1. Relative Poverty, After Housing Costs - Poverty and income inequality in Scotland: 2015-2018 - Scottish Government, March 2019
2. Siraj, Iram and Kingston, Denise, Scottish Government (2015) An independent review of the Scottish early learning and childcare (ELC) workforce and out of school care (OSC) workforce.
3. Being a child in need is defined at section 93(4) of the 1995 Act as being in need of care and attention because the child is unlikely to achieve or maintain, or have the opportunity of achieving or maintaining, a reasonable standard of health or development unless a local authority provides a service, and the child's health or development is likely to be significantly or further impaired, unless such services are provided; or if the child is disabled, or adversely affected by the disability of any other person in their family.
4. Under the Public Services Reform (Scotland) Act 2010, where a day care service is provided to children, providers, including local authorities, must register their services with the Care Inspectorate and must conform to their regulatory regime. However, where out of school care is provided in a school and as part of the school's activities, by or on behalf of the school's managers (including a local authority) then this is not considered a day care service under that Act, and the registration and other duties in relation to the Care Inspectorate do not apply.
5. Early Learning and Childcare Statistics 2017, Care Inspectorate, November 2018
6. Children's Services Workforce 2017, Scottish Social Services Council, January 2019
7. "Fun! Fun! Super fun! - Children's thoughts on OSC"
8. For example: Eunson, J. and Murray, L. Early Learning and Childcare: experiences of parents. Audit Scotland (2017).
Available at: https://www.audit-scotland.gov.uk/uploads/docs/report/2018/nr_180215_early_learning_supp.pdf and;
Statham, J. Grandparents providing child care. Department of Education (2011).
Available at: https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/181364/CWRC-00083-2011.pdf
9. "The service is a lifeline", Parents/carers' thoughts on OSC, Scottish Out of School Care Network Survey, January 2019.
10. Siraj I and Kingston D., 2015, An independent review of the Scottish early learning and childcare (ELC) workforce and out of school care (OSC) workforce. UCL Institute of Education, University College London:
11. Scottish Executive, 2003, School's out: framework for the development of out-of-school care:
12. Scottish Government, 2016, A blueprint for 2020: the expansion of early learning and childcare in Scotland:
14. Scottish Government, 2017, A nation with ambition: the Government's Programme for Scotland 2017-2018, Scottish Government: Edinburgh.
15. Scottish Government, 2018, Delivering for today, investing for tomorrow: the Government's programme for Scotland 2018-2019, Scottish Government: Edinburgh.
16. Scottish Government, 2018, Every child, every chance: tackling child poverty delivery plan 2018-2022, Scottish Government: Edinburgh.
17. Butler A. and Rutter J., 2016, Creating an anti-poverty childcare system. Joseph Rowntree Foundation:
18. Child Poverty Action Group in Scotland, 2015, The cost of the school day:
19. Coleman L. and Cottell J., 2019, Childcare Survey 2019, Coram Family and Childcare:
20. Although the proportion reporting sufficient childcare for older children was low because local authorities reported that they did not hold this data or could not tell (45% for 5-11 year olds and 74% for 12-14 year olds).
23. Save the Children, 2018, Give us a hand with childcare: 10 key messages from parents in Scotland:
24. Poverty and Inequality Commission, 2018, Advice for the Scottish Government on addressing poverty during school holidays:
25. Stewart et al., 2018, 'The cost of school holidays for children from low income families'
26. CPAG in Scotland, 2015, The cost of the school holidays:
27. Poverty and Inequality Commission, 2018, Advice for the Scottish Government
28. Campbell, M., Watson, N. and Watters, N., 2015, The cost of school holidays, What Works Scotland:
29. Bardsey, D., Dean, L. Dougall, I et al., 2018, Scottish health survey 2017 - main report, Scottish Government:
31. Forsay, A., 2017, Hungry Holidays: A report on hunger amongst children during school holidays, All-Party Parliamentary Group on Huner.
32. Trussell Trust, 2019, End of year stats:
33. Kelloggs, 2015, Isolation and Hunger: the reality of the school holidays for struggling families:
Data are from an online survey by YouGov of parents carried out on behalf of Kellogg's with 580 parents with a household income of £25,000 or less, with children aged 5-16.
34. CPAG in Scotland, 2015, The cost of the school holidays.
35. Defeyter, M.A., Graham, P.L., Prince, K., 2015, 'A Qualitative evaluation of holiday breakfast clubs in the UK: views of adult attendees, children and staff'. Front. Public Health 3:199. doi: 10.3389/fpubh.2015.00199; Forsay, A., 2017, Hungry Holidays; Graham, P.L. et al, 2016, School Holiday Food Provision in the UK: A Qualitative Investigation of Needs, Benefits and Potential for Development; Long, M.A., Stretesky, P.B., Graham, P.L. et al., 2018, 'The impact of holiday clubs on household food insecurity: a pilot study'. Health Soc Care Community;26:e261-e269.
36. Defeyter, M.A. et al., 2015, 'A Qualitative evaluation of holiday breakfast clubs in the UK'; Forsay, A., 2017, 'Hungry Holidays'; McConnon, L., Morgan, K., Van Godwin, J. et al., 2017, Food and Fun School Holiday Enrichment Programme 2016: Evaluation Report, Welsh Local Government Association:
37. Forsay, A., 2017, Hungry Holidays; Graham, P.L. et al, 2016, School Holiday Food Provision in the UK; Long et al (Sept 2007) "The impact of holiday clubs on household food insecurity; O'Connor, J., Wolhuter, C., Every, S., 2015, An evaluation of Holiday Kitchen 2014: Learning, food and play for families who need it most in the West Midlands:
38. Care Inspectorate, 2018, Early Learning and Childcare statistics 2017:
39. Scottish Social Services Council, 2019, The Children's Services Workforce 2017:
41. Unpublished analysis by the Scottish Government. Sweep 7 involved personal interviews with 3,453 parents or main carers; 3,150 families were interviewed in Sweep 8 and Sweep 9 collected data from 3,419 families, including a newly recruited boost sample. For further information about the Growing Up in Scotland study see
42. Hockaday, C. and Murray, L. 2019. Out of School Care - survey of parents in Scotland, Scottish Government: Edinburgh.
43. The activities listed were: team sports, individual sports, art, music and performance, religious services/classes, academic classes/extra lessons, classes to learn new skills.
44. Guthrie, A., 2019, Out of school care in Scotland: who uses in and why? A research report commissioned by Parenting Across Scotland and undertaken as a Q-Step placement project:
Data for the report was taken from the Scottish sub-sample of Sweeps 3, 4, and 5 when the Cohort Members were aged five, seven, and 11, respectively.
45. Guthrie, A., 2019, Out of school care in Scotland.
46. Chanfreau, J., Tanner, E., Callanan, M. et al., 2016, Out of school activities during primary school and KS2 attainment: Centre for Longitudinal Studies Working paper 2016/1:
47. Guthrie, A., 2019, Out of school care in Scotland.
48. Scott E and Scobie G., 2015, NHS Health Scotland Evidence briefing on the impact of out of school care. NHS Health Scotland.
49. Unpublished report by NHS Health Scotland, Update on the "Evidence briefing on the impact of out of school care 2015", August 2018.
50. Defeyter, M.A. et al., 2015, 'A Qualitative evaluation of holiday breakfast clubs in the UK'; McConnon L. et al., 2017, 'Food and Fun School Holiday Enrichment Programme 2016'.
51. Defeyter, M.A. et al., 2015, 'A Qualitative evaluation of holiday breakfast clubs in the UK'; Forsay, A., 2017, Hungry Holidays; McConnon L. et al., 2017, 'Food and Fun School Holiday Enrichment Programme 2016'.
52. Defeyter, M.A. et al., 2015, 'A Qualitative evaluation of holiday breakfast clubs in the UK'; Forsay, A., 2017, Hungry Holidays; McConnon L. et al., 2017, 'Food and Fun School Holiday Enrichment Programme 2016'; O'Connor, J., 2015, An evaluation of Holiday Kitchen 2014.
53. Stewart H, Watson N & Campbell M., 2018, 'The cost of school holidays for children from low income families'.
54. Sylva, K., Melhuish, E. C., Sammons, P. et al., 2008, Final Report from the Primary Phase: Pre-School, School and Family Influences on Children's Development during Key Stage 2 (7-11). DCSF Research Report 61.
55. Chanfreau, J., Tanner, E., Callanan, M. et al., 2016, Out of school activities during primary school and KS2 attainment.
56. It is important to note that the methods used identify associations only; although the study controlled for individual and family characteristics, it is not possible to conclude that these relationships are causal.
57. Chanfreau, J. et al., 2016, Out of school activities during primary school and KS2 attainment.
58. Gorard, S., Siddiqui, N., Huat See, B. et al., 2017, Children's University: Evaluation report and executive summary:
Gorard, S., Siddiqui, N., Huat See, B. et al., 2019, 'Can learning beyond the classroom impact on social responsibility and academic attainment? An evaluation of the Children's University youth social action programme', Studies in Educational Evaluation, 61: 74-82.
59. The evaluation involved 1,840 year 5 pupils in 68 primary schools, randomised into treatment and waiting-list control groups. The programme was delivered for two consecutive years after which the academic and non-cognitive outcomes were re-assessed.