Publication - Research and analysis

Mapping Flood Disadvantage in Scotland 2015: Methodology Report

Published: 23 Dec 2015
Part of:
Research
ISBN:
9781785448485

This report describes the methods applied in developing the flood disadvantage dataset for the project Mapping Flood Disadvantage in Scotland 2015.

55 page PDF

1.1 MB

55 page PDF

1.1 MB

Contents
Mapping Flood Disadvantage in Scotland 2015: Methodology Report
Appendix 1: Indicators used in the assessment

55 page PDF

1.1 MB

Appendix 1: Indicators used in the assessment

The table describes the processing of indicators and their modification in relation to the first flood disadvantage assessment in Scotland (Lindley and O'Neill, 2013). Confidence level reflects the project team's certainty that the indicator reflects the domain of social vulnerability to flooding. High level of confidence indicates good grounding in literature and a direct link between the indicator used and the phenomenon it desribes. Medium level describes the indicators that are proxies for the domains they represent and/or have less evidence supporting them. Low confidence indicators have not been included in the assessment.

Domain Indicator Source Date Indicator - processing details Spatial unit of the raw data Assumptions Confi dence level Change from the first flood disadvantage assessment Weighting
Age Young children (% people under 5 years) Scotland's census 2011 Census table KS102SC. Number of people aged 0-4 years was divided by the population and multiplied by 100. Data zone Higher proportion of children under 5 in an area indicates a higher vulnerability. High No change. 0.500
Age Older people (% people over 75 years) Scotland's census 2011 Census table KS102SC. Number of people aged 75 years or more was divided by the population and multiplied by 100. Data zone Higher proportions of people over 75 in an area indicates a higher vulnerability. High No change. 0.500
Health
Disability / people in ill-health (% people whose day-to-day activities are limited)
Scotland's census 2011 Census table KS301SC. Number of people whose day to day activities are limited a lot + number of people whose day to day activities limited a little, divided by the total population and multiplied by 100. Data zone Higher proportions of disabled people / people in ill-health in an area indicate a higher vulnerability High The census question has changed: in 2001 census the question was: "Do you have any long-term illness, health problems or disability which limits your daily activities or the work you can do?" and the answer options was "yes" and "no". In 2011, the question was rephrased as "are your day-to-day activities limited because of a health problem or disability which has lasted, or is expected to last, at least 12 months" and respondents were given the answer options "yes, limited a lot"; "yes, limited a little" and "no". 0.500
Health % households with at least one person with long term limiting illness Scotland's census 2011 Census table KS106SC. Number of households with one or more persons with a long-term health problem or disability divided by the total number of households and multiplied by 100. Data zone Higher proportions of households containing at least one person in ill-health indicate a higher vulnerability High No change -0.500
Income Low income occupations (% in routine or semi-routine occupations) Scotland's census 2011 Census table KS611SC. Number of people aged 16-74 in routine occupations + number of people in semi-routine occupations divided by all people aged 16 to 74 and multiplied by 100. Data zone Higher proportions of people employed in routine and semi-routine jobs in an area indicate a higher vulnerability because of their likelihood to be on lower incomes relative to other people. High No change 0.143
Income Long-term unemployed (% who are LTU or who have never worked) Scotland's census 2011 Census table KS611SC. Number of people aged 16-74 'never worked and long-term unemployed' divided by the total number of people aged 16-74 and multiplied by 100. Data zone Higher proportions of people in an area who are long-term unemployed or who have never worked indicate a higher vulnerability because of their likelihood to be on lower incomes relative to other people. High No change 0.143
Income Households with dependent children and no adults in employment (%) Scotland's census 2011 Census table KS106SC. Number of households 'No adults in employment in household: With dependent children' divided by the total number of households and multiplied by 100. Data zone Higher proportions of unemployed people with dependent children in an area indicate a higher vulnerability because of their likelihood to be on lower incomes relative to other people. High No change 0.143
Income Number of Income Support claimants Scottish Neighbourhood Statistics 2012 Average number for four quarters for 2012 Data zone Higher number of claimants indicates higher vulnerability High New indicator - this indicator replaced the SIMD Income index, i.e "percentage of people income deprived" 0.143
Income Number of Job Seeker Allowance claimants Scottish Neighbourhood Statistics 2012 Average number for four quarters for 2012 Data zone Higher % of income-deprived people equals higher vulnerability High New indicator - this indicator replaced the SIMD Income index, i.e "percentage of people income deprived" 0.143
Income Number of Pension Credit claimants Scottish Neighbourhood Statistics 2012 Average number for four quarters for 2012 Data zone Higher % of income-deprived people equals higher vulnerability High New indicator - this indicator replaced the SIMD Income index, i.e "percentage of people income deprived" 0.143
Income Number of families receiving tax credits: Working Tax Credits or Child Tax Credits Scottish Neighbourhood Statistics 2009 This dataset contains a count of all families in work receiving either Working or Child Tax Credits (WTC or CTC) and reflect the finalised figures for the tax year. Data zone Higher % of income-deprived people equals higher vulnerability High New indicator - this indicator replaced the SIMD Income index, i.e "percentage of people income deprived" 0.143
Information use Recent arrivals to UK Scotland's census 2011 Census table QS801SC. Number of people with year of arrival 'Arrived 2010-2011' divided by the total number of people and multiplied by 100. Data zone Higher proportions of people recently arrived from outside the UK in an area indicate a higher vulnerability. Medium No change 0.500
Information use Level of proficiency in English Scotland's census 2011 Census table QS205SC. Number of people 'Does not speak English at all' + 'Does not speak English well', divided by the total number of people and multiplied by 100. Data zone People who cannot speak English are more likely to have difficulty obtaining and using information and guidance provided to the general public. High New indicator, replacing the previously used 'proportion of people born outside the UK' 0.500
Insurance Insurance availability OS Addressbase and SEPA flood extents 2015 Number of residential properties built after 1st January 2009 and located within flood risk areas (any flooding; 1 in 200 + cc extent) divided by the total number of residential properties in the data zone and multiplied by 100. Point data: exact location of the residential addresses and polygon data: EPA flood extents. The properties built after 1st January 2009 and located in flood risk areas may not be not covered by Flood Re Homes (as applied under the old Flood Insurance Statement of Principles) and thus insurance may not be available to them. The higher the proportion of residential properties with limited insurance availability, the higher the vulnerability. Medium New indicator 0.500
Insurance Insurance cost SEPA Historic Flood Data 2015 Number of historic flood events (since 1980) recorded in data zone Point data: location of the flood event. The higher the number of past flood events, the higher the insurance premium is likely to be. Medium New indicator 0.500
Local knowledge Access to flood warnings SEPA 2015 Number of address points covered by Flood Warning Target Area divided by all address points in the data zone and multiplied by 100. Polygon data: FWTA outlines. The higher the percentage of address points covered by the FWTA, the greater the number of people aware of the flood risk Medium New indicator -0.500
Local knowledge New migrants from outside the local area Scotland's census 2011 Census table UKMIG001. Number of people who 'Lived elsewhere one year ago outside the area but within 'associated area'' + 'Lived elsewhere one year ago outside the 'associated area' but within the UK' (where associated area is the next level up in the census geography hierarchy, i.e. local authority in this case), divided by the total number of residents and multiplied by 100. All data zones within the intermediate geography unit were assumed to have the same value. Intermediate geography The higher the proportion of new residents in the area, the higher the number of people who may not be aware of the flood risk. High No change 0.500
Tenure Social renters (% Households renting from Social or Council landlords) Scotland's census 2011 Census table KS402SC. Number of households 'Rented: Council (Local authority)' + 'Rented: Other social rented', divided by the total number of households and multiplied by 100. Data zone Higher proportions of social renters in an area indicate a higher vulnerability as renters have a lower ability to adapt their homes. High No change 0.500
Tenure Private renters (% Households) Scotland's census 2011 Census table KS402SC. Number of households 'Rented: Private Landlord or Letting Agency' + 'Rented: Other', divided by the total number of households and multiplied by 100. Data zone Higher proportions of private renters in an area indicate a higher vulnerability as renters have a lower ability to adapt their homes. High No change 0.500
Mobility % of incapacity benefit/severe disablement allowance claimants in the population Scottish Neighbourhood Statistics 2012 A number of IBSDA claimants (average of four quarters for 2012) divided by the total population and multiplied by 100. Data zone The higher proportion of IBSDA claimants in the population means higher vulnerability. High No change 0.333
Mobility % people living in medical and care establishments Scotland's census 2011 Census table QS421SC. Number of people in 'Medical and care establishments' divided by the total population and multiplied by 100. Data zone Areas with a higher proportion of people living in communal medical and care establishments, e.g. residential and nursing homes, have lower mobility of people and higher vulnerability High New indicator 0.333
Mobility Lack of private transport (% households with no car or van) Scotland's census 2011 Census table KS404SC. Number of households where 'Number of cars or vans in household: No cars or vans' divided by the total number of households and multiplied by 100. Data zone Areas with higher proportions of households which have no private transport are more likely to be communities with mobility problems and therefore have higher social vulnerability compared with communities with lower proportions of households with no private transport. High No change 0.333
Social networks % children of primary school age (4-11) in the population Scotland's census 2011 Census table QS103SC. Number of people aged '4-11 years' divided by the total population and multiplied by 100. Data zone Areas with higher proportions of primary school children are likely to have more social ties as the children know each other and the parents are more likely to know each other through participating in school-related activities. Medium New indicator -0.333
Social networks Presence of voluntary organisations Scottish Charity Register and Ordnance Survey postcode data 2014 The records of charities with a focus on a specific point, neighbourhood or community were extracted from the Scottish Charity Register. The number of charities registered per postcode was calculated by using Pivot Table. The resulting number of charities was joined spatially to the OS Code Point Data. The number of charities per intermediate geography unit was summed. Then it was divided by the number of data zones in the intermediate geography unit and this average number was assigned to the data zones within the intermediate geography unit. Database of addresses (including postcodes) of charities joined to OS Code Point data (point data; location of the postcode centroids). The areas with a higher number of charities (in particular location-specific charities) may have denser social networks and thus be more able to respond to and recover after flooding. Medium New indicator. -0.333
Social networks % single pensioner households Scotland's census 2011 Census table QS113SC. Number of households 'One person household: Aged 65 and over' divided by the total number of households and multiplied by 100. Data zone Areas with higher proportions of single pensioner householders are more likely to have socially isolated people and therefore higher social vulnerability compared to areas with lower proportions of single pensioner households. Medium No change 0.333
Access People working far away from home Scotland's census 2011 Census table LC7701SC. Number of people travelling to place of work or study '30km and over' divided by the total number of people and multiplied by 100. Data zone The higher the number of people travelling long distances to place of work or study, the more vulnerable the population Medium Amended: Percentage of people in the population working or studying further than 30km from home 0.500
Access Low road density OS Mastermap Integrated Transport Network Layer 2014 Density of roads: Total length of roads in the data zone (km) divided by the area of data zone (km2) Polyine data (exact location of roads) intersected with the data zones. People living in area with lower road density have lower general accessibility and therefore higher social vulnerability compared with communities with higher road density. Medium New indicator - the 2013 assessment did not include the general accessibility domain; this type of indicator was used in the 2013 disadvantage assessment for England. -0.500
Crime Domestic break-ins Scottish Neighbourhood Statistics 2007/08 Number of domestic breakings per 10,000 total population. Data zones were assumed to have the same number of break-ins as the intermediate geography unit they are located within. Intermediate geography People living in areas with higher rates of crime may be more reluctant to take preventative measures in reaction to warnings of extreme events and therefore have higher social vulnerability compared with communities with lower crime rates. Medium Amended indicator. The first flood disadvantage assessment used the SIMD 2004 Crime Index, which is a compilation of recorded instances of variety of types of crime (crimes of violence, sexual offences, domestic housebreaking, vandalism, drugs offences and common assault); the current assessment focuses specifically on domestic breakings. 1.000
Access to services Travel time to GP surgery - private transport Scottish Neighbourhood Statistics 2012 Average travel time (in minutes) to the nearest GP by private transport Data zone People's health (physical and mental) is likely to be affected by flooding and in the recovery stage those with an easy access to GPs may be able to recover more quickly. Medium New indicator - it was not used in the first flood disadvantage assessment. However, it was used in the climate disadvantage assessment for England in the context of vulnerability to high temperatures. 0.500
Access to services Travel time to GP surgery - public transport Scottish Neighbourhood Statistics 2012 Average travel time (in minutes) to the nearest GP by public transport Data zone People's health (physical and mental) is likely to be affected by flooding and in the recovery stage those with an easy access to GPs may be able to recover more quickly. Medium New indicator - it was not used in the 2013 assessment by Lindley and O'Neill. However, it was used in the climate disadvantage assessment for England in the context of vulnerability to high temperatures. 0.500
Housing Characteristics % households with the lowest floor level: ground floor Scotland's census 2001 Census 2001 table KS19. Percentage of households: Lowest floor level Ground level (street level) Data zone The higher the proportion of ground level dwellings in an area, the more residents are likely to be affected by flooding compared to areas with two or more storey dwellings. High Data from census 2001. Indicator for 2011 not available - data not collected in census 2011 0.333
Housing Characteristics % households with the lowest floor level: Basement or semi-basement Scotland's census 2001 Census 2001 table KS19. Percentage of households: Lowest floor level Basement or semi-basement Data zone The higher the proportion of dwellings with basements in an area the more residents are likely to be affected by flooding, relative to areas with large proportions of other dwelling types. High Indicator for 2011 not available - data not collected in census 2011 0.333
Housing characteristics % Caravan or other mobile or temporary structures in all households Scotland's census 2011 Census table KS401SC. 'All household spaces: Caravan or other mobile or temporary structure' divided by the total number of households and multiplied by 100. Data zone The higher the proportion of mobile or temporary structures among the households, the higher the vulnerability as they are likely to be affected by flooding to a greater extent. High New indicator 0.333
Physical environ ment % urban Land Cover Map 2007 2007 The polygons representing the 'urban' class of LCM2007 was extracted from the dataset and intersected with the data zones. The total area of the 'urban' land cover class per data zone was calculated, divided by the data zone area and multiplied by 100. Polygon data: land cover classes with a minimum mapped unit of 0.5ha and a minimum feature width of 20m. The land class classified as urban has little permeable surface and is prone to flooding High Amended indicator - the 2013 assessment used the SG urban-rural classification dataset. LCM2007 offers a more accurate picture of built-up areas. 1.000

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