Mode Share Targets
C1. MSTs are currently most commonly used in travel plans, particularly for employment land uses. Wider use of them is though encouraged, in particular for them to be utilised for other land uses and in the development management process. They should therefore be acknowledged within local plans, transport strategies and development management procedures.
C2. MSTs need to be defined at the appropriate regional/local level with individual development proposal targets set within this context. At a broad level MSTs form one aspect of a transport strategy. An overall MST will be dependent on changes in travel to existing development as well as new development. These strategic MSTs need to be directly translatable to individual site MSTs and therefore be realistic and achievable.
C3. The achievement of MSTs is influenced by differing local characteristics. This means there will be differences between and within local authority's MSTs. MSTs should take into account local levels of transport accessibility, types of development and car parking controls. They should also consider the provision of amenities i.e. crèches, banks, level of local retailing and fitness centres, the availability of convenient and affordable public transport and existing incentives and disincentives to influence travel choice.
C4. Individual development proposals will derive MSTs from the local authority's local transport strategy. New development is likely to be only a small proportion of total travel but this travel may be easier to influence. As MSTs may have a significant effect on the shape and form of the development they should form a vital part of the original development concept. The targets should be set in ranges rather than absolutes.
C5. Discussions regarding MST requirements are encouraged between developers and appropriate local authority planners at an early stage. This is particularly important where the development is large or likely to generate significant travel as it will avoid unnecessary work and potential delays.
C6. The methodology for predicting MSTs for a particular development should consider the wider targets as noted above as well as the following:
Site location and accessibility by different modes
C7. In this context accessibility is site specific and is calculated and expressed as an accessibility index. Absolute accessibility measures are of little value in assisting with the evaluation of MSTs. Relative accessibility is a more important measure that will influence the mode share at the development.
Different trip making and mode share characteristics of the proposed development
C8. Here mode choice characteristics are being used to shape development content and mode share to meet a target. This happens as negotiations on the development progress and can be assessed relative to other similar developments. In practical terms the policy will be to reduce car use rather than meet individual non-car MSTs.
Transport improvements to change underlying accessibility
C9. Where a development proposal does not initially meet its MST there may be value in considering improvements to transport services to change underlying accessibility in such a way as to assist in meeting the required target. Where improvements get close to achieving the MST it may be that additional measures involving travel incentives and disincentives could prove to be effective.
C10. Where they are implemented MSTs should be comprehensible, robust but simple to use and be capable of wide application to a range of situations. They should be realistic and practical in that they take account of what can be achieved in a given context.
C11. Where the monitoring and review of MSTs is to be done by the planning authority, a charge for this could be included in a planning agreement. Monitoring should be at regular intervals, ideally every 2 years and for a minimum period of 5 years. If MSTs are included as part of the planning consent in the form of a condition, the condition must meet the necessary criteria of being reasonable etc. so that it is enforceable.
C12. In practice Transport Working Parties have been set up and Travel Co-ordinators have been appointed to set, achieve and review MSTs. They can oversee the targets in which ever form they take, for example:
- Regional: e.g. employers in a region can work towards a target for average vehicle ridership.
- Rule of Thumb: Targets that have been adopted from a key piece of literature or advice, e.g 30% reduction in single occupant car trips over 3 years.
- Site Based: Targets based on requirements, characteristics and constraints of a site e.g lack of parking availability.
- Transport Based: Targets based on local transport circumstances, related to the desire to keep trip generation below levels that will detrimentally effect the local road network.
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