Publication - Research publication

Offending patterns of those involved in serious organised crime

Published: 8 Dec 2017
Directorate:
Justice Directorate
Part of:
Law and order, Research
ISBN:
9781788514385

This study explores the key characteristics and offending behaviour of people involved in serious organised crime.

39 page PDF

745.9 kB

39 page PDF

745.9 kB

Contents
Offending patterns of those involved in serious organised crime
Footnotes

39 page PDF

745.9 kB

Footnotes

1. Although people could have been placed on the database prior to 2013-14.

2. The average number of charges against the 235 who had offended in 2013-14 was 3.4. However this figure is skewed by those who have conducted a larger number of offences.

3. Employment status is recorded by the Police on the report submitted to COPFS. It will relate to the status at the time of the arrest or report. It will usually be based on information provided by the accused, or sometimes by other witnesses in the case.

4. Scottish Government (2016). Scotland's Serious Organised Crime Strategy 2016 Annual Report, Edinburgh, The Scottish Government

5. Scottish Government (2016). Scotland's Serious Organised Crime Strategy 2016 Annual Report, Edinburgh, The Scottish Government.

6. However, this is based on overall patterns and not on personal data linked to charges.

7. Scottish Government. (2017) Serious Organised Crime in Scotland: A Summary of the Evidence, Edinburgh, The Scottish Government.

8. Scottish Government. (2014) Recorded Crime in Scotland 2013-14, Edinburgh, The Scottish Government.

9. For SOC offending charges drug crimes constituted 82% within the 'other' crime category compared with 56% for the total offending population in the recorded crime statistics.

10. Bruce J. Doran, Melissa B. Burgess. Why is fear of crime a serious social problem? In: Bruce J. Doran, Melissa B. Burgess. Putting fear of crime on the map : Investigating Perceptions of Crime Using Geographic Information Systems. (Springer Series on Evidence-Based Crime Policy), New York: Springer, 2012.

11. Scottish Police Authority (2013), 'Item Number 5' Presented By Assistant Chief Constable Nicolson For Approval Meeting SPA Board Meeting December 2013.

12. Scottish Government (2017) Serious Organised Crime in Scotland: A Summary of the Evidence, Edinburgh, The Scottish Government.

13. Scottish Government (2015) Scotland's Serious Organised Crime Strategy, Edinburgh, The Scottish Government.

14. Scottish Government (2016) Scotland's Serious Organised Crime Strategy 2016 Annual Report, Edinburgh, The Scottish Government.

15. Scottish Government (2013) Mapping Organised Crime, Edinburgh, Scottish Government

16. The average number of charges against the 235 who had offended in 2013-14 was 3.4. However this figure is skewed by those who have conducted a larger number of offences.

17. The Police Foundation. (2016) Reducing the impact of Serious Organised Crime In Local Communities, The Impact of organised crime on local communities Briefing 4

18. The Police Foundation. (2016) Reducing the impact of Serious Organised Crime In Local Communities, The Impact of organised crime on local communities Briefing 4

19. Home Office. (2015) Individuals at risk of being drawn into Serious and Organised Crime – a Prevent Guide, Strategic Centre for Organised Crime, Office for Security and Counter-Terrorism.

20. E.R Kleemans and C.J. de Poot (2008) Criminal Careers in Organised Crime and Social Opportunity Structure, European Journal of Criminology 5(1)

21. Some individuals were reported for multiple charges within the time period.

22. The average number of charges against the 210 men who had offended in 2013-14 was 3.5 However this figure is skewed by those who have conducted a larger number of offences.

23. The average number of charges against the 25 women who offended in 2013-14 was 2.4 Again, this figure is skewed by a minority who committed a higher number of offences.

24. In line with the census question on ethnicity: http://www.scotlandscensus.gov.uk/variables-classification/ethnic-group

25. It is important to note that some of the unemployed may have previously been in employment prior to acquiring a criminal record.

26. 'Major Group 4: Administrative and Secretarial Occupations' had no representation within this sample.

27. Office of National Statistics (2017) Annual Population Survey, NOMIS https://www.nomisweb.co.uk

28. Scottish Government (2016) Scotland's Serious Organised Crime Strategy 2016 Annual Report, Edinburgh, The Scottish Government.

29. Four offenders were recorded as having no fixed address and for 41 the postcode was not available..

30. Sampson and Radenbush cited in Scottish Government (2014). What works to reduce crime, Edinburgh, The Scottish Government.

31. However, it is worth noting that this is based on current residence, and that many in the more affluent postcodes may have originated in more deprived deciles.

32. For example, datazone comparisons from the 2009 SIMD found that the rate of prisoners per 100,000 of the population was 692 from the most deprived data zones compared with 140 for the least deprived datazones and 218 for the Scotland average. Similarly ' SIMD Crime" rate per 10,000 of the population was 1026 for the most deprived datazones and 405 for the least deprived datazones and 495 for the Scotland average. Scottish Government (2012) Strategy for Justice in Scotland, Evidence, Edinburgh, Scottish Government.

33. Scottish Government (2017) Serious Organised Crime in Scotland: A summary of the evidence, Edinburgh, The Scottish Government.

34. Scottish Government (2017) Serious Organised Crime in Scotland: A summary of the evidence, Edinburgh, The Scottish Government.

35. Scottish Government (2013), Public Perceptions of Organised Crime in Scotland, Edinburgh, Scottish Government.

36. Only 189 of a possible 235 accused recorded a valid postcode. Four offenders were recorded as having no fixed address while a number of postcodes were found invalid by the SIMD postcode finder. The remainder were recorded as not available.

37. Total does not sum to 100% due to rounding

38. Sherman, L et. al (2016) The Cambridge Crime Harm Index: Measuring Total Harm from Crime Based on Sentencing Guidelines, Policing Volume 10, Number 3, pp. 171-183, Oxford University Press.

39. In 2013/14 a total of 771,678 crimes and offences were recorded by the police: http://www.gov.scot/Publications/2014/11/6350/0

40. Scottish Government (2016), Scottish Crime and Justice Survey 2014-15

41. Wedlock, E, Tapley, J (2016) What works in supporting victims of crime: A rapid evidence assessment

42. Scottish Government (2016) Recorded Crime in Scotland 2015-16

43. Scottish Government. (2017) Serious Organised Crime in Scotland: A Summary of the Evidence

44. Innes, M (2014) Signal crimes, social reactions to crime, disorder and control, Oxford University Press

45. Scottish Government (2001) Offending on bail, an analysis of the use and impact of aggravated sentences for bail offenders

46. In the process of plea adjustment the aggravation in a charge should not be removed by a prosecutor where there still exists available and admissible evidence which is sufficient to secure a conviction.

47. Scottish Government (2012) Summary Justice Reform, Undertakings evaluation

48. Scottish Government (2016) Scotland's Serious Organised Crime Strategy – Annual Report - 2016

49. These charges relate to abusive and threatening communications by phone or social media.

50. Other includes: Online fraud (3), council building (1), Music festival (1), Place of worship (1), Public Park (2), Sheltered Housing (1), Hospital (2), Field (2) and Public Transport (2). 4 relate to pollution related charges involving potential harm to the local environment.

51. Scottish Government (2016) Scotland's Serious Organised Crime Strategy – Annual Report - 2016

52. Scottish Government. (2017) Serious Organised Crime in Scotland: A Summary of the Evidence

53. For SOC offending charges drug crimes constituted 82% within the 'other' crime category compared with 56% for the total offending population in the recorded crime statistics.

54. Scottish Government. (2017) Serious Organised Crime in Scotland: A Summary of the Evidence

55. Bruce J. Doran, Melissa B. Burgess. (2012) Why is fear of crime a serious social problem? In: Bruce J. Doran, Melissa B. Burgess. Putting fear of crime on the map : Investigating Perceptions of Crime Using Geographic Information Systems. (Springer Series on Evidence-Based Crime Policy)


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