Information

Racist Incidents Recorded by the Police in Scotland, 2011-12

Racist Incidents Recorded by the Police in Scotland, 2011-12


3. Commentary

The statistics on racist incidents are used to inform National Outcome 9 – 'we live our lives safe from crime, disorder and danger', National Outcome 11 – 'we have strong, resilient and supportive communities where people take responsibility for their own actions and how they affect others', as well as The Strategy for Justice in Scotland.

3.1. Incidents Recorded by the Police (tables 1, and 2 and charts 1 and 2)

  • In 2011-12, there was a total of 5,389 racist incidents recorded by the police in Scotland, a 10% increase on the 4,911 racist incidents recorded in 2010-11. This is the first increase in the number of racist incidents recorded by the police in the last five years
  • Grampian and Tayside recorded decreases in the number of racist incidents (8% and 5% respectively) between 2010-11 and 2011-12. The other six police forces all recorded an increase over the two year period ranging from 3% in Dumfries and Galloway to 37% in Northern.
  • The number of racist incidents, as a rate per 10,000 population, is generally higher in urban areas. In 2011-12, the number of racist incidents recorded per head of population was highest in Glasgow City (25.0 per 10,000 population), followed by City of Edinburgh (20.5 per 10,000 population) and Aberdeen City (19.5 per 10,000 population).
  • It should be noted that there are a number of factors that may influence the number of racist incidents recorded by the police. One reason is that police forces work with a range of victim support agencies to encourage reporting of such incidents. Other factors may be an increasing public intolerance of such behaviour, and increased public confidence that reporting such incidents is worthwhile. There have also been improvements in data collection by police forces, while the introduction of centralised call centres has encouraged the reporting of incidents. For example, in 2010-11, Fife attribute the increase in the number of racist incidents recorded in their area, from 2009-10 to 2010-11, to a revamp of their systems supporting the production of the data in April 2010, resulting in a more accurate number of racist incidents being recorded.
  • Users of the statistics should note that data on the number of racist incidents recorded in Scotland is only available from 2004-05 onwards.

3.2. Detail of the Incidents (tables 3, 4, 5, and 6, and charts 3 and 4)

  • Various details were recorded in relation to each racist incident, such as the location where the incident took place, the date and time of the incident, and whether a crime was recorded as part of the incident.

Chart 2 Racist Incidents recorded by the police per 10,000 population in 2011-12

Chart 2 Racist Incidents recorded by the police per 10,000 population in 2011-12

Chart 3 Location of racist incidents, Scotland, 2011-12

Chart 3 Location of racist incidents, Scotland, 2011-12
  • The most common locations (where known) for an incident in 2011-12 were the street (34%), a dwelling house (19%) and in a shop (17%). Other locations included a pub/ place of entertainment (7%) and restaurant / takeaway (6%).

Chart 4 Racist Incidents by weekday and time, 2004-05 to 2011-12

Chart 4 Racist Incidents by weekday and time, 2004-05 to 2011-12

  • In 2011-12, the most common time of year at which racist incidents occurred was during July to September, although this varies from year to year. Just over half of all racist incidents (52%) were recorded between Friday and Sunday, with the remaining 48% spread fairly evenly throughout the other four days of the week. Chart 4 shows that racist incidents peak between 6pm and midnight on every day of the week (Table 5).
  • In 2011-12, where the person making the initial report about the incident was known, 69% of incidents were reported to the police by the victim, which is a 4 percentage point decrease on 2010-11. This proportion has been decreasing steadily since 2004-05 where 86% of incidents were reported by the victim. There have been steady increases in the percentage of incidents reported by witnesses (14% in 2011-12 compared to 4% in 2004-05) and the police (11% in 2011-12 compared to 4% in 2004-05). Information for 2009-10 onwards excludes Lothian & Borders, who were unable to provide data on who reported the incident (see note 4.3).

3.3. Crimes Recorded (tables 1, 7a, and 7b)

  • In 2011-12, 99% of racist incidents recorded by the police resulted in one or more crimes being recorded.
  • There was a total of 6,472 crimes recorded as part of racist incidents recorded in 2011-12, a 5% increase on the 6,173 crimes recorded in 2010-11. This is the first increase in the number of crimes recorded as part of a racist incident since 2007-08.
  • In 2011-12, the crime/offence most frequently recorded as part of a racist incident was racially aggravated conduct, which accounted for 57% of all crimes recorded. Other crimes/offences recorded as part of a racist incident included breach of the peace etc. (19%), common assault (12%) and fire-raising / vandalism (5%). In 2011-12, these four crimes and offences account for 93% of all crime and offences recorded as part of a racist incident. Definitions of racially aggravated conduct and racially aggravated harassment are included in note 4.6. Please also note that Minor Assault has been renamed Common Assault, and that Crimes of Indecency have been renamed Sexual Offences.
  • Overall, 68% of all crimes recorded by the police as part of a racist incident in 2011-12 were cleared up, up one percentage point from 2010-11. The clear-up rate varies depending on the crime recorded as part of the incident, with 38% of crimes involving fire-raising, vandalism being cleared up in 2011-12, compared to a clear-up rate of 75% for racially aggravated conduct. However, note that there were 325 crimes of fire-raising, vandalism recorded as part of an incident, compared to 3,658 offences of racially aggravated conduct. The clear-up rate for racially aggravated conduct has shown an increase every year since recording began, from the 56% cleared up in 2004-05. The definition of 'cleared-up' can be found in note 4.5.

3.4. Victims of Racist Incidents (tables 8, 10 and 11 and chart 5)

  • Where ethnic origin was known, 44% of victims were of Asian origin (that is Indian, Pakistani, Bangladeshi, Chinese or Other Asian), the largest group being Pakistani (23%). Based on the 2001 Census figures, the largest minority ethnic group in the Scottish population is Pakistani (note 4.10). The second largest ethnic group of victims of racist incidents in 2011-12 was White British (22%).
  • Where age and gender was known, almost three quarters of victims of racist incidents recorded in 2011-12 were male, and this has remained relatively unchanged from previous years. Both males and females are most at risk of being a victim of a racist incidents when aged 26 to 35 years (46 per 10,000 population and 15 per 10,000 population, respectively).

Chart 5 Rate per 10,000 population of victims and perpetrators of racist incidents, by age and gender of victim, Scotland, 2011-12

Chart 5 Rate per 10,000 population of victims and perpetrators of racist incidents, by age and gender of victim, Scotland, 2011-12

  • In 2011-12, where the number of previous incidents occurring within the previous two years, reported to the police by the victim was known, 75% of victims were doing so for the first time, while 15% of victims had previously reported one or two racist incidents to the police. Note that these percentages were based on those incidents for which previous incident information was known. When recording whether the victim had reported previous racist incidents within the previous two years to the police, it was not always possible to determine the number of incidents previously reported. These have been described as 'unknown' in the table. 'Unknown' will also include victims for whom it was not known if they were a repeat victim or not. Central Scotland police force was unable to provide information for 2010-11 and 2011-12 on the number of previous incidents reported by the victim.

3.5. Perpetrators of Racist Incidents (tables 12, 13, 14 and 15 and chart 5)

  • Information about perpetrators of racist incidents may only be fully available where the incident was resolved, and any crime involved has been cleared up (see note 4.5 for definition of cleared up).
  • Where information on perpetrators was available, in 2011-12, 95% of perpetrators were of white origin, including White British (83%), White Irish (1%) and Other White (11%) (which includes Gypsy / Traveller and Polish White)
  • Where age and gender was known, 40% of perpetrators in 2011-12 were aged 20 or under, with 21% of perpetrators under the age of 16 years, and therefore making them eligible for referral to the Scottish Children's Reporter Administration (SCRA) rather than the Procurator Fiscal.
  • Males accounted for 78% of perpetrators of racist incidents recorded by the police in 2011-12. There were 373 perpetrators whose age and/or gender were not recorded and these were not included when calculating the relevant percentages above.
  • Perpetrators of a racist incident were more likely to be aged 16 to 20 years for both males (45 per 10,000 population) and females (10 per 10,000 population). This age group has the highest rate per 10,000 population for both males and females in each year covered by the statistical bulletin.

Chart 6 Action taken against perpetrators of Racist Incidents, Scotland, 2011-12

Chart 6 Action taken against perpetrators of Racist Incidents, Scotland, 2011-12

  • Where police action taken was known, 75% of perpetrators in 2011-12 were referred to the Procurator Fiscal or SCRA, while 1% received a police warning. No further action was taken against 9% of perpetrators of racist incidents recorded by the police in 2011-11. Information for 2011-12 was based on all forces apart from Lothian & Borders, who were unable to provide data on the police action taken with regard to the perpetrator (see note 4.3).

Table 1 Racist incidents recorded, by police force area, 2004-05 to 2011-12
Number

Police force 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 2010-11 2011-12
Central Total Incidents
Incidents which involved 1 or more crimes
Total Crimes
280
275
402
355
354
571
357
348
525
336
336
522
381
381
566
267
263
404
278
271
337
332
323
403
Dumfries and Galloway Total Incidents
Incidents which involved 1 or more crimes
Total Crimes
78
69
85
89
73
91
102
71
95
64
58
58
98
82
95
78
67
74
66
62
69
68
61
64
Fife1 Total Incidents
Incidents which involved 1 or more crimes
Total Crimes
302
276
464
241
205
355
193
193
271
149
149
218
138
138
187
139
139
177
209
209
260
220
216
252
Grampian Total Incidents
Incidents which involved 1 or more crimes
Total Crimes
437
435
701
386
386
674
439
435
877
391
389
735
621
605
1,072
624
621
1,158
629
613
906
577
577
801
Lothian and Borders Total Incidents
Incidents which involved 1 or more crimes
Total Crimes
814
814
913
1,292
1,280
1,306
1,521
1,521
1,543
1,391
1,390
1,493
1,112
1,112
1,366
1,158
1,154
1,348
1,083
1,083
1,368
1,337
1,337
1,579
Northern Total Incidents
Incidents which involved 1 or more crimes
Total Crimes
123
116
217
128
128
143
123
113
144
140
130
188
138
138
139
89
88
89
78
67
94
107
90
94
Strathclyde Total Incidents
Incidents which involved 1 or more crimes
Total Crimes
2,152
1,939
2,620
2,216
2,074
2,900
2,213
2,050
2,823
2,396
2,192
3,082
2,289
2,212
2,824
2,321
2,269
2,896
2,284
2,190
2,812
2,478
2,438
2,969
Tayside Total Incidents
Incidents which involved 1 or more crimes
Total Crimes
333
332
332
405
405
404
374
374
376
380
380
380
368
368
368
284
284
324
284
284
327
270
270
310
Scotland Total Incidents
Incidents which involved 1 or more crimes
Total Crimes
4,519
4,256
5,734
5,112
4,905
6,444
5,322
5,105
6,654
5,247
5,024
6,676
5,145
5,036
6,617
4,960
4,885
6,470
4,911
4,779
6,173
5,389
5,312
6,472

1. In April 2010, a revamp of the Fife police force systems which supports the production of racist incidents data has resulted in an increased and more accurate number of racist incidents being recorded in 2010-11.

Table 2 Racist incidents recorded, by local authority area, 2004-05 to 2011-12
Number and rate per 10,000 population

2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 2010-11 2011-12
Local Authority Number Rate per 10,000 population1 Number Rate per 10,000 population1 Number Rate per 10,000 population1 Number Rate per 10,000 population1 Number Rate per 10,000 population1 Number Rate per 10,000 population1 Number Rate per 10,000 population1 Number Rate per 10,000 population1
Aberdeen City 313 15 267 13 309 15 322 15 483 23 451 21 464 21 429 19
Aberdeenshire 86 4 75 3 88 4 31 1 107 4 90 4 90 4 96 4
Angus 46 4 66 6 55 5 50 5 65 6 45 4 49 4 55 5
Argyll & Bute 33 4 25 3 43 5 34 4 25 3 26 3 32 4 45 5
Clackmannanshire 50 10 49 10 58 12 58 12 53 10 41 8 35 7 68 13
Dumfries & Galloway 78 5 89 6 102 7 64 4 98 7 78 5 66 4 68 5
Dundee City 217 15 246 17 242 17 244 17 215 15 160 11 157 11 154 11
East Ayrshire 75 6 67 6 78 7 69 6 71 6 81 7 74 6 70 6
East Dunbartonshire 41 4 33 3 33 3 42 4 38 4 41 4 40 4 31 3
East Lothian 28 3 38 4 64 7 54 6 35 4 35 4 47 5 53 5
East Renfrewshire 48 5 55 6 40 4 33 4 36 4 40 4 43 5 48 5
Edinburgh, City of 599 13 972 21 1,179 25 1,021 22 822 17 898 19 844 17 1,017 21
Eilean Siar 18 7 12 5 8 3 10 4 11 4 6 2 3 1 - -
Falkirk 160 11 182 12 167 11 171 11 215 14 124 8 152 10 151 10
Fife 302 9 241 7 193 5 149 4 138 4 139 4 209 6 220 6
Glasgow City 1,226 21 1,277 22 1,209 21 1,301 22 1,256 21 1,318 22 1,328 22 1,499 25
Highland 97 5 107 5 107 5 122 6 123 6 81 4 68 3 94 4
Inverclyde 32 4 36 4 31 4 52 6 38 5 20 2 27 3 40 5
Midlothian 52 7 81 10 40 5 65 8 43 5 35 4 46 6 60 7
Moray 38 4 44 5 42 5 38 4 31 4 83 9 75 9 52 6
North Ayrshire 91 7 103 8 102 8 99 7 100 7 92 7 88 7 113 8
North Lanarkshire 181 6 207 6 234 7 282 9 249 8 252 8 220 7 205 6
Orkney Islands 4 2 4 2 3 2 5 3 2 1 2 1 4 2 8 4
Perth & Kinross 70 5 93 7 77 5 86 6 88 6 79 5 78 5 61 4
Renfrewshire 131 8 86 5 130 8 123 7 118 7 122 7 145 9 136 8
Scottish Borders 26 2 43 4 41 4 47 4 46 4 43 4 38 3 27 2
Shetland Islands 4 2 5 2 5 2 3 1 2 1 - - 3 1 5 2
South Ayrshire 42 4 64 6 45 4 63 6 53 5 77 7 50 4 62 6
South Lanarkshire 162 5 181 6 199 6 212 7 210 7 179 6 168 5 139 4
Stirling 70 8 124 14 132 15 107 12 113 13 102 11 91 10 113 12
West Dunbartonshire 90 10 82 9 69 8 86 9 95 10 73 8 69 8 90 10
West Lothian 109 7 158 10 197 12 204 12 166 10 147 9 108 6 180 10
Scotland 4,519 8.9 5,112 10.0 5,322 10.4 5,247 10.2 5,145 10.0 4,960 9.5 4,911 9.4 5,389 10.3

1. Population data used to calculate these rates are the relevant mid year population estimates prepared by the National Records of Scotland: http://www.gro-scotland.gov.uk/statistics/theme/population/estimates/mid-year/index.html

Table 3 Racist incidents recorded, by location of incident, 2004-05 to 2011-12
Number and percentage

Location 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 2008-091 2009-102 2010-11 2011-12 % breakdown
2011-12
Dwelling house (including garden) 804 845 1,418 913 895 715 933 997 19
Street 1,396 1,763 1,818 1,626 1,652 1,240 1,623 1,801 34
Shop 1,101 1,145 823 1,121 718 677 834 919 17
Restaurant/Takeaway 388 449 353 389 369 317 390 331 6
Other Business 129 164 122 144 430 116 128 189 4
Public transport/bus stop 51 74 73 88 143 72 95 97 2
School/College 73 71 59 69 65 51 55 77 1
Sporting Venue 17 21 22 24 126 19 32 41 1
Pub/place of public entertainment 143 185 148 214 195 219 271 359 7
Place of Worship 12 28 19 31 13 11 15 21 *
Medical Establishment (e.g. hospital, health centre) 47 61 50 59 58 49 72 90 2
Other 358 305 417 566 468 331 463 389 7
Unknown - 1 - 3 13 1,143 - 78
Total 4,519 5,112 5,322 5,247 5,145 4,960 4,911 5,389 100

1. Information for 2008-09 is not directly comparable with previous years due to changes in recording practices for Lothian & Borders police force. Please see note 4.3.
2. Information on location of incident was not available for 2009-10 for Lothian & Borders police force. Please see note 4.3.

Table 4 Racist incidents recorded, by quarter1, 2004-05 to 2011-12
Number

Month 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 2010-11 2011-12
April to June 1,221 1,207 1,303 1,599 1,341 1,354 1,365 1,349
July to September 1,187 1,508 1,465 1,399 1,230 1,276 1,189 1,468
October to December 1,138 1,267 1,317 1,147 1,252 1,264 1,210 1,309
January to March 973 1,130 1,237 1,102 1,322 1,066 1,147 1,263
Total 4,519 5,112 5,322 5,247 5,145 4,960 4,911 5,389

1. Where the date was unknown, forces were asked to record as 15th of month; if month was unknown, forces were asked to record as 15th June.

Table 5 Racist incidents recorded, by day of week1, 2004-05 to 2011-12
Number

Day 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 2010-11 2011-12
Monday 569 639 624 621 642 573 570 687
Tuesday 538 576 624 661 595 544 585 597
Wednesday 557 600 652 641 593 585 561 649
Thursday 571 629 628 635 631 629 626 631
Friday 789 915 892 859 855 792 739 869
Saturday 834 999 1,088 1,037 984 1,012 973 1,042
Sunday 661 754 814 793 845 825 857 914
Total 4,519 5,112 5,322 5,247 5,145 4,960 4,911 5,389

1. Where the date was unknown, forces were asked to record as 15th of month; if month unknown, asked to record as 15th June. The 'day' variable was then calculated from this date. Some days will therefore include unknown values.

Table 6 Racist incidents recorded, by category of person making initial report, 2004-05 to 2011-12
Number

Reporter 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-101 2010-111 2011-121
Victim 3,833 4,391 4,373 3,987 3,737 2,867 2,778 2,800
Police 158 220 350 518 671 329 355 462
Third part agency report 31 74 38 50 73 80 67 68
Witness 282 213 331 404 419 356 453 574
Other 215 214 230 285 230 170 175 148
Unknown . . . 3 15 1,158 1,083 1,337
Total 4,519 5,112 5,322 5,247 5,145 4,960 4,911 5,389

1. Information on person making initial report was not available for Lothian & Borders for 2009-10 onwards.

Table 7a Crimes recorded by the police as part of racist incidents, 2004-05 to 2011-12
Number

Crimes recorded 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 2010-11 2011-12
Crimes of violence and sexual offences 69 83 75 65 84 60 74 73
Crimes of dishonesty 62 67 83 73 72 91 48 52
Fire-raising, vandalism etc 468 571 473 456 366 403 353 325
Other crimes 82 96 105 84 69 94 46 34
Total offences - of which 5,053 5,627 5,915 5,989 6,026 5,822 5,652 5,988
Common Assault 750 876 908 812 739 884 848 803
Breach of the peace 915 795 859 1,066 1,125 829 820 1,201
Racially aggravated harassment 360 300 237 247 228 183 159 121
Racially aggravated conduct 2,969 3,583 3,808 3,778 3,815 3,801 3,683 3,658
Other offences 59 73 103 86 119 125 142 205
Unknown crimes/offences - - 3 9 - - - -
Total 5,734 6,444 6,654 6,676 6,617 6,470 6,173 6,472

1. Includes Breach of the peace, Threatening or abusive behaviour, Offence of stalking, Offensive behaviour at football and Threatening communications (Offensive behaviour at football and threatening communications Act 2012). See note 4.8.

Table 7b Clear-up rate of Crimes recorded by the police as part of racist incidents, 2004-05 to 2011-12
Percentage

Crimes cleared up 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 2010-11 2011-12
Crimes of violence and sexual offences 49 34 49 55 62 70 69 73
Crimes of dishonesty 48 46 47 48 63 65 52 62
Fire-raising, vandalism etc 33 32 38 36 35 47 37 38
Other crimes 82 81 90 85 86 94 89 85
Total offences - of which 56 56 60 60 65 68 69 70
Common Assault 51 53 55 57 63 69 68 69
Breach of the peace 62 56 67 62 71 73 70 60
Racially aggravated harassment 57 46 57 57 61 63 67 62
Racially aggravated conduct 56 58 60 60 64 68 70 75
Other offences 24 32 38 29 46 61 44 51
Total 54 54 58 58 63 67 67 68

1. Includes Breach of the peace, Threatening or abusive behaviour, Offence of stalking, Offensive behaviour at football and Threatening communications (Offensive behaviour at football and threatening communications Act 2012). See note 4.8.

Table 8 Ethnic origin1 of victims of racist incidents, 2004-05 to 2011-12
Number and percentage

Ethnic Group 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 2010-11 2011-12 % breakdown
2011-12
White British 826 1,030 983 1,030 1,095 1,158 1,048 1,295 22
White Irish 63 91 139 121 124 87 131 95 2
Other White2 130 122 414 477 509 534 546 700 12
Mixed 127 149 170 152 150 129 248 151 3
Indian 443 431 507 488 609 557 536 486 8
Pakistani 1,773 1,545 1,833 1,654 1,584 1,458 1,376 1,357 23
Bangladeshi 67 26 67 48 54 62 95 57 1
Other Asian 508 984 532 559 505 497 503 520 9
Caribbean 92 171 59 53 59 46 46 35 1
African 321 325 404 443 478 505 416 539 9
Other Black 118 68 111 181 160 115 249 174 3
Chinese 151 153 183 117 152 127 110 153 3
Other 295 379 339 290 290 323 335 327 6
Unknown 145 346 222 177 226 185 267 422
Total 5,059 5,820 5,963 5,790 5,995 5,783 5,906 6,311 100

1. See note 4.6 for detail of changes to ethnic origin classifications implemented in 2009-10.
2. Includes Gypsy/Traveller, Polish White and Other White.

Table 9 Main language of victims of racist incidents, 2004-05 to 2011-12
Number

Language 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 2010-11 2011-12
English 4,238 4,770 5,058 3,880 3,846 3,559 3,399 4,022
Other 652 728 637 1,562 806 505 498 510
Unknown1,2 169 322 268 348 1,343 1,719 2,009 1,779
Total 5,059 5,820 5,963 5,790 5,995 5,783 5,906 6,311

1. Lothian & Borders police force was unable to provide data on main language of victim for 2008-09 onwards and have therefore been included as 'unknown'.
2. Central Scotland police force was unable to provide information for 2010-11 and 2011-12 on the main language of victim, and have therefore been included as 'unknown'.

Table 10 Age and gender of victims of racist incidents, 2004-05 to 2011-12
Number and rate per 10,000 population

Gender Age 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 2010-11 2011-12 rate per
10,000
population
(2011-12)
Male Under 16 198 218 269 172 217 211 229 220 5
16 to 20 279 332 346 306 288 285 286 277 16
21 to 25 482 525 664 634 688 649 615 637 34
26 to 35 1,172 1,286 1,413 1,315 1,484 1,450 1,545 1,566 46
36 to 50 1,124 1,285 1,207 1,267 1,328 1,210 1,216 1,294 24
Over 50 356 346 313 369 341 330 346 420 5
Total Male 3,611 3,992 4,212 4,063 4,346 4,135 4,237 4,414 17
Female Under 16 116 135 200 115 126 115 153 133 3
16 to 20 96 109 140 128 108 128 126 116 7
21 to 25 165 188 182 203 199 168 183 238 13
26 to 35 364 416 383 427 391 427 398 485 15
36 to 50 363 455 415 412 413 427 444 475 8
Over 50 111 105 108 91 115 128 118 106 1
Total Female 1,215 1,408 1,428 1,376 1,352 1,393 1,422 1,553 6
Unknown gender/age 233 420 323 351 297 255 247 344
Total 5,059 5,820 5,963 5,790 5,995 5,783 5,906 6,311 12

Table 11 Number of previous incidents1 reported to police by victim, 2004-05 to 2011-12
Number

Number of incidents 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 2010-11 2011-12
None - first report 3,543 4,157 4,350 3,918 4,043 3,910 3,959 4,073
1 447 508 517 475 544 541 518 542
2 216 241 245 250 240 253 218 255
3 121 132 130 143 152 151 134 142
4 73 96 74 91 97 79 77 77
5 52 61 49 66 69 75 53 54
6 47 47 49 34 42 53 37 35
7 32 34 36 19 27 41 37 34
8 24 21 31 21 24 28 37 27
9 20 20 24 16 19 22 22 19
10 or more 110 105 150 136 172 124 126 158
Unknown2 374 398 308 621 566 506 688 895
Total 5,059 5,820 5,963 5,790 5,995 5,783 5,906 6,311

1. Previous incidents occurring within the previous two years.
2. Central Scotland police force was unable to provide information for 2010-11 and 2011-12 on the number of previous incidents reported by the victim, and these incidents have therefore been included as 'unknown'.

Table 12 Ethnic origin of perpetrators of racist incidents, 2004-05 to 2011-12
Number and percentage

Ethnic Group 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 2010-11 2011-12 % breakdown
2011-12
White British 3,060 3,743 4,320 4,281 4,161 4,219 4,183 4,075 83
White Irish 16 32 32 58 43 36 71 38 1
Other White1,2 19 20 101 61 104 125 661 538 11
Mixed 42 14 13 16 24 20 17 18 *
Asian3 73 106 132 100 117 99 99 145 3
Black4 25 27 69 48 38 46 64 48 1
Other 11 22 11 14 26 23 30 26 1
Unknown 75 136 404 435 934 936 437 393
Total 3,321 4,100 5,082 5,013 5,447 5,504 5,562 5,281 100
  1. Following a transition to the 21 group ethnic classification codes, Central Scotland and Lothian & Borders have each had a larger number of perpetrators classing themselves as 'White European', who would therefore be classified as 'Other White'.
  2. Includes Gypsy/Traveller, Polish White and Other White.
  3. Includes Indian, Pakistani, Bangladeshi, Chinese and Other Asian.
  4. Includes Black African, Black Caribbean and Other Black.

Table 13 Main language of perpetrators of racist incidents, 2004-05 to 2011-12
Number

Language 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 2010-11 2011-12
English 3,175 3,988 4,651 4,607 3,463 3,154 3,372 3,516
Other 56 20 38 56 45 31 46 45
Unknown1 90 92 393 350 1,939 2,319 2,144 1,720
Total 3,321 4,100 5,082 5,013 5,447 5,504 5,562 5,281

1. Lothian & Borders were unable to provide information on main language of the perpetrator for 2008-09 onwards and have therefore been included as 'unknown'.

Table 14 Age and gender of perpetrators of racist incidents, 2004-05 to 2011-12
Number and rate per 10,000 population

Gender Age 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 2010-11 2011-12 rate per
10,000
population
( 2011-12)
Male Under 16 591 694 934 791 864 913 900 762 16
16 to 20 643 939 911 841 939 1,016 970 765 45
21 to 25 341 401 465 501 561 580 586 585 31
26 to 35 435 489 612 564 666 659 679 735 22
36 to 50 384 464 592 619 626 704 682 708 13
Over 50 121 121 202 223 222 203 238 278 3
Total Male 2,515 3,108 3,716 3,539 3,878 4,075 4,055 3,833 15
Female Under 16 162 286 303 228 263 254 288 258 6
16 to 20 112 174 223 186 206 209 177 161 10
21 to 25 67 78 83 100 112 115 130 143 8
26 to 35 158 130 145 174 162 179 192 206 6
36 to 50 132 158 189 191 205 214 213 229 4
Over 50 31 42 50 55 70 73 57 78 1
Total Female 662 868 993 934 1,018 1,044 1,057 1,075 4
Unknown gender/age 144 124 373 540 551 385 450 373
Total 3,321 4,100 5,082 5,013 5,447 5,504 5,562 5,281 10

Table 15 Police action taken with regard to perpetrator, 2004-05 to 2011-12
Number

Action taken 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 2010-11 2011-12
Referral to Procurator Fiscal or SCRA 2,512 3,181 3,353 3,446 3,652 2,477 2,699 2,846
Police warning 141 62 123 82 101 44 91 52
Referred to other agency for action 74 92 2 9 5 8 13 49
Other action 370 509 553 716 922 787 509 479
No further action 138 141 854 731 721 141 359 358
Unknown1 86 115 197 29 46 2,047 1,891 1,497
Total 3,321 4,100 5,082 5,013 5,447 5,504 5,562 5,281

1. Lothian & Borders police force was unable to provide data on police action taken for 2009-10 onwards, and the action taken with regard to perpetrators of these incidents have therefore been included as 'unknown'.

Contact

Email: Jan Young

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