Publication - Research and analysis

Mediation in civil justice: international evidence review

Published: 25 Jun 2019
Directorate:
Safer Communities Directorate
Part of:
Law and order
ISBN:
9781787819375

Available literature and evidence on mediation in civil justice (civil/commercial) in five international jurisdictions: Australia, Canada, England and Wales, Ireland, and the USA.

Mediation in civil justice: international evidence review
Footnotes

Footnotes

1. ACAS/TUC (2010) Mediation: A Guide for Trade Union Representatives. London, ACAS Publications: 3.

2. See https://www.scottishmediation.org.uk/why-mediation/what-is-mediation/

3. Wissler, R. L. (2004) The Effectiveness of Court-Connected Dispute Resolution in Civil Cases. Conflict Resolution Quarterly. 22 (1-2): 81-82.

4. Hahn, R. G. and Barr, C. (2001) Evaluation of the Ontario Mandatory Mediation Program (Rule 24.1): Final Report -- The First 23 Months. Report for the Civil Rules Committee: Evaluation Committee for the Mandatory Mediation Pilot Project. Available: http://www.ontla.on.ca/library/repository/mon/1000/10294958.pdf

5. See here for summary and full report: http://www.mdcourts.gov/courtoperations/adrprojects.html

6. See Genn, H. (2013) What Is Civil Justice For? Reform, ADR, and Access to Justice. Yale Journal of Law and the Humanities. 24 (1): 397-417; see also Hahn and Barr, 2001

7. Genn, 2013: 408.

8. Genn, 2013: 409.

9. NADRAC (2004) ADR Research: A Resource Paper. Available: https://www.ag.gov.au/LegalSystem/AlternateDisputeResolution/Documents/NADRAC%20Publications/ADR%20Research%20-%20A%20Resource%20Paper.pdf

10. Mack, K. (2003) Court Referral to ADR: Criteria and Research. Report for NADRAC. Available: https://www.ag.gov.au/LegalSystem/AlternateDisputeResolution/Documents/NADRAC%20Publications/Court%20Referral%20to%20ADR%20-%20Criteria%20and%20Research.PDF

11. Mack, 2003: 19

12. Mack, 2003: 19

13. Mack, 2003: 21

14. Ministry of Justice (2017) Background evidence pack on civil ADR. PowerPoint Slide Pack. [Unpublished]

15. Making Justice Work (2014) Enabling Access to Justice: International Literature Review of Alternative Dispute Resolution. Scottish Government Report: 7.

16. Quek, D. (2010) Mandatory mediation: An oxymoron? Examining the feasibility of implementing a court-mandated mediation program. Cardozo Journal of Conflict Resolution. 11: 479-509

17. Discussion with Brian O'Bryne, Honorary Secretary, Meditators' Institute of Ireland

18. Discussion with Brian O'Bryne

19. Law Reform Commission Ireland (2010) Alternative Dispute Resolution: Mediation and Conciliation. Report: 2-3. Available: https://www.lawreform.ie/_fileupload/Reports/r98ADR.pdf

20. Moore, T. (2017) Mediation Ethics and Regulatory Framework. Journal of Mediation and Applied Conflict Analysis. 4 (1): 544.

21. Moore, 2017: 544

22. Moore, 2017: 544

23. Billingsley, B. and Ahmed, M. (2016) Evolution, revolution, and culture shift: a critical analysis of compulsory ADR in England and Canada. Common Law World Review. 45 (2-3): 186-213.

24. Billingsley and Ahmed, 2016: 198

25. Billingsley and Ahmed, 2016: 206-207

26. Boulle, L and Field, R. (2018) Mediation in Australia. Chatswood, NSW: LexisNexis Butterworths: 294-296.

27. See https://www.ontario.ca/laws/regulation/050043

28. New South Wales Law Reform Commission (2018) Dispute Resolution. Available: https://www.lawreform.justice.nsw.gov.au/Documents/Publications/Reports/Report%20146.pdf

29. Boulle and Field, 2018: 37

30. See: http://www.mdcourts.gov/courtoperations/adrprojects.html

31. See, for example, Hahn, R. G. and Barr, C. (2001) Evaluation of the Ontario Mandatory Mediation Program (Rule 24.1): Final Report -- The First 23 Months. Report for the Civil Rules Committee: Evaluation Committee for the Mandatory Mediation Pilot Project. Available: http://www.ontla.on.ca/library/repository/mon/1000/10294958.pdf

32. Discussion with Lorig Charkoudian, Director of Community Mediation Maryland

33. Charkoudian, L. and Wayne, E. K. (2009) Does it Matter if my Mediator Looks Like Me? The Impact of Racially Matching Participants and Mediator. Dispute Resolution Magazine: 22-24

34. Discussion with Lorig Charkoudian

35. In some jurisdictions there is more regulation of family case mediation than general civil mediation; however, family is out of scope for this review. See Boulle and Field, 2018: 207-209 for a discussion of this in Australia.

36. Press, S. (2003) Institutionalization of Mediation in Florida: at the Crossroads. Penn State Law Review. 108 (43): 55

37. Noce, D. J. D., Folger, J. P. and Antes, J. R. (2002) Assimilative, Autonomous, or Synergistic Visions: How Mediation Programs in Florida Address the Dilemma of Court Connection. Pepperdine Dispute Resolution Law Journal. 3 (1): 12

38. Boulle and Field, 2018: 209

39. Billingsley and Ahmed, 2016

40. Hébert, L. C. (1999) Establishing and Evaluating a Workplace Mediation Pilot Project: An Ohio Case Study. Ohio State Journal of Dispute Resolution. 14 (2): 448-449

41. For example, Toby Guerin, Associate Director, Center for Dispute Resolution at the University of Maryland Francis King Carey School of Law.

42. Civil Justice Council ADR Working Group (2018) ADR and Civil Justice. Final Report. Available: https://www.judiciary.uk/wp-content/uploads/2018/12/CJC-ADRWG-Report-FINAL-Dec-2018.pdf; Directorate General for Internal Policies (2014) Rebooting the Mediation Directive: Assessing the Limited Impact of its Implementation and Proposing Measures to Increase the Number of Mediations in the EU. EU Report. Available: http://www.europarl.europa.eu/RegData/etudes/etudes/join/2014/493042/IPOL-JURI_ET(2014)493042_EN.pdf

43. Though the EU report is more forceful in its encouragement than the CJC report; the CJC report continues to focus most strongly on use of cost sanctions, with the future potential of a more mandatory opt-out system raised as a possibility.

44. Peltz, S. (1999) Only For A Season: Mandatory Mediation As A Temporary Measure. Available: http://www.cfcj-fcjc.org/sites/default/files/docs/hosted/17460-only_for_a_season.pdf; Quek, 2010

45. Discussion with Professor Catherine Bell

46. Swanson, D. (2018) Creative Mediation System in British Columbia: A Model for us All. Available: https://mediatbankry.com/2018/01/09/creative-mediation-system-in-british-columbia-a-model-for-us-all/

47. See: http://www.bclaws.ca/EPLibraries/bclaws_new/document/ID/freeside/4_2001#section5

48. Swanson, 2018

49. See: http://www.bclaws.ca/EPLibraries/bclaws_new/document/ID/freeside/4_2001#section5

50. Swanson, 2018

51. Quek, 2010: 508

52. Ministry of Justice slide pack

53. Wissler, R. L (2002) Court-Connected Mediation in General Civil Cases: What We Know from Empirical Research. Ohio State Journal on Dispute Resolution. 17: 641-702. In this piece of work she reviews 3 empirical studies of 9 Ohio courts of common pleas (excluding domestic and small claims cases), with two studies focusing on a mediation pilot in 5 courts and another looking at 'Settlement Week' in four courts. Mediation was free to users in all cases. There were no penalties for failure to reach a settlement. Mediators were asked to report whether or not a settlement had been reached. The length of time mediators had to study case information varied. These studies used questionnaires of mediators, attorneys, and participants exploring their thoughts on the mediation process and outcome. In the two studies focusing on the pilot project another two sources of data were also used: mediator logbooks about the mediation (in 88% of cases) and information from court files complied by programme staff (e.g. characteristics of the case, dates of litigation events), which included information on the 1060 cases assigned to mediation and the 683 assigned to non-mediation. The percentages quoted are an average across studies.

54. Charkoudian L., Eisenberg D. T. and Walter J. L. (2017) What Difference Does ADR Make? Comparison of ADR and Trial Outcomes in Small Claims Court. Conflict Resolution Quarterly. 35 (1): 7-45.

55. Charkoudian, Eisenberg and Walter, 2017: 38

56. Hahn, R. G. and Barr, C. (2001) Evaluation of the Ontario Mandatory Mediation Program (Rule 24.1): Final Report -- The First 23 Months. Report for the Civil Rules Committee: Evaluation Committee for the Mandatory Mediation Pilot Project. Available: http://www.ontla.on.ca/library/repository/mon/1000/10294958.pdf

57. Community Justice Centres (2018) Facts and Figures 2017-18. NSW Government website. Available: http://www.cjc.justice.nsw.gov.au/Pages/com_justice_aboutus/com_justice_aboutus.aspx

58. Sourdin, T. (2016) Alternative Dispute Resolution, 5th Edition. Melbourne, Australia: The Law Book Company of Australasia: 38.

59. Mack, K. (2003) Court Referral to ADR: Criteria and Research. Report for NADRAC. Available: https://www.ag.gov.au/LegalSystem/AlternateDisputeResolution/Documents/NADRAC%20Publications/Court%20Referral%20to%20ADR%20-%20Criteria%20and%20Research.PDF

60. Discussion with Professor Rachael Field, Bond University; discussion with Professor Tania Sourdin, University of Newcastle Australia

61. Gill, C., Williams, J., Brennan, C. and Hirst, C. (2014) Models of Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR): A report for the Legal Ombudsman. Queen Margaret University Consumer Insight Centre: 50. Available: https://www.legalombudsman.org.uk/downloads/documents/research/Models-Alternative-Dispute-Resolution-Report-141031.pdf. Small Claims mediation service for HMCTS in England and Wales works from Northampton with a staff of 17 administrators based there and a further 17 mediators based throughout the country. Parties to small claims disputes will be asked if they would like to try mediation and if both say yes a book request will be created. The service has more booking requests than can be managed given current staffing levels – around 1200 a month – with only 35% of requests being able to be accommodated. Mediation occurs on average within 4.3 weeks of the booking. Full time mediators conduct around 20-25 mediations a week and are expected to have worked through 550 cases a year.

62. Hahn and Barr, 2001: 101

63. Brennan, T. (2010) An Evaluation of the Sustainability of Agreements Reached through Mediations Conducted by the Dispute Resolution Centres of the Department of Justice and Attorney General Queensland between 1999 and 2003. Masters Thesis. Unpublished: 57-59. Available: https://eprints.qut.edu.au/47162/1/Teresa_Brennan_Thesis.pdf

64. Brennan, 2010

65. For an overview of the publications see: RAND Institute for Civil Justice (2008) Annotated Bibliography: 4-6. Available: https://www.rand.org/content/dam/rand/pubs/corporate_pubs/2008/RAND_CP253-2008-06.pdf

66. RAND, 2008: 4

67. Wissler, 2004. 15 of these had a comparison group, and 4 randomly assigned parties to mediation/non-mediation (with 2 of these 4 having a third group who volunteered to enter mediation and were analysed as a separate group). One study compared mediated cases to cases that were not mediated but were closed prior to the study period. In some studies that had random assignment there was an element of judicial decision-making around this assignment, so 'randomness' was diluted.

68. Wissler, 2004: 81

69. Wissler, 2004: 80

70. Charkoudian, Eisenberg and Walter, 2017

71. Discussion with Susan Marvin, Chief of Alternative Dispute Resolution, Florida Dispute Resolution Center, Office of the State Courts Administrator

72. Noce, D. J. D., Folger, J. P. and Antes, J. R. (2002) Assimilative, Autonomous, or Synergistic Visions: How Mediation Programs in Florida Address the Dilemma of Court Connection. Pepperdine Dispute Resolution Law Journal. 3 (1): 13

73. Genn, 2013: 406.

74. Vander Veen, S. (2005) Barriers to Settlement in Court-Connected Small-Claims Mediation in the Lower Mainland of British Columbia. Unpublished Student Research Project. University of British Columbia: 5-6. Available: http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.497.9245&rep=rep1&type=pdf

75. Vander Veen, S., 2005: 19

76. Genn, 2013: 406

77. Gill et al., 2014: 49

78. Gill et al., 2014: 49

79. Gill et al., 2014: 49

80. Civil Justice Council/Judicial Studies Board (2009). Court Mediation Service Manual: 4. Available: https://www.judiciary.uk/wp-content/uploads/JCO/Documents/Guidance/civil_court_mediation_service_manual_v3_mar09.pdf

81. Gill et al., 2014: 50

82. Discussion with Professor Catherine Bell, University of Alberta

83. Vidmar, N. (1985) An Assessment of Mediation in a Small Claims Court. Journal of Social Issues. 41(2): 127-44.

84. Wissler, R. (1995) Mediation and Adjudication in the Small Claims Court: The Effects of Process and Case Characteristics. Law and Society Review. 29(2): 323-357.

85. Hahn and Barr, 2001: 12

86. Community Justice Centres (2018) Facts and Figures 2017-18. NSW Government website. Available: http://www.cjc.justice.nsw.gov.au/Pages/com_justice_aboutus/com_justice_aboutus.aspx

87. Billingsley, B. and Ahmed, M. (2016) Evolution, revolution, and culture shift: a critical analysis of compulsory ADR in England and Canada. Common Law World Review. 45 (2-3): 201-202.

88. Discussion with Justice Beaudoin, Ottawa Courthouse, Ontario, Canada; see also an overview of research and discussion about domestic violence from Boulle and Field, 2018: 220-221

89. Hahn and Barr, 2001: 12

90. Hahn and Barr, 2001: 12

91. Hahn and Barr, 2001: 16

92. Wissler, 2002: 694-695

93. Wissler, 2004: 60

94. Charkoudian, Eisenberg and Walter, 2017: 10

95. Wissler, R. (1997) The Effects of Mandatory Mediation: Empirical Research on the Experience of Small Claims and Common Pleas Courts. Willamette Law Review. 33: 565-604.

96. Wissler, 2004

97. Mandell, M.B. and Marshall, A. (2002) The Effects of Court-Ordered Mediaiton in Workers' Compensation Cases Filed in Circuit Court: Results from an Experiment Conducted in the Circuit Court for Baltimore Country. Maryland Institute for Policy Analysis and Research. Available: www.umbc.edu/mipar.

98. Moore, T. (2017) Mediation Ethics and Regulatory Framework. Journal of Mediation and Applied Conflict Analysis. 4 (1): 543-551.

99. Discussion with Professor Rob Rubinson, University of Baltimore

100. Engler, 1999; MoJ slides

101. Charkoudian, L. (with colleagues) (2016) Impact of Alternative Dispute Resolution on Responsibility, Empowerment, Resolution, and Satisfaction with the Judiciary: Comparison of Short- and Long-Term Outcomes in District Court Civil Cases: 62. Available: https://mdcourts.gov/sites/default/files/import/courtoperations/pdfs/districtcourtcomparisonfullreport.pdf

102. Engler, 1999

103. Corbin, L., Baron, P. and Gutman, J. (2015) ADR Zealots, Adjudicative Romantics and Everything in Between: Lawyers in Mediations. University of New South Wales Law Journal. 38 (2): 492-513.

104. Boulle and Field, 2018: 216

105. Boulle and Field, 2018: 216

106. Boulle and Field, 2018: pp. 216-225; Rubinson, R. (2018) Stories of Experience: Economic Inequality in Mediation. South Carolina Law Review. 70: 85-117.

107. Boulle and Field, 2018: 223

108. Engler, 1999

109. Boulle and Field, 2018: 223

110. Boulle and Field, 2018: 223

111. Boulle and Field, 2018: 224

112. Press, 2003: 46; Johnson Jr, P Dayton. (2003) Confidentiality in Mediation: What can Florida glean from the Uniform Mediation Act?. Florida State University Law Review. 30 (3): 487

113. Law Reform Commission Ireland (2010) Alternative Dispute Resolution: Mediation and Conciliation. Report: 2-3. Available: https://www.lawreform.ie/_fileupload/Reports/r98ADR.pdf

114. Macfarlane, J. (1995) Court-based mediation of civil cases: an evaluation of the Ontario Court (General Division) ADR Centre. Cited in Shack, J. (2007) Bibliographic Summary of Cost, Pace, and Satisfaction Studies of Court-Related Mediation Programs. Center for Analysis of Alternative Dispute Resolution Systems Report: 13-14. Available: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/228388717_Bibliographic_Summary_of_Cost_Pace_and_Satisfaction_Studies_of_Court-Related_Mediation_Programs

115. Schultz, K. D. (1990) Florida's Alternative Dispute Resolution Demonstration Project: An Empirical Assessment. Cited in Shack, J. (2007) Bibliographic Summary of Cost, Pace, and Satisfaction Studies of Court-Related Mediation Programs. Center for Analysis of Alternative Dispute Resolution Systems Report: 16-17. Available: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/228388717_Bibliographic_Summary_of_Cost_Pace_and_Satisfaction_Studies_of_Court-Related_Mediation_Programs

116. Vander Veen, S. (2014) A Case for Mediation: The Cost Effectiveness of Civil, Family, and Workplace Mediation. Report by Vander Veen Research and Evaluation on behalf of Mediate British Columbia. Available: https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/c9d6/ea19a55f165d936277f372737a270eb4a301.pdf

117. Vander Veen, 2014: 2

118. Vander Veen, 2014: 33

119. Charkoudian, L. (2005) A Quantitative Analysis of the Effectiveness of Community Mediation in Decreasing Repeat Police Calls for Service. Conflict Resolution Quarterly. 23 (1): 87-98.

120. Charkoudian, 2005: 96

121. Malhotra-Ortiz, M. (2012) Mediation. Maryland Court of Special Appeals Report: 7. Available: https://www.mdcourts.gov/sites/default/files/import/publications/pdfs/cosamediation.pdf

122. Kuhner, T.K. (2005) Court-Connected Mediation Compared: The Cases of Argentina and the United States. Roger Williams University School of Law Legal Studies Research Paper Series. Research Paper 22: 17

123. Kuhner, 2005: 18

124. Kuhner, 2005: 19

125. Kuhner, 2005: 19

126. Kuhner, 2005: 21-22

127. Kuhner, 2005: 19

128. McEwen, C.A. (1998) Managing Corporate Disputing: Overcoming Barriers to the Effective Use of Mediation for Reducing the Cost and Time of Litigation. Ohio State Journal on Dispute Resolution. 14 (1): 1-27

129. McEwen, 1998

130. McEwen, 1998: 3

131. NADRAC, 2004

132. NADRAC, 2004: 29

133. NADRAC, 2004: 30

134. NADRAC, 2004: 30

135. NADRAC, 2004: 32-33

136. NADRAC, 2004: 30

137. McEwen, 1998: 6

138. McEwen, 1998: 6


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