Publication - Advice and guidance

Planning Advice Note 64: reclamation of surface mineral workings

Published: 13 Jan 2003

Planning Advice Note (PAN) 64 provides advice to help planning authorities and operators improve the reclamation of surface mineral workings.

59 page PDF

831.6 kB

59 page PDF

831.6 kB

Planning Advice Note 64: reclamation of surface mineral workings
Page 9

59 page PDF

831.6 kB

PAN 64: Reclamation of Surface Mineral Workings


Amendments: the addition to soil of materials, usually with the aim of improving soil quality. For example fertilisers, lime or organic waste materials.

Biosolids: treated sewage sludge.

Controlled waters: defined in section 78A(9) by reference to section 30A of the Control of Pollution Act 1974; this embraces territorial and coastal waters, inland fresh waters, and ground waters.

Humified: organic matter transformed into humus.

Humus: the well-decomposed, relatively stable part of the organic matter found in aerobic soils.

Hydroseeding: seed, fertiliser, amendment and mulch is mixed with water and sprayed onto the surface. Suitable for inaccessible areas such as rock faces.

Microbial biomass: the total mass of living micro-organisms in a given volume of soil.

Overburden: any material overlying the mineral deposit, which must be stripped prior to extraction and can be unutilised in the restoration.

Poaching: when land becomes muddy from being trampled.

Pouring: a variation on hydroseeding, where slurry with seeds is poured over a steep slope from the top and runs down over the slope and onto ledges and crevices.

Ripping: deep cultivation to loosen compacted soil.

Scaling: the loosening of a material normally attached to another by surface adherence, which then peels and breaks away.

Smearing: mechanical action or wet soil resulting in the formation of a thin compacted layer possessing low permeability.

Soil-forming material: parent material for a new soil used as a substitute for, or supplement to, natural soils in the course of land reclamation.

Spot seeding: seeds are sown (manually) in groups at various spots with slow release fertiliser placed at lower level. Used to sow trees and shrubs on slopes.

Subsoil: the soil material beneath the topsoil and overlying the bedrock; composed of weathered parent material, low in organic matter.

Topsoil: the biologically active, organically rich surface layers of a soil, which provide the principle medium for growth.