government's vision for housing is that ‘All people in Scotland live in high quality sustainable homes that they can afford and that meet their needs’[18]. While the Scottish House Condition Survey (SHCS)[19] is the primary source of information about the physical condition of housing in Scotland, the Scottish Household Survey (SHS) includes many questions on housing which can be used to provide insight into the relationships between living circumstances and the characteristics, attitudes and behaviours of Scottish households.

This chapter presents information on changes to housing tenure in Scotland between 1999 and 2017, along with tenure profiles for 2017 that provide information on characteristics of households by type of tenure.

The SHS has included a question since 2013 on whether a household is on a housing list, and therefore headline analysis on this is also presented. These estimates provide additional evidence on the proportion and number of households that are on housing lists and complement existing sources, such as the Housing Statistics for Scotland (HSfS) publication[20], last published on 12 September 2017 which included statistics on the number of households on a local authority or common housing list up to 31 March 2017.

3.2 Housing Tenure

3.2.1 Long-term trends in housing tenure

Note that all figures presented in this section on the proportions of households in different tenures should be considered in the context of changes over time to the total number of dwellings in Scotland. The total number of households in Scotland has increased by 13 per cent from 2.19 million households in 1999 to 2.46 million households in 2017. This means that in the main findings presented below, a specific tenure can have reduced in relative proportion over time but have increased in absolute size.

In the period prior to 1999 – the first year in which the Scottish Household Survey was undertaken – the long-term trend was a marked increase in the proportion of owner-occupier households, which doubled from around 30 per cent in 1969[21] to 61 per cent in 1998. There were corresponding falls in the shares of the social rented sector, which fell from 50 per cent to 32 per cent, and the private rented sector, which fell from 20 per cent to seven per cent, over this period.

From 1999 onwards, Scottish Household Survey data shows us that the percentage of households in owner occupation grew from 61 per cent in 1999 to 66 per cent in 2005 (an estimated 12 per cent increase in absolute numbers of households), but declined from 2009 to 60 per cent in 2014 (an estimated six per cent decrease in absolute numbers of households between 2009 and 2014), and has since stayed at around the same level, standing at 62 per cent in 2017 (an estimated four per cent increase in absolute numbers of households between 2014 and 2017). The increase in total numbers of households in Scotland from 1999 to 2017 means that although the share of owner occupiers in 2017 is approximately the same as in 1999, there are more owner occupier households in 2017 in terms of absolute numbers (1.52 million) than there were in 1999 (1.34 million).

The decrease in the share of owner occupier households between 2009 and 2014 was driven by a decline in the percentage of households owning their property with a mortgage or loan, from 36 per cent of all households in 2009 to 30 per cent of all households in 2014, after which the figure has remained at similar levels, standing at 29 per cent in 2017. The proportion of all households owning outright increased steadily from 22 per cent in 1999 to 30 per cent in 2007, a level at which it has remained, with a similar figure of 32 per cent seen in 2017.

Figure 3.1: Tenure of household by year
1999-2017 data, Households (minimum base: 10,330)

Figure 3.1: Tenure of household by year

*Please note the chart excludes 'other' tenure

Trends over the medium term have also seen an increase in the proportion of households in the private rented sector, from five per cent in 1999 to 15 per cent in 2016 (an estimated 208 per cent increase in absolute numbers of households from 120,000 in 1999 to 370,000 in 2016); however this proportion remained at around 15 per cent in the latest year 2017 (an estimated 360,000 households).

The breakdown of the private rented sector into component parts of households renting from private landlord and households renting from family/friends/employers is available from 2009 onwards. This shows that the increase in the private rented sector since 2009 has been due to growth in the private landlord element of the sector, which has increased from eight per cent to 13 per cent of all households, whilst the family/friends/employer part of the sector has remained flat at two per cent of all households for most of these years.

Across the same time period, the percentage of households in the social rented sector declined from 32 per cent in 1999 to 23 per cent in 2007 (a 22 per cent drop in estimated numbers of households), after which the social sector has remained between around 22 and 23 per cent of all households for most years since then. Right to Buy sales have been a key driver for this reduction in social rented stock, with a total of 113,800 sales being made between 1999 and 2007, an annual average of 12,600 homes per year over this period. The number of Right to Buy sales in the subsequent period between 2009 and 2017 has been lower, with a total of 22,500 sales, equating to an annual average of 2,250 homes per year.[22]

The tenure category of “Other” includes households living rent-free, and this category accounted for one per cent of households surveyed in 2017.

Table 3.1: Households by tenure and year
Column percentages and estimated numbers, 1999-2017 data

  1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017
Owner Occupier 61 62 64 65 65 64 66 65 66 66 66 65 64 63 61 60 61 61 62
Owned outright 22 24 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 30 30 30 30 31 30 30 31 32 32
Buying with help of loan/mortgage 39 38 39 39 39 37 38 37 36 36 36 35 34 32 32 30 30 29 29
Social Rent 32 30 28 28 26 27 25 25 23 23 22 23 23 23 23 24 23 23 22
Local authority 27 25 23 22 20 19 17 17 16 15 14 14 15 13 14 14 13 13 13
Housing association / Co-op / Charitable trust 5 5 5 6 6 8 7 8 8 8 8 9 9 9 9 10 10 10 9
Private Rented 5 6 6 6 6 7 8 8 9 9 10 11 11 13 13 14 14 15 15
Private landlord - - - - - - - - - - 8 9 10 11 11 12 13 13 13
Family/Friends/Employer - - - - - - - - - - 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 2 2
Other 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1
All 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100
Base 14,680 15,550 15,570 15,070 14,880 15,940 15,400 15,620 13,410 13,810 14,190 14,210 14,360 10,640 10,650 10,630 10,330 10,470 10,680
  1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017
Owner Occupier 1,340,000 1,380,000 1,400,000 1,430,000 1,460,000 1,450,000 1,500,000 1,500,000 1,520,000 1,540,000 1,550,000 1,530,000 1,520,000 1,490,000 1,470,000 1,460,000 1,480,000 1,490,000 1,520,000
Owned outright 490,000 530,000 530,000 560,000 590,000 610,000 630,000 660,000 690,000 700,000 700,000 710,000 710,000 730,000 710,000 730,000 760,000 770,000 800,000
Buying with help of loan/mortgage 850,000 850,000 860,000 870,000 870,000 840,000 860,000 840,000 840,000 840,000 850,000 830,000 810,000 760,000 760,000 730,000 720,000 710,000 720,000
Social Rent 690,000 660,000 620,000 610,000 590,000 600,000 560,000 570,000 540,000 550,000 520,000 540,000 550,000 540,000 560,000 590,000 570,000 560,000 550,000
Local authority 580,000 550,000 500,000 490,000 450,000 420,000 390,000 390,000 370,000 350,000 330,000 330,000 350,000 320,000 330,000 330,000 320,000 320,000 330,000
Housing association / Co-op / Charitable trust 110,000 110,000 120,000 120,000 140,000 170,000 170,000 180,000 180,000 200,000 190,000 200,000 210,000 220,000 230,000 250,000 240,000 240,000 220,000
Private Rented 120,000 120,000 140,000 140,000 140,000 160,000 170,000 180,000 210,000 210,000 240,000 260,000 270,000 320,000 320,000 330,000 350,000 370,000 360,000
Private landlord - - - - - - - - - - 190,000 220,000 230,000 270,000 270,000 290,000 310,000 320,000 320,000
Family/Friends/Employer - - - - - - - - - - 50,000 40,000 30,000 40,000 50,000 40,000 40,000 50,000 50,000
Other 40,000 40,000 40,000 40,000 40,000 50,000 40,000 50,000 40,000 40,000 40,000 40,000 40,000 40,000 50,000 40,000 30,000 30,000 30,000
All* 2,186,100 2,203,160 2,194,564 2,211,430 2,230,797 2,251,262 2,274,283 2,295,185 2,318,966 2,337,967 2,351,780 2,364,850 2,376,424 2,386,660 2,400,342 2,416,014 2,429,943 2,446,171 2,463,569

Note that these estimates differ to the estimated stock of dwellings by tenure figures presented in annual Housing Statistics for Scotland publications. Housing Statistics for Scotland estimates focus on the number of dwellings each year as at March and use separately collected figures on social rent stock.
* Household estimates are from National Records of Scotland. https://www.nrscotland.gov.uk/statistics-and-data/statistics/statistics-by-theme/households/household-estimates
Note that during 2003, Dumfries and Galloway, Glasgow and Scottish Borders transferred their local authority social rented housing stock to housing associations. Following this, Argyll & Bute and Na h-Eileanan Siar transferred their stock in late 2006, and Inverclyde transferred its stock in December 2007.

3.2.2 Age group of the highest income householder

Figure 3.2 shows the trends from 1999 to 2017 in the proportions of households split by age group of the highest income householder. The proportion of households with a highest income householder of age 16 to 34 years fell from 22 per cent in 1999 to 19 per cent in 2003, and has remained around this level since then, being 19 per cent in 2017. The percentage of households with a highest earner of age 35 to 59 years increased from 45 per cent in 1999 to 48 per cent in 2003, before falling back to 45 per cent in 2015, where it has remained. The proportion of households with a highest income householder of age 60 and over has risen gradually from 32 per cent in 1999 to 36 per cent in 2017.

These trends reflect changes over time in both the underlying age structure of the population of Scotland and differences in household composition. The proportion of adults in the population in Scotland aged 16 to 34 has fallen from 32 per cent in 1999 to 30 per cent in 2017, whilst that of adults aged 60 or over has increased from 26 per cent in 1999 to 30 per cent in 2017[23]. In terms of household composition, separate Census data[24] shows that the percentage of people aged 20 to 34 living with their parents increased by 2 percentage points between 2001 (24 per cent) and 2011 (26 per cent).

Figure 3.2: Households by age of highest income householder, 1999 to 2017
1999-2017 data, Households (minimum base: 10,330)

Figure 3.2: Households by age of highest income householder, 1999 to 2017

The proportion of households with a highest income householder aged between 16 and 34 years living in the private rented sector increased substantially from 1999 (13 per cent) to 2015 (41 per cent), but remained at a similar level of around 40 per cent to 41 per cent between 2015 and 2017 (Figure 3.3). The percentage of households in properties owned with a mortgage fell from 50 per cent in 2003 to 28 per cent in 2014. This figure has varied in more recent years, with the proportion increasing to 33 per cent in 2016, after which it stood at 31 per cent in the latest year 2017.

Figure 3.3: Tenure of households by year (HIH aged 16 to 34)
1999-2017 data, Households (minimum base: 1,700)

Figure 3.3: Tenure of households by year (HIH aged 16 to 34)

Households in which the age of the highest income earner is between 35 and 59 years (Figure 3.4) have also seen a rise in the percentage renting in the private sector, from four per cent in 1999 to 12 per cent in 2016, however this proportion has also levelled off in the most recent year. The proportion owning with a loan or mortgage has correspondingly dropped from 54 per cent in 1999 to 46 per cent in 2017.

Figure 3.4: Tenure of households by year (HIH aged 35 to 59)
1999-2017 data, Households (minimum base: 4,640)

Figure 3.4: Tenure of households by year (HIH aged 35 to 59)

Households in which the age of the highest income earner is 60 years or over have seen a rise in the percentage who own outright, from 46 per cent in 1999 to 65 per cent in 2017 (Figure 3.5). There was been a corresponding drop in the proportion renting a social sector property from 39 per cent in 1999 to 22 per cent in 2012, after which the proportion has stayed at similar levels. One factor behind the changes seen in the proportions of older households owning outright and living in social rented accommodation between 1999 and 2012 is likely to have been Right to Buy, given that households in this age group are most likely to have been able to benefit from the scheme compared to younger households.

Figure 3.5: Tenure of households by year (HIH aged 60 plus)
1999-2017 data, Households (minimum base: 3,980)

Figure 3.5: Tenure of households by year (HIH aged 60 plus)

3.3 Characteristics of Households by Tenure

3.3.1 Household Characteristics

The long-term decline in the percentage of social housing has been accompanied by substantial changes in the profile of its tenants. Data from the Scottish Census[25] show that in 1981 the profile of social sector tenants was similar to the profile of all Scottish households in terms of size, composition, and social and economic characteristics. This is no longer the case and household characteristics in 2017 show some marked differences by tenure. Table 3.2 to Table 3.6 explore these differences in characteristics for 2017 in more depth across all main tenure categories.

Table 3.2 focuses on housing characteristics for the year 2017 such as dwelling type, location (urban/rural and index of multiple deprivation) as well as size of property as measured by the numbers of bedrooms.

Properties owned with a mortgage or loan generally have a similar profile to properties owned outright. Owner occupier properties are much more likely to be houses (80 per cent) than flats (19 per cent). Half (50 per cent) of owner occupier properties are located in the 40 per cent least deprived areas of Scotland, while only 12 per cent are in the 20 per cent most deprived areas. Only five per cent of owner occupier properties have one bedroom, with two-thirds (67 per cent) of properties having three or more bedrooms.

In contrast to owner occupier properties, private rented properties are more likely to be flats (62 per cent) than houses (37 per cent), and they are generally much smaller – one in five (23 per cent) have one bedroom and a half (50 per cent) have two bedrooms. Seventy-nine per cent of private rented properties are located in urban areas.

For local authority dwellings there is an equal split between local authority flats and houses. Forty-three per cent of local authority properties are located in the 20 per cent most deprived areas of Scotland, and seventy-five per cent are located in the 40 per cent most deprived areas. Meanwhile 50 per cent are located in ‘other’ (i.e. not large) urban areas.

Housing association properties have a broadly similar profile to private rented properties in terms of dwelling type (64 per cent are flats). Fifty-three per cent of housing association properties are located in the 20 per cent most deprived areas of Scotland, and 74 per cent are located in the 40 per cent most deprived areas. Housing association properties are more likely to have just one bedroom (31 per cent) than local authority properties (23 per cent), private rented dwellings (23 per cent), and owner occupied properties (5 per cent).

Table 3.2: Housing characteristics by tenure
Column percentages, 2017 data

  Owner Occupier Private Rent Social Rent Other All
Owned outright Buying with mortgage* All Local authority Housing association** All
Proportional sizes of sectors 32 29 62 15 13 9 22 1 100
Dwelling type
House 82 79 80 37 50 35 44 59 66
Flat 18 21 19 62 50 64 56 39 34
Other 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1
SIMD 2016
1 - Most Deprived 11 13 12 21 43 53 47 24 21
2 17 17 17 21 32 22 28 18 20
3 22 20 21 22 17 14 16 26 20
4 24 24 24 19 7 8 7 20 20
5 - Least Deprived 26 27 26 18 1 4 2 12 20
Urban / Rural Classification
Large urban areas 30 35 32 47 25 53 36 25 35
Other urban areas 35 36 36 32 50 29 42 31 36
Accessible small towns 10 10 10 7 10 4 8 12 9
Remote small towns 4 3 4 2 4 5 4 2 4
Accessible rural 13 11 12 8 8 4 6 15 10
Remote rural 9 4 7 5 3 5 4 16 6
Number of bedrooms
1 bedroom 4 5 5 23 23 31 26 12 12
2 bedrooms 29 27 28 50 53 45 50 45 36
3 bedrooms 44 41 43 20 22 21 21 29 34
4+ bedrooms 22 27 24 8 3 2 3 14 17
Base 3,920 2,900 6,820 1,360 1,390 960 2,350 150 10,680

* The full category name is "Buying with the help of loan/mortgage"
** The full category name is "Housing association / Co-op / Charitable trust"

Table 3.3 provides information on household characteristics for the year 2017 such as number of people in the household, type of household composition, and number of cars.

Properties owned outright are more likely to contain older adults compared to other tenures, with 72 per cent having a highest income householder aged 60 years or more. Households who own outright also have the biggest percentage of two-person households (49 per cent) across all main tenure types. Only 17 per cent of owned outright households have three or more people living in them. Correspondingly, households in this tenure are much more likely than other tenures to be older one-person (26 per cent) or older two-person (32 per cent) households. Eighty-three per cent of households owning outright have at least one car. Almost three quarters (74 per cent) of owned-outright households state that they are managing very well or quite well financially, a figure higher than other tenures.

Households owning with a mortgage or a loan are more likely to have a highest income householder of age 35 to 44 (28 per cent) or 45 to 59 (43 per cent) than any other tenure. Households owning with a mortgage or loan also have the highest proportion of three people (22 per cent) or four or more people (31 per cent) living in the household. Correspondingly, 40 per cent of these households have children. Over 90 per cent (92 per cent) of households that own with a mortgage or loan have at least one car and 84 per cent of households have a net household income of over £20,000, the highest of any tenure.

Households in private rented accommodation are more likely to have a highest income householder aged 16 to 24 (19 per cent) or 25 to 34 (33 per cent) than other tenures. Sixty-one per cent of private renting households are either single adult households or small adult households. Forty-four per cent of private renting households do not have a car.

The profiles of households in local authority rented properties and those in housing association properties are similar. Social rented households are characterised by large percentages of one-person households (48 per cent), and correspondingly have a high proportion of single adult households (29 per cent). Six in ten (58 per cent) of social sector households do not have a car, and almost half (45 per cent) have a net household income of £15,000 or less. Thirty per cent of social sector households state that they manage well financially, a figure lower than other tenures. Around one in five (20 per cent) state that they don’t manage well, a figure that is higher than other tenures.

Table 3.3: Household characteristics by tenure
Column percentages, 2017 data

  Owner Occupier Private Rent Social Rent Other All
Owned outright Buying with mortgage* All Local authority Housing association** All
Proportional sizes of sectors 32 29 62 15 13 9 22 1 100
Number of people in household
1 person 35 17 26 38 48 48 48 50 33
2 people 49 30 40 34 27 27 27 32 36
3 people 10 22 15 14 11 13 12 7 14
4+ people 7 31 18 14 13 12 13 12 16
Household composition
Large adult 11 13 12 7 6 8 7 3 10
Large family 2 10 6 5 5 3 5 7 5
Older smaller 32 3 18 2 7 8 7 11 13
Single adult 11 17 14 35 30 27 29 27 20
Single parent 1 3 2 8 10 11 11 4 5
Single older 26 2 14 5 19 22 20 24 14
Small adult 15 26 20 26 13 12 12 17 19
Small family 3 27 14 13 8 9 9 7 13
Age of highest income householder
16 to 24 0 1 1 19 5 4 5 13 5
25 to 34 2 19 10 33 15 14 15 14 14
35 to 44 3 28 15 20 16 17 16 14 16
45 to 59 23 43 32 17 29 28 29 17 29
60 to 74 45 7 27 8 21 23 21 22 23
75 plus 27 2 15 3 14 13 13 20 13
Number of cars
0 cars 17 8 13 44 58 59 58 39 28
1 car 50 41 46 42 34 35 35 43 43
2+ cars 33 50 41 14 8 6 7 18 29
Net household income
£0-£6,000 3 1 2 5 3 3 3 7 3
£6,001-£10,000 9 2 5 8 15 12 14 17 8
£10,001-£15,000 15 5 10 14 28 28 28 14 15
£15,001-£20,000 16 7 12 17 20 22 21 14 15
£20,001-£25,000 13 8 11 13 13 11 12 18 12
£25,001-£30,000 10 10 10 10 8 7 7 6 9
£30,001-£35,000 7 10 8 9 5 5 5 6 8
£35,001-£40,000 6 11 8 7 3 3 3 6 7
£40,001-£50,000 8 20 13 7 1 2 2 7 10
£50,001-£60,000 4 12 8 3 1 1 1 1 5
£60,001-£70,000 2 7 4 1 0 0 0 1 3
£70,001-£80,000 1 3 2 1 0 0 0 0 1
Over £80,000 2 5 3 0 0 - 0 - 2
Don't know/Refused 4 1 3 6 4 5 4 4 4
Base 3,920 2,900 6,820 1,360 1,390 960 2,350 150 10,680
How well household is managing financially****
Manages well 74 64 69 41 28 33 30 54 56
Gets by 24 31 27 46 51 50 51 35 35
Does not manage well 2 5 4 12 21 17 20 10 9
Base 3,880 2,885 6,770 1,350 1,380 950 2,330 150 10,590

* The full category name is "Buying with the help of loan/mortgage"
** The full category name is "Housing association / Co-op / Charitable trust"
*** Excludes Don’t know / Refused responses.
**** The “Manage well” category has been created by combining the response categories “Manages very well” and “Manages quite well”. The “Does not manage well” category has been created by combining the response categories “Does not manage very well”, “Has some financial difficulties” and “Is in deep financial trouble”.

3.3.2 Adult Characteristics

Table 3.4 provides information on characteristics for the year 2017 such as ethnicity, length of tenure and tenure of previous address of adults.

Over half of adults in owned-outright properties are estimated to be permanently retired from work (53 per cent), and have been in living in the same address for more than 20 years (51 per cent). Of the small proportion (4 per cent) of adults who have moved into their address within the previous year, it is estimated that nearly half (44 per cent) have moved from another owned-outright property.

Adults in properties owned with a mortgage or loan were more likely to be employed[26] (82 per cent) than adults in other tenures. Of the eight per cent of adults who have moved into their address in the previous year, an estimated 39 per cent moved from another property owned with a mortgage and a further 32 per cent moved from the private rented sector.

An estimated 22 per cent of adults in the private rented sector are in school or further/higher education. Only 58 per cent have recorded their ethnicity as white Scottish, which is much lower than other tenures, while 35 per cent have been at their current address for less than one year, much higher than any other tenure. For those who have moved into their property in the last year, over half (55 per cent) moved from another private rented dwelling, whilst 24 per cent moved from their parental home.

The profiles of adults living in local authority dwellings and housing association properties are very similar. Adults in social rented properties have a higher proportion of people permanently sick or disabled (12 per cent) compared to adults in private rented households or owner occupier households, and a higher proportion of people unemployed and seeking work (nine per cent) compared to other tenures. Eighty-six per cent of people in social sector properties record their ethnicity as white Scottish, compared with 78 per cent for Scotland as a whole. For the nine per cent who have moved into their property in the last year, 45 per cent had moved from another social rented property.

Table 3.4: Adult characteristics by tenure
Column percentages, 2017 data

  Owner Occupier Private Rent Social Rent Other All
Owned outright Buying with mortgage* All Local authority Housing association** All
Proportional sizes of sectors*** 32 29 62 15 13 9 22 1 100
Ethnicity
White Scottish 81 81 81 58 89 81 86 67 78
White other British 14 11 12 15 6 7 7 17 12
White Polish 1 2 1 5 1 4 2 2 2
White other 2 3 2 12 1 3 2 10 4
Any Mixed or Multiple Ethnic Groups 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0
Asian, Asian Scottish or Asian British 2 3 2 6 1 2 1 0 3
African, Caribbean or Black 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 1
Other Ethnic Group 0 1 1 2 1 2 1 2 1
Refused 0 0 0 0 - - - - 0
Economic situation
Self employed 8 8 8 6 2 3 2 4 6
Employed full time 21 62 42 41 24 24 24 30 38
Employed part time 9 12 11 9 12 11 11 10 11
Looking after the home or family 3 4 3 7 10 9 9 10 5
Permanently retired from work 53 5 29 6 24 25 25 24 24
Unemployed and seeking work 1 2 2 4 10 7 9 7 3
At school 1 3 2 2 2 2 2 4 2
In further / higher education 2 3 2 20 3 6 4 3 5
Gov't work or training scheme 0 - 0 0 - 0 0 . 0
Permanently sick or disabled 2 1 2 4 12 13 12 6 4
Unable to work because of short-term illness or injury 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 0
Other (specify) 0 0 0 - 0 1 0 1 0
Length of time at current address
Less than one year 4 8 6 35 9 10 9 18 11
1 to 2 years 6 14 10 32 18 19 18 25 15
3 to 4 years 5 14 9 15 14 15 14 10 11
5 to 10 years 11 25 18 12 21 24 22 15 18
11 to 20 years 23 27 25 4 19 23 21 14 21
More than 20 years 51 11 31 2 20 11 16 18 24
Average time at current address in years 22.4 9.9 16.2 3.0 12.1 9.5 11.0 10.4 13.2
Base 3,670 2,580 6,250 1,250 1,270 900 2,170 140 9,810
Tenure of previous address****
Owned outright 44 4 16 5 1 2 2 - 8
Buying with help of loan/mortgage 14 39 31 8 4 10 7 - 15
Private Rented 14 32 26 55 21 22 22 - 39
Rent – Local authority 3 4 4 3 47 14 33 - 9
Rent - Housing association/Coop/Charitable trust 3 1 2 2 4 23 12 - 3
Other 2 2 2 3 4 3 4 - 4
In parental/family home 20 19 19 24 19 25 21 - 22
Base 110 200 310 430 120 70 190 20 950

* The full category name is "Buying with the help of loan/mortgage"
** The full category name is "Housing association / Co-op / Charitable trust"
*** Based on Household sample (base: 10,470)
**** Only asked of those who have been at their current address for less than a year
Note that the figures provided in this table are based on the random adult part of the survey, and therefore reflect characteristics of adults within households rather than the entire household.

3.3.3 Neighbourhood views, reasons for moving and future housing aspirations

Table 3.5 and Table 3.6 provide information for the year 2017 on people’s views on their neighbourhood, their satisfaction with their current housing, their reasons for moving to the area, and their future housing aspirations.

Over nine in ten households (92 per cent) reported that they were very or fairly satisfied with their housing, with 56 per cent being very satisfied and 36 per cent being fairly satisfied.

Around a third (37 per cent) of households who own their property outright moved to their area to get the right size or kind of property, a figure higher than for rented tenures. Over two thirds (68 per cent) of households who own outright rate their neighbourhood as a very good place to live, with a further 30 per cent rating their neighbourhood as fairly good. Nearly half (47 per cent) of households who own outright have a very strong feeling of belonging to their immediate neighbourhood, with a further 39 per cent having a fairly strong feeling of belonging. Eighty three per cent of households who own outright expect not to move from their current property in the future, and nearly all owned-outright households (99 per cent) state that the type of accommodation they would most like to live in would be an owner occupier property. Around seven in ten (70 per cent) of households owning their property outright were very satisfied with their housing, a proportion higher than any other tenure group.

Similar to owned-outright households, around a third (38 per cent) of households owning with a mortgage or a loan moved to their area to get the right size or kind of property. Nearly one in five (16 per cent) of households owning with a mortgage or a loan state that they would expect to move from their current property within 5 years. Almost three quarters (74 per cent) expect not to move from their current property in the future. Similar to owned-outright households, nearly all (98 per cent) of households owning with a mortgage or a loan state that the type of accommodation they would most like to live in would be an owner occupier property.

Around one in five (20 per cent) households in private rented accommodation moved to their area to be close to work or employment, a higher percentage figure than other tenures. Only 19 per cent of households in private rented accommodation had a very strong feeling of belonging to their immediate neighbourhood, whilst 35 per cent felt not very strongly or not at all strongly; the highest of any tenure.

Over half (55 per cent) of households in private rented accommodation expect to move from their current property within the next 5 years, a percentage much higher than in other tenures. Three quarters (74 per cent) households in private rented accommodation state that the type of accommodation they would most like to live in would be an owner occupier property. Six per cent would most like to live in social rented accommodation and 15 per cent would most like to live in private rented accommodation.

Local authority dwellings and housing association properties show a very similar profile. Around four in ten (39 per cent) of households in social rented properties rated their neighbourhood as a very good place to live, a percentage which is lower than other tenures. Almost eight in ten (76 per cent) expect not to move from their current property in the future. Over four in ten (44 per cent) of households in social rented accommodation state that the type of accommodation they would most like to live in would be an owner occupier property, with around half (48 per cent) preferring to live in social rented accommodation.

Table 3.5: Views on housing aspirations, by tenure
Column percentages, 2017 data

  Owner Occupier Private Rent Social Rent Other All
Owned outright Buying with mortgage* All Local authority Housing association** All
Proportional sizes of sectors *** 32 29 62 15 13 9 22 1 100
Reasons for moving to area ****
To be near family/friends 10 8 9 10 11 13 12 20 10
To be close to work/employment 11 11 11 20 3 4 3 28 11
Change in family/household circumstances / left home 21 22 22 22 24 28 26 28 23
To buy own house/flat or rent place of own 13 23 18 11 10 8 9 0 14
Health reasons, including move to bungalow / flat 3 0 2 1 11 9 10 4 4
Moved to sheltered housing / supported accommodation 0 0 0 0 1 3 2 2 1
Like the area / nice area 21 18 20 13 10 9 10 5 16
Move to the countryside / sea 3 2 3 2 0 - 0 1 2
Good schools 1 4 3 3 0 1 0 - 2
Good services / amenities 3 4 3 2 2 2 2 5 3
Good transport 0 1 1 2 - 0 0 - 1
Wanted a garden / land 3 3 3 3 1 1 1 2 2
Right size / kind of property 37 38 38 19 25 32 27 14 32
Cheaper property 1 2 1 6 2 1 2 3 2
No choice - allocated by council / Housing Association, eviction 1 0 1 2 12 9 11 8 3
To avoid violence / discrimination 0 1 0 2 3 1 2 3 1
Other 1 0 1 3 1 2 1 - 1
Don't know 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 - 1
Base 1,360 1,030 2,390 500 540 360 900 60 3,840
When the householder expects to move
Within 6 months 1 1 1 12 3 4 3 - 3
Over 6 months to less than 1 year 1 3 2 14 1 3 2 - 4
Over 1 year, less than 2 years 2 3 3 12 5 5 5 - 5
Over 2 years, less than 3 years 2 5 3 10 2 4 2 - 4
Over 3 years, less than 4 years 1 2 1 3 2 2 2 - 2
Over 4 years, less than 5 years 2 2 2 4 3 1 2 - 2
More than 5 years 3 6 4 3 2 0 1 - 4
Don't expect to move 83 74 79 30 76 76 76 - 70
Don't know 4 4 4 12 7 6 7 - 6
Accommodation householder would like to live in
Owner occupier 99 98 98 74 48 38 44 - 83
Local Authority Rent 0 1 1 5 42 5 27 - 7
Housing Association Rent 0 0 0 1 3 48 22 - 5
Private Rent 0 0 0 15 1 1 1 - 3
Sheltered / Supported accommodation 1 0 0 1 3 4 3 - 1
Other 0 - 0 0 - 0 0 - 0
Don't know 0 0 0 3 3 3 3 - 1
Base 1,190 870 2,060 440 400 280 670 40 3,210

* The full category name is "Buying with the help of loan/mortgage"
** The full category name is "Housing association / Co-op / Charitable trust"
*** Based on Household sample (base: 10,680)
**** Columns may not add up to 100 per cent since multiple responses were allowed

Table 3.6: Views on neighbourhood and housing satisfaction, by tenure
Column percentages, 2017 data

  Owner Occupier Private Rent Social Rent Other All
Owned outright Buying with mortgage* All Local authority Housing association** All
Proportional sizes of sectors* 32 29 62 15 13 9 22 1 100
Rating of neighbourhood as a place to live
Very good 68 60 64 49 38 41 39 57 57
Fairly good 30 37 34 45 48 48 48 37 38
Fairly poor 1 2 2 5 8 7 8 5 3
Very poor 1 0 1 1 5 3 4 1 1
No opinion 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 - 0
Strength of belonging to immediate neighbourhood
Very strongly 47 31 39 19 33 30 32 29 35
Fairly strongly 39 49 44 44 40 41 41 34 43
Not very strongly 11 14 13 25 16 20 18 25 16
Not at all strongly 3 4 3 10 9 7 8 9 5
Don't know 0 1 1 2 1 2 2 3 1
Base 3,670 2,580 6,250 1,250 1,270 900 2,170 140 9,810
Housing Satisfaction
Very satisfied 70 58 65 38 42 44 43 73 56
Fairly satisfied 28 37 32 49 40 39 40 20 36
Neither satisfied nor dissatisfied 1 2 1 7 7 6 6 - 3
Fairly dissatisfied 0 1 1 4 8 7 8 7 3
Very dissatisfied 1 1 1 2 3 4 4 - 2
No opinion 0 - 0 0 - - - - 0
Base 1,190 880 2,080 400 420 280 700 50 3,220

* The full category name is "Buying with the help of loan/mortgage"
** The full category name is "Housing association / Co-op / Charitable trust"

Figure 3.6: Percentage of households very or fairly satisfied with housing
2017 data, Households (minimum base: 3,220)

Figure 3.6: Percentage of households very or fairly satisfied with housing

3.3.4 Housing adaptations and support

Table 3.7 and Table 3.8 provide information for the year 2017 on housing adaptations and support.

Households owning their property outright (43 per cent) and households in social rented accommodation (58 per cent) were more likely than other tenures to have a member of the household with a physical or mental health condition or illness lasting or expecting to last 12 months or more.

For households with a person with a physical or mental health condition, the most common aspects of their home that limit activities that can be done (based on the question options provided in the Scottish Household Survey) were not being able to get upstairs inside the house (six per cent) and the bath or shower being difficult to access or use (four per cent). Of all households with a person with a physical or mental health condition, 86 per cent stated that nothing about the home limited activities that could be done.

Twelve per cent of households with a person with a physical or mental health condition stated that their home requires adaptations to make it easier to go about daily activities, which equates to a total of around 110,000 households.

The most common types of home adaptions already in place for all homes (whether needed or not) are handrails, which are in 11 per cent of all homes, and in 20 per cent of social sector homes. Over one in ten (11 per cent) of social sector homes have a specially designed or adapted bath or shower, and six per cent of social sector homes have a specially designed or adapted toilet.

Two per cent of all households currently receive a home care worker or home help to help with housework, cooking and cleaning, whilst one per cent receive a home care worker to help with washing, bathing, dressing etc. Four per cent of homes receive some sort of assistance from a relative, friend or neighbour, rising to ten per cent of social sector homes.

Table 3.7: Limiting activities by tenure
Column percentages, 2017 data

  Owner Occupier Private Rent Social Rent Other All
Owned outright Buying with mortgage* All Local authority Housing association** All
Proportional sizes of sectors*** 32 29 62 15 13 9 22 1 100
Household has someone with a long term physical/mental health condition/illness****
Yes 43 24 34 26 57 58 58 51 38
No 57 76 66 74 43 42 42 49 62
Base 3,920 2,900 6,820 1,360 1,390 960 2,350 150 10,680
What about the home limits activities that can be done*****
Can't get upstairs inside house 6 5 6 2 7 6 6 - 6
Too small / need more rooms 0 1 0 2 1 1 1 - 1
Can't leave house because of stairs to house 2 1 2 - 2 2 2 - 1
Restricted movement / can't get around the house due to design / layout 2 1 2 - 2 2 2 - 1
Doors too narrow 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 - 0
Rooms too small - 0 0 1 1 2 1 - 1
Bath / shower difficult to access / use 4 4 4 4 6 4 5 - 4
Toilet difficult to access / use 2 1 2 3 2 2 2 - 2
Electric lights / sockets are difficult to reach / use 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 - 1
Heating controls are difficult to reach / use 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 - 1
Can't open windows 2 1 2 1 4 1 3 - 2
Difficulty answering / opening door 2 1 2 1 2 1 1 - 1
Cupboards / shelves are difficult to reach / use 3 1 2 1 5 2 4 - 3
Can't get into / use garden 1 1 1 - 1 1 1 - 1
Other 1 - 1 1 1 0 1 - 1
None / nothing 85 92 87 92 79 87 82 - 86
Whether the home requires adaptations to make it easier to go about daily activities *****
Yes 11 6 10 9 17 12 15 - 12
No 88 93 90 91 82 88 85 - 88
Don't know 1 0 1 . 1 0 1 - 1
Base 670 270 950 150 350 230 580 30 1,720

* The full category name is "Buying with the help of loan/mortgage"
** The full category name is "Housing association / Co-op / Charitable trust"
*** Based on Household sample (base: 10,470)
**** A long term condition is defined as lasting or expecting to last for 12 months or more
***** Asked of households with someone with a long term condition/illness
Columns may not add up to 100 due to multiple answers allowed

Table 3.8: Housing adaptations and support, by tenure
Column percentages, 2017 data

Owner Occupier Private Rent Social Rent Other All
Owned outright Buying with mortgage* All Local authority Housing association** All
Proportional sizes of sectors*** 32 29 62 15 13 9 22 1 100
Home adaptations that are already in place
Ramps 3 2 3 2 4 3 4 3 3
Door widening 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 2 2
Relocated light switches and power points 1 2 1 0 3 4 3 4 2
Individual alarm systems 2 1 2 1 4 4 4 3 2
Stairlift 2 0 1 - 3 2 1 1 1
Through floor lift 0 0 0 - 1 0 0 . 0
Handrails 12 5 8 6 22 16 20 12 11
Specially designed / adapted kitchen 0 0 0 0 2 1 1 - 1
Specially designed / adapted bathroom / shower 5 2 4 3 13 9 11 9 5
Specially designed / adapted toilet 3 1 2 1 5 6 6 2 3
Door entry phone 3 2 3 7 8 10 9 7 5
Extension to meet disabled person's needs 0 1 0 - - 1 0 - 0
Special Furniture 1 0 1 0 2 1 1 - 1
Other 0 0 0 - - 0 0 - 0
None needed / provided 78 87 82 84 65 69 67 68 79
Don't know 2 1 1 2 1 1 1 4 1
Services that household members currently receive
Home care worker / home help (helping with housework, cooking, cleaning) 3 0 2 1 3 4 4 3 2
Home care worker (helping with washing / bathing, dressing, toilet) 2 0 1 0 2 2 2 1 1
Meals delivered to home / meals on wheels 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 - 0
Day care / day centre (in hospital, residential home or other organisation) 0 - 0 - 1 1 1 - 0
Respite / short term care in residential / nursing home 0 0 0 - 1 0 0 1 0
Occupational therapy / physiotherapy 1 1 1 1 2 1 2 1 1
Help with shopping 2 0 1 1 7 5 6 2 2
Night care (someone present at night only) 0 0 0 - 0 0 0 - 0
Assistance from relative / friend / neighbour 4 2 3 2 11 8 10 3 4
None 92 98 95 96 84 85 84 93 93
Base 1,830 1,350 3,180 660 690 470 1,120 70 5,060

* The full category name is "Buying with the help of loan/mortgage"
** The full category name is "Housing association / Co-op / Charitable trust"
*** Based on Household sample (base: 10,470)
Columns may not add up to 100 due to multiple answers allowed

3.4 Housing Lists

An estimated 130,000 (5 per cent) of households were on a housing list in 2017, with a further 20,000 households estimated to have applied for social housing using a choice based letting system, or similar, in the last year.

The number of people on housing lists helps provide an indication of the demand for social housing. In Scotland anyone over the age of 16 has the right to be admitted to a housing list. Since there is no test of particular housing need at the stage that an application is made, housing lists are indicators of demand and not necessarily of housing need.

Housing lists are held by social landlords, local authorities and housing associations, individually or jointly as Common Housing Registers. They can include people who are already in social housing but are seeking a move and in some cases applicants will be on more than one landlord’s list. Social landlords are responsible for allocating their housing, in line with their allocation policies and the legislative framework.

The Housing (Scotland) Act 2014 contains provisions intended to support social landlords to allocate and manage their housing in a way which balances the variety of housing needs in their area and gives local communities a greater say in who gets priority for housing.

A question about being on a housing list was introduced to the SHS in 2013 and these questions are asked of the random adult[27]. However, note that changes were made to the 2017 questions with the aim to better capture households who are using choice based lettings when seeking social housing. These may affect comparisons over time, and therefore some caution should be used when comparing the 2017 results to earlier years. Table 3.9 provides information on households on a housing list in 2017.

Also note that the Scottish Household Survey is based on a sample of the general population living in private residences in Scotland, and therefore it may exclude some people or households or who are on a housing list but who are living in other types of accommodation such as hostels or bed and breakfast accommodation.

Ten per cent of private rented households stated that they were on a housing list, of which almost three quarters (71 per cent) are only on one list. Over half (56 per cent) of private rented households on a housing list had been so for 3 years or less, with one third (35 per cent) on a list for one to three years. Ten per cent had been on a housing list for more than 10 years. For around three in ten (27 per cent) of private rented households on a housing list, the main reason for being on a housing list was that they can’t afford current housing or would like cheaper housing. This was a much larger percentage than the equivalent figure for social rented households (3 per cent).

Thirteen per cent of social rented households stated that they were on a housing list, of which 67 per cent were only on one list. Fifty-eight per cent of social rented households on a housing list had been so for 3 years or less, with around a quarter (23 per cent) on a list for less than a year. Nine per cent had been on a housing list for more than 10 years. For around a fifth (18 per cent) of social rented households on a housing list, the main reason for being on a housing list was to move to a bigger or smaller property, with the next highest reason being threatened with homelessness (15 per cent). An additional two per cent of social rented households had applied for social housing under a choice-based letting scheme, or similar, in the last year.

One per cent of owner occupier households stated that they were on a housing list, of which almost three quarters (69 per cent) are only on one list. Around two-thirds (65 per cent) of households on a housing list had been so for 3 years or less. Ten per cent had been on a housing list for more than 10 years. For around a quarter (25 per cent) of owner occupier households on a housing list, the main reason for being on a housing list was to move to their own property away from parents / partner.

Table 3.9: Households on a Housing List by tenure
Column percentages, 2017 data

  Owner Occupier Private Rent Social Rent Other All
Owned outright Buying with mortgage* All Local authority Housing association** All
Whether household is on a housing list
Yes 1 1 1 10 14 12 13 8 5
No*** 99 98 99 90 84 87 86 92 94
Don't know / refused 0 0 0 1 2 1 1 - 1
If not on a housing list, whether household has applied for social housing under a a choice-based letting scheme, or similar, in the last year
Yes 0 0 0 0 3 2 2 2 1
No**** 100 100 100 99 96 96 96 98 99
Don't know 0 0 0 0 2 2 2 - 1
Base 3,670 2,580 6,250 1,250 1,270 900 2,170 140 9,810
The number of housing lists that households are on (households on a list)
1 list - - 69 71 69 63 67 - 68
2 lists - - 9 11 9 14 11 - 10
3 or more lists - - 4 7 7 7 7 - 6
Don't know / refused - - 18 11 15 16 16 - 15
How long the household has been on a housing list***** (households on a list)
Less than a year - - 31 21 25 19 23 - 24
1 to 3 years - - 35 35 33 38 35 - 35
4 to 5 years - - 9 18 14 17 15 - 15
6 to 10 years - - 12 16 10 13 11 - 12
More than 10 years - - 10 10 10 8 9 - 9
Don't know - - 3 0 7 5 6 - 4
The main reason for household being on a housing list (households on a list)
Can't afford current housing / Would like cheaper housing - - 10 27 1 5 3 - 10
Threatened with homelessness - - 15 13 18 10 15 - 15
To move to a different area - anti-social/safety concerns in current area - - 2 3 12 4 9 - 6
To move to a different area - for work opportunities - - 1 1 2 2 2 - 2
To move to a different area - to a better area - - 6 7 11 12 11 - 9
To move to a different area - to be nearer family and friends - - 5 4 7 10 8 - 6
To move to a different area - other reason - - 0 2 2 2 2 - 2
To move to a different property - bigger/smaller - - 7 13 18 18 18 - 15
To move to a different property - need adaptations - - 9 4 5 6 6 - 6
To move to a different property - need ground floor access - - 13 5 5 13 8 - 8
To move to my own property away from parents/partner etc - - 25 11 10 9 9 - 12
To move to a different property - other reason - - 3 7 6 7 7 - 6
Other - - 4 2 1 1 1 - 2
Don't know - - 1 0 3 1 2 - 1
Base 40 30 70 130 170 100 270 10 480

* The full category name is "Buying with the help of loan/mortgage"
** The full category name is "Housing association / Co-op / Charitable trust"
*** Respondents who have said that either they have never looked for social housing or that they have looked for social housing but are not currently on a list
**** Respondents who have said that either they have never looked for social housing or that they have looked for social housing but are not currently on a list and they have also not applied for housing under a choice based letting scheme in the last year
***** where a household has been on multiple lists, is this the time spent on the list that they have been on for the longest

Table 3.10 and Table 3.11 present the results for 2017 based on the percentage of respondents who indicated that they were on at least one housing list, whether through a Council, Registered Social Landlord (RSL) or a Common Housing Register (CHR).

Table 3.10: Adults on housing lists
Column percentages and population estimates, 2013 to 2017 data

All adults 2013 2014 2015 2016
  Per cent Adults Per cent Adults Per cent Adults Per cent Adults
No, not on a housing list 91.9 4,060,000 92.9 4,120,000 94.3 4,210,000 95.5 4,290,000
Yes, on a housing list 6.4 280,000 6.0 270,000 5.0 220,000 3.9 170,000
Don't know / refused 1.7 80,000 1.1 50,000 0.7 30,000 0.6 30,000
All* 100 4,416,121 100 4,436,559 100 4,460,738 100 4,488,783
Base 9,920 - 9,800 - 9,410 - 9,640 -
All adults who have ever looked for social housing 2017
Per cent Adults
No, not on a housing list** 94.7 4,270,000
Yes, on a housing list 4.9 220,000
Don't know / refused 0.4 20,000
All* 100 4,507,358
Base 9,810 -
Not on a housing list, but have applied for social housing using choice based lettings, or similar, in the last year 0.6 30,000

* Adult estimates (population aged 16 and over) are from National Records of Scotland http://www.nrscotland.gov.uk/statistics-and-data/statistics/statistics-by-theme/population/population-estimates
** Respondents who have said that either they have never looked for social housing, or that they have looked for social housing but are not currently on a list
Note that changes were made to the 2017 SHS questions on housing lists with the aim to better capture households who are using choice based lettings when seeking social housing. This may have also affected comparisons over time, and therefore some caution should be used when comparing the 2017 results to earlier years

Table 3.11: Households on housing lists
Column percentages and household estimates, 2013 to 2017 data

  2013 2014 2015 2016
Per cent Households Per cent Households Per cent Households Per cent Households
No, not on a housing list 90.9 2,180,000 92.2 2,230,000 94.0 2,280,000 94.9 2,320,000
Yes, on a housing list 7.3 170,000 6.6 160,000 5.2 130,000 4.4 110,000
Don't know/refused 1.8 40,000 1.2 30,000 0.8 20,000 0.7 20,000
All* 100 2,400,342 100 2,416,014 100 2,429,943 100 2,446,171
Base 9,920 - 9,800 - 9,410 - 9,640 -
  2017  
Per cent Households
No, not on a housing list** 94.3 2,320,000
Yes, on a housing list 5.2 130,000
Don't know / refused 0.5 10,000
All* 100 2,463,569
Base 9,810 -
Not on a housing list, but have applied for social housing using choice based lettings, or similar, in the last year 0.7 20,000

* Household estimates are from National Records of Scotland http://www.nrscotland.gov.uk/statistics-and-data/statistics/statistics-by-theme/housholds/household-estimates
**Respondents who have said that either they have never looked for social housing, or that they have looked for social housing but are not currently on a list
Note that changes were made to the 2017 SHS questions on housing lists with the aim to better capture households who are using choice based lettings when seeking social housing. This may have also affected comparisons over time, and therefore some caution should be used when comparing the 2017 results to earlier years.
The estimated share of households on a housing list has been calculated based on responses from the random adult but weighted to make it representative of households. This methodology is likely to slightly under-estimate the true figure due to assumptions which are discussed in Annex 2: Glossary.

To convert the SHS estimate into the corresponding number of adults, the SHS percentage is multiplied by the estimated adult population[28]. This results in an estimate that there were 220,000 adults in Scotland on housing lists for 2017. It is important to note that this estimate does not include children and that, where an adult is responsible for a child, the child will effectively also be on a housing list. A further 30,000 adults were estimated to have applied for social housing using a choice based letting system, or similar, in the last year.

Housing list statistics are more commonly reported in terms of the number of households on lists rather than the number of adults. Table 3.9 reported that five per cent of households were on a list, and in a similar way to adults, this is multiplied to give an estimate the total number of households, as set out in Table 3.11. This shows that an estimated 130,000 households are on a list, with a further 20,000 households estimated to have applied for social housing using a choice based letting system, or similar, in the last year.

3.4.1 Other Sources of Housing List Statistics

Housing list statistics are also reported in Housing Statistics for Scotland (HSfS)[29], which recorded 162,200 applicant households on Local Authority or Common Housing Register housing waiting or transfer lists as at 31 March 2017, compared with the estimate of 130,000 from the SHS. The Housing Statistics for Scotland figure includes some double counting of households who are on multiple housing lists. However, it also excludes six Local Authorities (including Glasgow) which have transferred all of their social housing stock to Housing Associations.

3.5 Private rented sector - changes between 1999 and 2017

As covered in previous sections, the private rented sector has seen significant growth in recent years, with the proportion of households living in this sector growing steadily from five per cent in 1999 to 15 per cent in 2016, an estimated increase of around a quarter of a million households from 120,000 to 370,000. In 2017, the sector remained at similar levels, with the estimated total of 360,000 households in the sector comprising 15 per cent of all households.

Given this increase in the size of the sector, there has been a high level of interest in understanding more about how the sector has changed over time. There is also likely to be interest in the coming years in assessing any impacts of the introduction of the new private residential tenancy, which came into effect on 1 December 2017 for all new tenancies.

This section provides information on trends in some of the key characteristics of private rented sector households between 1999 and 2017. For each characteristic of interest, results for each year are presented in three complementary ways:

(i) Privately renting households with each characteristic as a percentage of all households in the private rented sector. This will reflect changes in the composition of the sector.

(ii) The number of privately renting households with each characteristic.

(iii) Privately renting households[30] with each characteristic as a percentage of all Scottish households with that characteristic. This measure helps to distinguish whether a change in the composition of the private rented sector, as captured by (i), is due to a change in the relative importance of the private rented sector for households with the particular characteristic, or whether it reflects changes in the composition of the Scottish population.

Key characteristics that are covered are the urban / rural location of households, the age of the highest income householder, household composition, the economic status of adults in the sector, the average length of time at current address, and previous tenure. This information is covered in detail in Table 3.12 to Table 3.14.

3.5.1 Urban / Rural location of private rented households

Table 3.12 illustrates that the growth of the private rented sector over the years between 1999 and 2017 has largely been concentrated in urban areas. In 1999, the share of the private rented sector was higher in rural areas. In particular, the private rented sector accounted for 10 per cent of homes in remote rural areas, double the share across all locations (5 per cent). Since then, while there has been little growth in rural areas, the share of the private rented sector in urban areas and small towns has increased significantly, for example rising by 13 percentage points in large urban areas so that by 2017 one fifth (20 per cent) of households in these areas were living in the private rented sector. This is equivalent to an additional 110,000 households in large urban areas in 2017 compared with 1999, a nearly three-fold increase over this time period.

The share of privately renting households in ‘other urban’ areas (i.e. non-large urban areas) has increased by 10 percentage points over the same period to reach 13 per cent in 2017. This equates to an additional 90,000 privately renting households in ‘other urban’ areas, a nearly five-fold increase since 1999. This high growth rate is reflected in changes in the composition of the private rented sector, with the proportion of all privately renting households who live in ‘other urban’ areas rising by 16 percentage points over the period from 1999 to stand at 32 per cent in 2017. This increase has been compensated by a small decline in the share of households living in large urban areas, and larger declines in the share of privately renting households living in rural areas, with little change in the proportions living in small towns. As a result, in 2017 nearly four-fifths (79 per cent) of privately rented households were living in urban areas (either large urban areas or other urban areas).

3.5.2 Ages of private rented householders

Table 3.13 provides information on the age of households in the private rented sector over the period 1999 to 2017, based on the age of the highest income adult in each household.

This shows that the growth in the private rented sector between 1999 and 2017 has been greater for households with younger highest income householders, with all age groups except those aged 75 and over seeing an increase in the share living in the private rented sector. The proportion of all households aged 16 to 24 who are living in the private rented sector has increased from 30 per cent in 1999 up to 60 per cent in 2017, equivalent to an increase of 40,000 households.

The largest increase in the number of households has been in the age category 25 to 34 years, which has seen an increase of 80,000 households, from 40,000 households in 1999 to 120,000 households in 2017. For this age group, the share of households living in the private rented sector has increased from nine per cent in 1999 up to 34 per cent in 2017.

The share of households living in the private rented sector has also increased for households aged 35 to 44 years. Four per cent of this age group were living in private rented households in 1999, and this has since risen to 19 per cent in 2017, equivalent to an increase of 50,000 households.

This growth across almost all age categories means that the composition of the private rented sector has not changed significantly, with a small increase in the share of the private rented sector of households with a highest income householder between 25 and 59 offset by decreases in the shares of the 16-24 and over 60 age categories.

3.5.3 Household composition of private rented households

Table 3.14 shows that there has been substantial growth in the number of both single adult households as well as small adult households (i.e. a couple younger than pensionable age with no children) living in the private rented sector, increasing by an estimated 80,000 and 70,000 households respectively between 1999 and 2017.

As a result, over this period the share of all single adults who rent privately and the share of all small adult households who rent privately have both increased by 13 percentage points, to stand at 25 per cent and 20 per cent respectively in 2017. An even larger increase was seen in the single parent category, with the share of all single parent households who live in the private rented sector rising by 18 percentage points from 1999, so that almost a quarter (24 per cent) of single parents were renting privately by 2017, equivalent to an increase of 20,000 households from 10,000 to 30,000. The share of all small family households (i.e. households of two adults and one or two children) living in the private rented sector has also risen, from three per cent in 1999 to 14 per cent in 2017, equivalent to an increase of 10,000 households from 10,000 to 40,000.

In 1999, only two per cent of all older smaller households (i.e. two adults, at least one of pensionable age, and no children) and three per cent of all single pensioner households were living in the private rented sector. These proportions have remained at similar levels, standing at three per cent (10,000 households) and five per cent (20,000 households) respectively in 2017.

In terms of the composition of the private rented sector, there has been a small increase in the share of households with children, which has risen by 4 percentage points since 1999, so that in 2017 nearly a quarter (24 per cent) of all privately renting households were households with children. However it is worth noting that the private rented sector has a smaller share of large families, and so the proportion of all children living in the private sector is lower than 24 per cent. There were an estimated 150,000 children living in the private rented sector in 2017 (See Table 3.15), which equates to around 15 per cent of the 973,036 0-16 year olds in Scotland (mid-2017 population estimates).

3.5.4 Economic status of adults in private rented households

Table 3.15 provides information on the economic status of adults in privately renting households from 1999 to 2017. It is based on interview responses from the ‘random adult’ in the household, and so is representative of adults in private rented accommodation and not entire households. The results should therefore be considered in terms of the overall number of adults in privately renting households, which has estimated to have increased by 420,000 from 200,000 adults in 1999 to 620,000 adults in 2017.

There has been a large increase in the number of full time employed adults who are living in the private rented sector, with the number of adults increasing by an estimated 180,000 people between 1999 and 2017. In 1999, the share of all full time employed adults living the private rented sector was five per cent, but this has since risen to 16 per cent in 2017. This growth rate is reflected in changes to the composition of adults living in the private rented sector over time, with the proportion of adults renting privately who are working full time rising by 7 percentage points over the period from 1999 to stand at 41 per cent in 2017.

There has also been an increase in the number of adults in further or higher education who are living in the private rented sector, rising by an estimated 90,000 people between 1999 and 2017. In 1999, the share of all adults in further or higher education who were living in the private rented sector was 26 per cent, but by 2017 over half (56 per cent) of all adults in further or higher education were living in the private rented sector. Despite this increase, the share of all private renting adults who are in further or higher education was at similar level in 2017 (20 per cent) as in 1999 (22 per cent) due to the overall growth of the sector.

Consistent with the finding in Section 3.5.3 that there has been an increase in share of households with children in the private rented sector, the share of all adults looking after the home or family living in the private rented sector has risen from three per cent in 1999 to 20 per cent in 2017, an increase from 10,000 to 40,000 households.

Ten per cent of all adults in the private rented sector in 1999 were permanently retired from work, and this proportion has fallen to six per cent by 2017. However, given the increase in the sector as whole, this lower share still equates to an increase in the number of permanently retired adults renting privately, rising from an estimated 20,000 adults in 1999 to 40,000 adults in 2017.

3.5.5 Length of time at current address, and previous tenure, of adults in private rented households

Table 3.16 provides information on the length of time at current address, along with information on the previous tenure, of adults in private rented households. It is based on interview responses from the ‘random adult’ in the household, and therefore is representative of adults in private rented accommodation and not entire households. Information on length of tenure is available from 1999 to 2017, whilst information on previous tenure is available from 2009 to 2017.

As with the previous results on the economic status of adults, the results should be considered in terms of the overall number of adults in private rented households, which is estimated to have increased by 420,000 from 200,000 adults in 1999 to 620,000 adults in 2017.

The growth in the private rented sector has brought about some changes to the profile of adults in the sector in terms of the length of time that people have been living at their current address. Within the private rented sector as a whole, there have been falls since 1999 in the percentages of adults that have been resident at their address for less than a year (46 per cent in 1999, down to 35 per cent in 2017), and at their address for 11 or more years (11 per cent in 1999, down to six per cent in 2017), with increases seen for those at their address for 1 to 2 years (23 per cent in 1999, up to 32 per cent in 2017) and for those at their address for 3 to 10 years (20 per cent in 1999, up to 27 per cent in 2017).

However it is important to note that any changes to these profiles over time are likely to reflect in part changes to the underlying composition of the sector over time, such as the increase of the share of properties located in urban or small town areas, which have different underlying profiles for lengths of stay.

The long term trend in the average length of time at current address shows a slightly downward trajectory through most years within the period, however this may be reflecting the change in the composition of the sector in terms of the growth in the number of properties in urban areas, households which generally have shorter lengths of stay on average than compared to properties in small town or rural areas. The average length of stay for adults living in private rented households in urban areas has been relatively steady between 1999 and 2017, with averages of 2 years being seen for most years.

Where adults have been at their current address for less than one year, information is available on the previous tenure of these adults. Sample sizes are relatively low for this, so some caution should be used when comparing trends over time. The results show that in 2017 almost 8 in 10 (79 per cent) of adults in private sector accommodation had moved into their current address in the last year from either other private sector accommodation (55 per cent) or from their parental / family home (24 per cent). These percentages both appear to have remained relatively stable over the years 2009 to 2017. Equating these figures to numbers of adults shows that during 2017, of the estimated 620,000 adults living in private sector accommodation, around 220,000 adults had been living at their address for less than one year, and of these 120,000 had moved from another private sector household and 50,000 had moved from a parental or family home.

Table 3.12: Urban Rural Location of private rented households, by year
Column percentages and household estimates, 1999 to 2017 data

  1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017
Estimated number of households in the private rented sector 120,000 120,000 140,000 140,000 140,000 160,000 170,000 180,000 210,000 210,000 240,000 260,000 270,000 320,000 320,000 330,000 350,000 370,000 360,000
Urban / Rural Classification of private rented sector households (percentages of all private rented households):
Large urban areas 50 51 52 53 53 52 55 55 50 52 52 53 52 50 50 51 47 46 47
Other urban areas 16 18 18 20 17 18 18 20 24 20 23 24 23 26 26 25 32 31 32
Accessible small towns 6 5 6 4 5 5 5 5 4 5 4 6 5 6 6 7 6 7 7
Remote small towns 2 4 4 2 3 3 3 3 4 4 3 3 3 4 3 3 2 3 2
Accessible rural 17 12 14 12 13 14 11 10 11 11 12 10 11 10 9 9 7 8 8
Remote rural 10 10 8 9 9 8 7 7 8 7 6 4 6 5 5 5 6 4 5
As approximate number of private rented households:
Large urban areas 60,000 60,000 70,000 70,000 70,000 80,000 90,000 100,000 100,000 110,000 120,000 140,000 140,000 160,000 160,000 170,000 160,000 170,000 170,000
Other urban areas 20,000 20,000 20,000 30,000 20,000 30,000 30,000 40,000 50,000 40,000 60,000 60,000 60,000 80,000 80,000 80,000 110,000 110,000 110,000
Accessible small towns 10,000 10,000 10,000 10,000 10,000 10,000 10,000 10,000 10,000 10,000 10,000 20,000 10,000 20,000 20,000 20,000 20,000 30,000 20,000
Remote small towns - - 10,000 - - - 10,000 - 10,000 10,000 10,000 10,000 10,000 10,000 10,000 10,000 10,000 10,000 10,000
Accessible rural 20,000 10,000 20,000 20,000 20,000 20,000 20,000 20,000 20,000 20,000 30,000 30,000 30,000 30,000 30,000 30,000 30,000 30,000 30,000
Remote rural 10,000 10,000 10,000 10,000 10,000 10,000 10,000 10,000 20,000 10,000 10,000 10,000 20,000 10,000 20,000 20,000 20,000 20,000 20,000
Base 700 790 870 820 830 960 1,030 1,040 960 980 1,150 1,230 1,300 1,160 1,160 1,180 1,200 1,270 1,250
For each urban/rural category, private rented households as a proportion of all households:
Large urban areas 7 8 8 8 9 9 10 11 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 19 19 19 20
Other urban areas 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 5 7 6 8 9 9 12 11 10 13 13 13
Accessible small towns 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 5 5 8 7 10 9 11 10 12 11
Remote small towns 3 6 8 5 7 7 5 5 8 9 9 7 8 12 11 10 8 11 9
Accessible rural 8 5 7 6 7 8 8 6 8 10 11 9 11 12 11 11 10 11 11
Remote rural 10 10 9 11 10 10 9 8 12 11 9 9 11 9 11 13 13 11 11
All areas 5 6 6 6 6 7 8 8 9 9 10 11 11 13 13 14 14 15 15
Base 13,780 14,560 14,610 14,040 13,970 14,780 14,070 14,190 12,240 12,370 12,540 12,440 12,890 9,890 9,920 9,800 9,400 9,640 9,810

Table 3.13: Age of Highest Income Householder in Private Rented Households, by year
Column percentages and population estimates, 1999 to 2017 data

  1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017
Estimated number of households in the private rented sector 120,000 120,000 140,000 140,000 140,000 160,000 170,000 180,000 210,000 210,000 240,000 260,000 270,000 320,000 320,000 330,000 350,000 370,000 360,000
Age of highest income householder (percentages of all private rented households):
16 to 24 22 24 25 26 23 21 22 21 22 23 22 23 22 19 18 19 19 19 19
25 to 34 31 32 32 30 31 32 32 31 33 32 35 34 35 37 37 36 37 33 33
35 to 44 17 20 17 18 18 20 20 18 18 19 18 19 19 19 20 20 18 19 20
45 to 59 14 13 13 13 15 16 14 17 14 15 14 14 14 17 16 15 16 18 17
60 to 74 9 7 6 9 7 7 8 10 7 6 7 7 7 6 7 7 7 8 8
75 plus 6 5 6 5 5 4 4 4 5 5 4 3 3 3 2 3 2 3 3
As approximate number of private rented households:
16 to 24 30,000 30,000 40,000 40,000 30,000 30,000 40,000 40,000 50,000 50,000 50,000 60,000 60,000 60,000 60,000 60,000 70,000 70,000 70,000
25 to 34 40,000 40,000 40,000 40,000 40,000 50,000 50,000 60,000 70,000 70,000 80,000 90,000 90,000 120,000 120,000 120,000 130,000 120,000 120,000
35 to 44 20,000 20,000 20,000 20,000 30,000 30,000 30,000 30,000 40,000 40,000 40,000 50,000 50,000 60,000 60,000 70,000 60,000 70,000 70,000
45 to 59 20,000 20,000 20,000 20,000 20,000 30,000 20,000 30,000 30,000 30,000 30,000 40,000 40,000 50,000 50,000 50,000 60,000 60,000 60,000
60 to 74 10,000 10,000 10,000 10,000 10,000 10,000 10,000 20,000 10,000 10,000 20,000 20,000 20,000 20,000 20,000 20,000 20,000 30,000 30,000
75 plus 10,000 10,000 10,000 10,000 10,000 10,000 10,000 10,000 10,000 10,000 10,000 10,000 10,000 10,000 10,000 10,000 10,000 10,000 10,000
Base 700 790 870 820 830 960 1,030 1,040 960 980 1,150 1,230 1,300 1,160 1,160 1,180 1,200 1,270 1,250
For each age category, private rented households as a proportion of all households:
16 to 24 30 32 37 38 37 36 42 40 44 45 46 52 51 51 51 59 55 57 60
25 to 34 9 11 12 12 13 15 17 18 21 21 26 26 28 33 35 35 37 34 34
35 to 44 4 5 5 5 6 7 8 7 8 9 9 11 12 14 15 16 16 18 19
45 to 59 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 5 5 5 5 6 6 8 7 7 8 9 9
60 to 74 2 2 2 3 2 2 3 4 3 2 3 3 4 3 4 4 4 5 5
75 plus 3 2 3 2 3 2 2 2 3 3 3 2 3 3 2 3 3 3 3
All ages 5 6 6 6 6 7 8 8 9 9 10 11 11 13 13 14 14 15 15
Base 14,680 15,550 15,570 15,070 14,880 15,940 15,400 15,620 13,410 13,810 14,190 14,210 14,360 10,640 10,650 10,630 10,330 10,470 10,680

Table 3.14: Household composition of private rented households, by year
Column percentages and households estimates, 1999 to 2017 data

  1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017
Estimated number of households in the private rented sector 120,000 120,000 140,000 140,000 140,000 160,000 170,000 180,000 210,000 210,000 240,000 260,000 270,000 320,000 320,000 330,000 350,000 370,000 360,000
Household composition (percentages of all private rented households):
Large adult 7 11 6 10 7 5 7 6 7 7 7 8 8 5 6 6 5 6 6
Large family 5 4 3 3 4 4 4 3 4 4 3 4 5 4 3 4 4 4 4
Older smaller 6 3 5 4 4 3 4 4 3 4 3 3 4 3 3 2 3 2 2
Single adult 38 37 42 38 40 38 37 37 36 33 34 33 33 34 34 33 35 37 37
Single parent 7 9 8 10 8 10 10 9 8 9 9 10 10 11 10 9 9 10 8
Single pensioner 8 7 6 8 6 5 6 7 7 7 5 5 6 5 5 6 4 6 5
Small adult 20 20 21 19 21 24 22 26 25 27 29 25 23 26 27 28 27 26 25
Small family 8 10 9 8 9 10 10 8 10 9 9 11 12 12 12 13 11 11 12
As approximate number of private rented households:
Large adult 10,000 10,000 10,000 10,000 10,000 10,000 10,000 10,000 10,000 20,000 20,000 20,000 20,000 20,000 20,000 20,000 20,000 20,000 20,000
Large family 10,000 10,000 - - 10,000 10,000 10,000 10,000 10,000 10,000 10,000 10,000 10,000 10,000 10,000 10,000 10,000 10,000 20,000
Older smaller 10,000 - 10,000 10,000 10,000 10,000 10,000 10,000 10,000 10,000 10,000 10,000 10,000 10,000 10,000 10,000 10,000 10,000 10,000
Single adult 50,000 40,000 60,000 50,000 60,000 60,000 60,000 70,000 80,000 70,000 80,000 90,000 90,000 110,000 110,000 110,000 120,000 140,000 130,000
Single parent 10,000 10,000 10,000 10,000 10,000 20,000 20,000 20,000 20,000 20,000 20,000 30,000 30,000 30,000 30,000 30,000 30,000 40,000 30,000
Single pensioner 10,000 10,000 10,000 10,000 10,000 10,000 10,000 10,000 10,000 10,000 10,000 10,000 20,000 20,000 10,000 20,000 10,000 20,000 20,000
Small adult 20,000 20,000 30,000 30,000 30,000 40,000 40,000 50,000 50,000 60,000 70,000 70,000 60,000 80,000 90,000 90,000 100,000 90,000 90,000
Small family 10,000 10,000 10,000 10,000 10,000 20,000 20,000 10,000 20,000 20,000 20,000 30,000 30,000 40,000 40,000 40,000 40,000 40,000 40,000
Base 700 790 870 820 830 960 1,030 1,040 960 980 1,150 1,230 1,300 1,160 1,160 1,180 1,200 1,270 1,250
For each household composition category, private rented households as a proportion of all households:
Large adult 5 6 5 7 6 4 6 7 8 8 9 10 9 8 10 9 10 11 11
Large family 4 4 3 4 4 5 5 4 7 6 5 7 10 9 9 10 12 11 13
Older smaller 2 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 2 3 3 3 2 3 3 3
Single adult 12 12 16 13 14 15 16 15 17 16 16 19 20 23 23 23 23 25 25
Single parent 6 9 9 10 9 12 12 12 13 16 16 20 21 25 22 24 26 27 24
Single pensioner 3 2 2 3 2 2 3 3 4 3 4 3 4 4 3 4 4 5 5
Small adult 6 7 8 7 8 10 11 12 13 15 16 17 16 20 22 23 21 20 20
Small family 3 4 4 4 4 5 6 5 7 7 8 10 11 14 13 14 14 14 14
All types of households 5 6 6 6 6 7 8 8 9 9 10 11 11 13 13 14 14 15 15
Base 14,680 15,550 15,570 15,070 14,880 15,940 15,400 15,620 13,410 13,810 14,190 14,210 14,360 10,640 10,650 10,630 10,330 10,470 10,680

Table 3.15: Economic Situation of adults in private rented households, by year
Column percentages and households estimates, 1999 to 2017 data

  1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017
Estimated number of households in the private rented sector 120,000 120,000 140,000 140,000 140,000 160,000 170,000 180,000 210,000 210,000 240,000 260,000 270,000 320,000 320,000 330,000 350,000 370,000 360,000
Estimated number of children 40,000 50,000 50,000 50,000 50,000 60,000 70,000 60,000 80,000 80,000 80,000 100,000 120,000 140,000 120,000 130,000 150,000 150,000 150,000
Estimated number of adults 200,000 210,000 220,000 230,000 230,000 260,000 290,000 300,000 360,000 370,000 420,000 450,000 460,000 530,000 550,000 560,000 590,000 610,000 620,000
Estimated number of people 240,000 260,000 270,000 290,000 290,000 320,000 360,000 350,000 440,000 450,000 500,000 550,000 580,000 670,000 670,000 690,000 740,000 750,000 770,000
Economic situation of adults (percentages of all adults in private rented households):
Self employed 6 6 5 6 5 5 6 5 7 5 5 5 6 8 6 6 7 8 6
Employed full time 34 34 37 32 37 41 37 40 41 42 40 38 40 40 44 44 44 41 41
Employed part time 8 6 6 5 8 7 7 8 7 9 10 9 10 9 8 7 9 8 9
Looking after the home or family 5 6 8 9 9 8 10 8 8 9 6 7 6 6 8 7 7 8 7
Permanently retired from work 10 8 9 8 7 7 8 8 6 6 7 5 6 6 5 5 5 6 6
Unemployed and seeking work 8 7 7 7 6 6 6 5 5 4 9 11 6 7 7 5 6 5 4
At school - 2 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 2
In further / higher education 22 27 22 27 22 19 21 20 19 20 19 21 20 17 17 21 18 20 20
Gov't work or training scheme 1 0 0 0 0 1 - 0 0 0 0 0 - 0 0 - - 0 0
Permanently sick or disabled 4 3 4 4 4 4 4 3 4 3 3 2 3 4 3 2 2 2 4
Unable to work because of short-term illness or injury 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1
Other 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 -
As approximate number of adults in private rented households:
Self employed 10,000 10,000 10,000 10,000 10,000 10,000 20,000 10,000 20,000 20,000 20,000 20,000 30,000 40,000 30,000 30,000 40,000 50,000 40,000
Employed full time 70,000 70,000 80,000 70,000 80,000 110,000 110,000 120,000 150,000 150,000 170,000 170,000 180,000 210,000 240,000 250,000 260,000 250,000 250,000
Employed part time 20,000 10,000 10,000 10,000 20,000 20,000 20,000 30,000 30,000 30,000 40,000 40,000 50,000 50,000 40,000 40,000 50,000 50,000 60,000
Looking after the home or family 10,000 10,000 20,000 20,000 20,000 20,000 30,000 20,000 30,000 30,000 30,000 30,000 30,000 30,000 50,000 40,000 40,000 50,000 40,000
Permanently retired from work 20,000 20,000 20,000 20,000 20,000 20,000 20,000 20,000 20,000 20,000 30,000 20,000 30,000 30,000 30,000 30,000 30,000 40,000 40,000
Unemployed and seeking work 20,000 10,000 10,000 20,000 10,000 10,000 20,000 20,000 20,000 20,000 40,000 50,000 30,000 40,000 40,000 30,000 30,000 30,000 20,000
At school - - - - - - - - - - - - 10,000 10,000 10,000 10,000 10,000 10,000 10,000
In further / higher education 40,000 60,000 50,000 60,000 50,000 50,000 60,000 60,000 70,000 80,000 80,000 90,000 90,000 90,000 90,000 120,000 100,000 120,000 130,000
Gov't work or training scheme - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Permanently sick or disabled 10,000 10,000 10,000 10,000 10,000 10,000 10,000 10,000 20,000 10,000 10,000 10,000 10,000 20,000 20,000 10,000 10,000 10,000 20,000
Unable to work because of short-term illness or injury - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 10,000 - - 10,000
Other - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Base 700 790 870 820 830 960 1,030 1,040 960 980 1,150 1,230 1,300 1,160 1,160 1,180 1,200 1,270 1,250
For each economic status category, private rented adults as a proportion of all adults:
Self employed 6 7 6 8 6 8 9 7 11 9 8 10 11 16 13 15 17 18 15
Employed full time 5 5 6 5 6 7 7 8 9 10 11 12 12 14 15 16 17 16 16
Employed part time 4 3 4 3 5 4 5 6 6 8 9 9 10 11 10 9 12 12 12
Looking after the home or family 3 4 6 7 7 8 12 9 11 13 11 14 14 16 18 20 18 21 20
Permanently retired from work 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 2 2 3 2 3 3 3 3 3 4 3
Unemployed and seeking work 9 8 11 11 9 10 14 11 12 11 17 20 13 17 17 15 24 19 17
At school . 5 3 4 2 4 2 3 3 2 5 4 9 7 8 8 9 9 16
In further / higher education 26 35 32 32 29 29 34 33 31 38 38 40 40 42 41 49 46 48 56
Gov't work or training scheme 11 1 7 3 4 20 - 4 16 10 13 7 - 26 27 - - 26 62
Permanently sick or disabled 4 4 5 4 5 6 6 5 8 6 6 4 8 11 10 8 9 8 13
Unable to work because of short-term illness or injury 10 6 7 11 10 14 6 7 9 9 12 10 12 24 6 20 11 13 27
Other (specify) 3 10 3 4 9 10 11 10 7 7 3 17 17 20 28 11 5 28 -
All adults 5 6 6 6 6 7 8 8 9 9 10 11 11 13 13 13 14 14 15
Base 13,780 14,560 14,640 14,040 13,970 14,780 14,070 14,190 12,240 12,370 12,540 12,440 12,890 9,890 9,920 9,800 9,410 9,640 9,810

Table 3.16: Length of time at address in private rented households, by year
Column percentages and households estimates, 1999 to 2017 data

  1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017
Estimated households in the sector 120,000 120,000 140,000 140,000 140,000 160,000 170,000 180,000 210,000 210,000 240,000 260,000 270,000 320,000 320,000 330,000 350,000 370,000 360,000
Estimated number of children 40,000 50,000 50,000 50,000 50,000 60,000 70,000 60,000 80,000 80,000 80,000 100,000 120,000 140,000 120,000 130,000 150,000 150,000 150,000
Estimated number of adults 200,000 210,000 220,000 230,000 230,000 260,000 290,000 300,000 360,000 370,000 420,000 450,000 460,000 530,000 550,000 560,000 590,000 610,000 620,000
Estimated number of people 240,000 260,000 270,000 290,000 290,000 320,000 360,000 350,000 440,000 450,000 500,000 550,000 580,000 670,000 670,000 690,000 740,000 750,000 770,000
Length of time at current address (percentages of all adults in private rented households):
Less than one year 46 45 48 52 46 47 46 45 49 47 39 42 42 44 40 44 43 41 35
1 to 2 years 23 27 25 21 30 26 26 27 28 28 30 30 29 29 30 27 28 27 32
3 to 4 years 11 11 10 11 7 9 11 11 10 8 10 11 13 13 14 14 14 15 15
5 to 10 years 9 7 7 7 8 9 9 9 7 9 9 10 9 9 10 10 10 12 12
11 to 20 years 6 5 5 4 5 4 4 4 3 5 5 3 4 4 3 4 4 3 4
More than 20 years 6 4 4 5 4 4 3 3 4 3 7 3 3 1 3 2 2 2 2
As approximate number of adults in private rented households:
Less than one year 90,000 100,000 110,000 120,000 110,000 120,000 130,000 140,000 180,000 170,000 170,000 190,000 190,000 230,000 220,000 240,000 250,000 250,000 220,000
1 to 2 years 50,000 60,000 50,000 50,000 70,000 70,000 80,000 80,000 100,000 100,000 130,000 140,000 140,000 150,000 160,000 150,000 170,000 160,000 200,000
3 to 4 years 20,000 20,000 20,000 30,000 20,000 20,000 30,000 30,000 30,000 30,000 40,000 50,000 60,000 70,000 80,000 80,000 80,000 90,000 90,000
5 to 10 years 20,000 10,000 20,000 20,000 20,000 20,000 30,000 30,000 30,000 30,000 40,000 50,000 40,000 50,000 50,000 50,000 60,000 70,000 80,000
11 to 20 years 10,000 10,000 10,000 10,000 10,000 10,000 10,000 10,000 10,000 20,000 20,000 10,000 20,000 20,000 20,000 20,000 20,000 20,000 20,000
More than 20 years 10,000 10,000 10,000 10,000 10,000 10,000 10,000 10,000 10,000 10,000 30,000 10,000 10,000 10,000 20,000 10,000 10,000 10,000 10,000
Average time at current address 4.3 3.5 3.6 3.8 3.5 3.2 3.3 3.0 3.0 3.5 4.5 2.8 3.0 2.5 3.0 2.7 2.7 2.8 3.0
Base 700 790 870 820 830 960 1,030 1,040 960 980 1,150 1,230 1,300 1,160 1,160 1,180 1,200 1,270 1,250
Average time (years) - urban areas 2.9 2.6 2.1 2.4 2.6 1.9 2.3 2.2 2.0 2.0 3.6 2.0 2.1 1.8 2.3 1.9 2.2 2.1 2.4
Base 410 500 540 520 520 620 690 730 640 650 780 840 890 800 810 810 840 910 920
Average time (years) - small towns 3.4 3.3 3.0 3.3 2.1 1.9 1.9 2.0 1.3 3.4 4.0 3.2 2.5 3.2 2.8 3.1 2.3 3.3 3.6
Base 70 90 110 80 90 90 100 100 80 120 120 130 140 150 140 150 150 160 130
Average time (years) - rural areas 8.1 6.5 9.1 8.6 6.6 7.9 7.7 7.4 7.0 9.9 8.7 6.7 7.5 6.1 6.6 6.4 5.5 6.4 6.7
Base 230 210 210 210 220 250 240 220 240 220 260 210 270 210 210 220 210 200 200
Tenure of previous address* (percentages of all adults in private rented households):
Owned outright n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a 2 2 3 4 3 2 4 5 5
Buying with help of loan/mortgage n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a 8 6 7 10 11 9 8 7 8
Private Rented n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a 56 57 54 53 55 52 56 55 55
Rent – Local authority n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a 4 3 5 4 5 5 3 2 3
Rent - Housing association/Coop/Charitable trust n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 2 2
Other n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a 3 2 3 5 3 4 4 3 3
In parental/family home n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a 24 28 26 23 21 27 24 26 24
As approximate number of adults in private rented households:
Owned outright n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a - - 10,000 10,000 10,000 - 10,000 10,000 10,000
Buying with help of loan/mortgage n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a 10,000 10,000 10,000 20,000 20,000 20,000 20,000 20,000 20,000
Private Rented n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a 90,000 110,000 100,000 120,000 120,000 130,000 140,000 140,000 120,000
Rent – Local authority n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a 10,000 10,000 10,000 10,000 10,000 10,000 10,000 10,000 10,000
Rent - Housing association/Coop/Charitable trust n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a - - - - - - - - -
Other n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a 10,000 - - 10,000 10,000 10,000 10,000 10,000 10,000
In parental/family home n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a 40,000 50,000 50,000 50,000 50,000 70,000 60,000 60,000 50,000
Base n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a 450 500 510 460 450 480 460 470 430

* asked of those who have lived at their current address for less than one year


Contact

Emma McCallum