An Investigation of Pensioner Employment

The report explores the drivers behind the consistent increase in pensioner employment over the past decade, including throughout the last recession. It discusses the employment characteristics and socio-economic conditions of pensioners who continue to w


1. The remaining 5% covers unpaid family workers.

2. Regional Employment Patterns in Scotland: Statistics from the Annual Population Survey 2015

3. Bloom, D. et al (2010). Implications of population ageing for economic growth. Oxford Review of Economic Policy, 26.

4. DWP (2014), Fuller Working Lives - Background Evidence.

5. The normal retirement age is defined here as the current retirement ages for each OECD country, assuming labour market entry at age 20.

6. Effective retirement age shown is for five year period 2009-14. Normal pensionable age is shown for individuals retiring in 2014 and assuming labour market entry at age 20.

7. Holger Strulik, Katharina Werner (2012). Life Expectancy, Labor Supply, and Long-Run Growth: Reconciling Theory and Evidence. and

8. Scottish Government (2015). Long-term Monitoring of Health Inequalities. October 2015 report

9. Employment Equality (Repeal of Retirement Age Provisions) Regulations 2011

10. Office for National Statistics dataset: Health Expectancies in the United Kingdom, 2000-2002 to 2009-2011.

11. European Parliament, Directorate General for Internal Policies (2013). Combining the entry of young people in the labour market with the retention of older workers, Chapter 3: Do policy makers really face two competing challenges?

12. Office of Budget Responsibility - Fiscal Sustainability Report

13. Department for Work and Pensions (2015). Income-Related Benefits: Estimates of Take-up - Financial Year 2013/14 (experimental)

14. Barton, A. and Riley, K., eds. (2012). Income Related Benefits: Estimates of Take-Up in 2009-10. DWP.

15. Radford, L., Taylor, L. and Wilkie, C., (2012). Pension Credit eligible non-recipients: Barriers to claiming, DWP.

16. Hirsch, D., (2015). A minimum income standard for the UK in 2015, Joseph Rowntree Foundation.

17. Note that poverty based on income After Housing Costs (AHC) is a more commonly used measure for pensioner households, as many have low housing costs.

18. The triple lock is the mechanism currently used by the UK Government for uprating the Basic State Pension (BSP). Under the triple lock, the BSP is increased each April by the highest of the growth in average earnings, the Consumer Price Index (CPI), or 2.5%.

19. The gross replacement rate shows the level of pensions in retirement relative to earnings when working. For workers with average earnings, the gross replacement rate averages 54% in the 34 OECD countries.

20. Matthews and Nazroo (2015). Later-Life Work, health and Well-being: enduring inequalities. In Paid work beyond pension age, ed. Simon Scherger.

21. D'Addio, A. C., Keese, M. and Whitehouse, E. (2010),Population ageing and labour markets, Oxford Review of Economic Policy, Volume 26, Number 4, 2010, pp. 613-635

22. D'Addio, A. C., Keese, M. and Whitehouse, E. (2010),Population ageing and labour markets, Oxford Review of Economic Policy, Volume 26, Number 4, 2010, pp. 613-635

23. Schmitz, J. (2015), Companies and Older Workers: Obstacles and drivers of labour market participation in recruitment and at the workplace. In S. Scherger, Paid work beyond pension age comparative perspectives. Hampshire, England: Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 217-236.

24. Bell, D. N. F. and Rutherford, A. C., (2013). Older workers and working time, Discussion paper, IZA DP No.7546.

25. Department for Work and Pensions (2003). Working after state pension Age: quantitative analysis. Research report No. 182.

26. Dex, S., Scheibl, F., (2002). SMEs and flexible working arrangements. Joseph Rowntree Foundation.


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