Publication - Research and analysis

International approaches to drug law reform: research

Published: 5 Mar 2021
Justice Directorate

This paper reviews the international evidence on approaches to drug law reform, focussing on seven case studies from five jurisdictions.

International approaches to drug law reform: research
6. Bibliography

6. Bibliography

Alley, Z., Kerr, D., & Bae, H. (2020). rends in college students' alcohol, nicotine, prescription opioid and other drug use after recreational marijuana legalization: 2008–2018. Addictive Behaviors.

Anderson, D., & Rees, D. (2014). The Legalization of Recreational Marijuana: How Likely Is the Worst-Case Scenario? Journal of Policy Analysis and Management.

Anderson, D., Hansen, B., & Rees, D. (2013). Medical Marijuana Laws, Traffic Fatalities, and Alcohol Consumption. Journal of Law and Economics.

Anderson, M., Hansen, B., Rees, D., & Sabia, J. (2019). Association of Marijuana Laws With Teen Marijuana Use: New Estimates From the Youth Risk Behavior Surveys. JAMA Pediatrics.

Arredondo, J., Gaines, T., Manian, S., Vilalta, C., Banuelos, A., Strathdee, S., & Beletsky, L. (2018). The law on the streets: Evaluating the impact of Mexico's drug decriminalization reform on drug possession arrests in Tijuana, Mexico. International Journal of Drug Policy.

Babor, T., Caulkins, J., Edwards, G., Fischer, B., Foxcroft, D., Humphreys, K., . . . Reuter, P. (2010). Drug Policy and the Public Good. Oxford University Press.

Bachhuber, M., Saloner, B., & Cunningham, C. (2014). Medical Cannabis Laws and Opioid Analgesic Overdose Mortality in the United States, 1999-2010. JAMA Internal Medicine.

Barnett, G., & Howard, F. (2018). What doesn't work to reduce reoffending? A review of reviews of ineffective interventions for adults convicted of crimes. European Psychologist.

Barnsdale. (2018). The national drug related deaths database (Scotland) report. Analysis of deaths occurring in 2015 and 2016. Scotland National Services Scotland.

Beckett, K. (2014). Seattle's Law Enforcement Assisted Diversion Programme: Lessons learned from the first two years. Ford Foundation.

Belackova, V., Maalste, N., Zabransky, T., & Grund, J. (2015). Should I Buy or Should I Grow? How Drug Policy Institutions and Drug Market Transaction Costs Shape the Decision to Self-Supply with Cannabis in the Netherlands. International Journal of Drug Policy.

Beletsky, L. (2014). Syringe access, syringe sharing, and police encounters among people who inject drugs in New York City: a community-level perspective. International Journal of Drug Policy.

Beletsky, L., Wagner, K., Arrendondo, J., Palinkas, L., Magis Rodriguez, C., Kalic, N., . . . Strathdee, S. (2015). Implementing Mexico's "Narcomenudeo" Drug Law Reform: A Mixed Methods Assessment of Early Experiences Among People Who Inject Drugs. Journal of Mixed Methods Research.

Benfer, I., Zahnow, R., Barratt, M., Maier, L., Winstock, A., & Ferris, J. (2018). The impact of drug policy liberalisation on willingness to seek help for problem drug use: A comparison of 20 countries. International Journal of Drug Policy.

Benson, B. (2009). Escalating the War on Drugs: Causes and Unintended Consequences. Stanford Law and Policy Review.

Blanken, P., Barendregt, C., & Zuidmulder, L. (1999). The evolution of crack and basing cocaine in the Rotterdam heroin scene. Journal of Drug Issues.

Blanken, P., Van Den Brink, W., Hendriks, V., Huijsman, I., Rook, E., Wakelin, J., . . . Van Ree, M. (2010). Heroin-Assisted Treatment in the Netherlands: History, Findings and International Context. European Neuropsychopharmacology.

Blok, G. (2008). Pampering 'Needle Freaks' or Caring for Chronic Addicts? Early Debates on Harm Reduction in Amsterdam 1972-1982. Social History of Alcohol and Drugs.

Bluthenthal, R. (1997). Impact of law enforcement on syringe exchange programs: a look at Oakland and San Francisco. Medical Anthropology.

Bluthenthal, R. (1999). Drug paraphernalia laws and injection-related infectious disease risk among drug injectors. Journal of Drug Issues.

Bonomo, Y., Norman, A., Biondo, S., Bruno, R., Daglish, M., Dawe, S., . . . Castle, D. (2019). The Australian Drug Harms Ranking Study. Journal of Psychopharmacology.

Bravo, M., De la Fuente, L., Brugal, M., Barrio, G., & Domingo-Salvany, A. (2009). Use of supervised injection facilities and injection risk behaviours among young drug injectors. Addiction.

Bryan, M., Del Bono, E., & Pudney, S. (2011). Licensing and regulation of the cannabis market in England and Wales. Institute for Social and Economic Research.

Cartwright. (2000). Cost–benefit analysis of drug treatment services: review of the literature. The Journal of Mental Health Policy and Economics.

Christie, P., & Ali, R. (2009). Offences under the Cannabis Expiation Notice scheme in South Australia. Drug and Alcohol Review.

Davis, C. (2005). Effects of an intensive street-level police intervention on syringe exchange program use in Philadelphia, PA. American Journal of Public Health.

De Beck, K. e. (2008). Police and public health partnerships: Evidence from the evaluation of Vancouver's supervised injection facility. Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention and Policy .

De Kort, M. (1995). Tussen patiënt en delinquent. De geschiedenis van het Nederlandse drugsbeleid. Hilversum: Uitgeverij Verloren.

De Vallaer, M. (2017). Cannabis Law Reform in Canada: Pretense & Perils. Peter Boris Center for Addiction Research.

DeBeck, K., Kerr, T., Bird, L., Zhang, R., Marsh, D., Tyndall, M., . . . Wood, E. (2011). Injection drug use cessation and use of North America's first medically supervised safer injecting facility. Drug and Alcohol Dependency.

Degenhardt, L. (2008). Toward a Global View of Alcohol, Tobacco, Cannabis, and Cocaine Use: Findings from the WHO World Mental Health Surveys. PLOS Medicine.

Degenhardt, L. (2010). Global burden of disease attributable to illicit drug use and dependence: findings from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010. The Lancet.

Domoslawski, A. (2011). Drug Policy in Portugal: The Benefits of Decriminalizing Drug Use. Open Society Institute.

Dragone, D., Prarolo, G., Vanin, P., & Zanella, G. (2019). Crime and the legalization of recreational marijuana. Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization.

Drug Policy Modelling Programme. (2016). Decriminalisation of drug use and possession in Australia. DPMP.

Duff, C., Asbridge, M., Brochu, S., Cousineau, M., Hathaway, A., Marsh, D., & Erikson, P. (2012). A Canadian perspective on cannabis normalization among adults. Addiction Research & Theory.

Eastwood, N., Fox, E., & Rosmarin, A. (2016). A Quiet Revolution: Drug Decriminalisation Across the Globe. Release: Drugs, the Law and Human Rights .

Ege, P. (2012). Supervised injecting facilities, voluntary action and civil disobedience. Ugeskr Laeger.

EMCDAA. (2018). Drug consumption rooms: an overview of provision and evidence.

Ettner, S., Huang, D., Evans, E., Ash, D., Hardy, M., Jourabchi, M., & Hser, Y. (2005). Benefit–Cost in the California Treatment Outcome Project: Does Substance Abuse Treatment "Pay for Itself"? Health Services Research.

Fairburn, N., Small, W., Shannon, K., Wood, E., & Kerr, T. (2008). Seeking refuge from violence in street-based drug scenes: Women's experiences in North America's first supervised injection facility. Social Science & Medicine.

Fast, D. (2008). The perspectives of injection drug users regarding safer injecting education delivered through a supervised injecting facility. Harm Reduction Journal.

Felix, S., & Portugal, P. (2017). Drug decriminalization and the price of illicit drugs. International Journal of Drug Policy.

Felix, S., Portugal, P., & Tavares, A. (2017). Going after the Addiction, Not the Addicted: The Impact of Drug Decriminalization in Portugal. IZA Discussion Paper No 10895.

Fischer, B. M. (2018). The opioid death crisis in Canada: crucial lessons for public health. The Lancet Public Health .

Fischer, B., Oviedo-Joekes, E., Blanken, P., Haasen, C., Rehm, J., Schechter, M., . . . Van den Brink, W. (2007). Heroin-Assisten Treatment (HAT) a decade later: a brief update on science and politics. Urban Health.

Flath, N. (2017). Enduring consequences from the war on drugs: how policing practices impact HIV risk among people who inject drugs in Baltimore City. Substance Use and Misuse.

Goncalves, R., Lourenco, A., & Nogueira da Silva, S. (2015). A social cost perspective in the wake of the Portuguese strategy for the fight against drugs. International Journal of Drug Policy.

Gotsis, T., Angus, C., & Roth, L. (2016). Illegal Drug Use and Possession: Current Policy and Debates. New South Wales Parliamentary Research Service.

Government of Canada. (2019). Final Regulations: Edible cannabis, cannabis extracts, cannabis topicals. Retrieved from health-canada/services/drugs-medication/cannabis/resources/ regulations-edible-cannabis-extracts-topicals.html

Government of Canada. (2019). Market data under the Access to Cannabis for Medical Purposes Regulations (archived). Retrieved from https://www.

Government of Canada. (2020). Cannabis in the provinces and territories. Retrieved from

Greenwald, G. (2009). Drug Decriminalization in Portugal: Lessons for Creating Fair and Successful Drug Policies. Cato Institute Whitepaper Series.

Grund, J. (1995). In eastern Connecticut, IDUs purchase syringes from pharmacies but don't carry syringes. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome.

Grund, J., & Breeksema, J. (2017). Drug Policy in the Netherlands. In European Drug Policies: the ways of reform (pp. 128-148).

Grund, J., Blanken, P., Adriaans, N., Kaplan, C., Barendregt, C., & Meeuwsen, M. (1992). Reaching the Unreached: Targeting hidden IDU populations with clean needles via known user groups. Journal of psychoactive drugs.

Hall, W., & Lynskey, M. (2016). Why it is probably too soon to assess the public health effects of legalisation of recreational cannabis use in the USA. The Lancet.

Hedrich, D., Alves, P., Farrell, M., Stover, H., Moller, L., & Mayet, S. (2011). The effectiveness of opioid maintenance treatment in prison settings: a systematic review. Addiction.

Home Office. (2014). Drugs: International Comparisons.

House of Commons Health and Social Care Committee. (2019). Drugs policy: first report of session. House of Commons.

House of Commons Scottish Affairs Committee. (2019). Problem drug use in Scotland . House of Commons.

Hughes, C. (2016). Decriminalisation of drug use and possession in Australia––a briefing note. Sydney Drug Policy Modelling Program.

Hughes, C., & Stevens, A. (2010). What Can We Learn From The Portuguese Decriminalization of Illicit Drugs? The British Journal of Criminology.

Jiggens, J. (2013). How many cones? How many pills? How many lines of coke? Estimating the size and value of Australia's market for illegal drugs and its potential for taxation under a regulated market.

Kammersgaard, T. (2019). Harm Reduction Policing: From Drug Law Enforcement to Protection. Contemporary Drug Problems.

Kappel, N., Toth, E., Tegner, J., & Lauridsen, S. (2016). A qualitative study of how Danish drug consumption rooms influence health and well-being among people who use drugs. Harm Reduction Journal.

Kerr, T. (2005). Safer injection facility use and syringe sharing in injection drug users. The Lancet.

Kerr, T. (2006). Impact of a medically supervised safer injection facility on community drug use patterns: a before and after study. British Medical Journal .

Kerr, T. e. (2006). Drug-related overdoses within a medically supervised safer injection facility. International Journal of Drug Policy .

Kerr, T., Small, W., Moore, D., & Wood, E. (2007). A micro-environmental intervention to reduce the harms associated with drug-related overdose: Evidence from the evaluation of Vancouver's safer injection facility. International Journal of Drug Policy.

Kinnard, E., Howe, C., Kerr, T., & Marshall, B. (2011). Self-reported changes in drug use behaviors and syringe disposal methods following the opening of a supervised injecting facility in Copenhagen. Harm Reduction Journal.

Koehler, J., Humphreys, D., Akoensi, T., Saanchez de Ribera, O., & Losel, F. (2014). A systematic review and meta-analysis on the effects of European drug treatment programs on reoffending. Psychology, Crime & Law.

Lacqueur, H. (2014). Uses and Abuses of Drug Decriminalization in Portugal. Law and Social Enquiry.

Landsberg, A. e. (2016). Declining trends in exposures to harmful policing among people who inject drugs in Vancouver, Canada. Journal of the International AIDS Society.

Leite, I. (2019). Drugs and Society: A Public Health Issue and the New Approaches in Portugal and. American International Journal of Contemporary Research.

Lenton, S., Heale, P., Erickson, E., Single, E., Lang, E., & Hawks, D. (2000). The regulation of cannabis possession, use, and supply. A discussion document prepared for the Drugs and Crime Prevention Committee of the Parliament of Victoria. National Drug Research Institute.

Lipsey, M. (2009). The Primary Factors that Characterize Effective Interventions with Juvenile Offenders: A Meta-Analytic Overview. Victims and Offenders.

Lipsey, M., & Cullen, F. (2007). The Effectiveness of Correctional Rehabilitation: A Review of Systematic Reviews. Annual Review of Law and Social Science.

MacCoun, R. (2010). Estimating the non-prive effects of legalization on cannabis consumption. WR-767-RC.

MacKenzie, D., & Farrington, D. (2015). Preventing future offending of delinquents and offenders: what have we learned from experiments and meta-analyses? Journal of Experimental Criminology.

MacKenzie, D., & Farrington, D. (2015). Preventing future offending of delinquents and offenders: What have we learned from experiments and meta-analyses? . Journal of Experimental Criminology.

Maher, L., & Dixon, D. (1999). Policing and public health: Law enforcement and harm minimization in a street-level drug market. The British Journal of Criminology.

Makin, D., Willits, D., Wu, G., DuBois, K., Lu, R., Stohr, M., . . . Lovrich, N. (2018). Marijuana Legalization and Crime Clearance Rates: Testing Proponent Assertions in Colorado and Washington State. Policy Quarterly.

Malloch, M. (2011). Interventions for Drug Users in the Criminal Justice System: Scottish Review. Scottish Centre for Crime and Justice Research.

Marshall, B., Milloy, M., Wood, E., Montaner, J., & Kerr, T. (2011). Reduction in overdose mortality after the opening of North America's first medically supervised safer injecting facility: a retrospective population-based study. The Lancet.

Marshall, B., Wood, E., Zhang, R., Tyndall, M., Montaner, J., & Kerr, T. (2009). Condom use among injection drug users accessing a supervised injecting facility. Sexually Transmitted Infection.

Martin, J. (2019). Australian Drug Users and the Dark Web .

Maruna, S. (2001). Making Good: How ex-convicts reform and rebuild their lives. American Psychological Association.

McFadden Consultancy. (2016). New Zealand Drug Harm Index. New Zealand Ministry of Health.

McFadden Consultancy. (2016). Research Report: The New Zealand Drug Harm Index 2016 (2nd edn). . New Zealand Ministry of Health.

McKnight, I., Maas, B., Wood, E., Tyndall, M., Small, W., Lai, C., . . . Kerr, T. (2007). Factors associated with public injecting among users of Vancourver's supervised injecting facility. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse .

McNeil, R., & Small, W. (2014). 'Safer environment interventions': a qualitative synthesis of the experiences and perceptions of people who inject drugs. Social Science and Medicine.

Measham, F. (2019). Drug safety testing, disposals and dealing in an English field: Exploring the operational and behavioural outcomes of the UK's first onsite 'drug checking' service. International Journal of Drug Policy.

Merrall, E., Kariminia, A., Binswanger, I., Hobbs, M., Farrell, M., Marsden, J., . . . Bird, S. (2010). Meta‐analysis of drug‐related deaths soon after release from prison. Addiction.

Michie, S., van Stralen, M., & West, R. (2011). The behaviour change wheel: A new method for characterising and designing behaviour change interventions. Implementation Science.

Milloy, M. e. (2008). Non-Fatal Overdose Among a Cohort of Active Injection Drug Users Recruited from a Supervised Injection Facility. The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse.

Ministry of Health and Prevention. (2011). Bill amending the law on psychedelic substances (drug consumption room).

Ministry of the Interior and Health. (2003). The fight against drugs—program against narcotics.

Ministry of the Interior and Health. (2010). The fight against drugs II.


Monaghan, G., & Bewley-Taylor, D. (2013). Practical implications of policing alternatives to arrest and. International Drug Policy Consortium.

Nicol, T. (2019). Legalisation: the chance to right wrongs. Matters of Substance.

Nutt, D., King, L., & Phillips, L. (2010). Drug harms in the UK: a multicriteria decision analysis. The Lancet.

Opstelten, I. (2012). Brief Coffeeshopbeleid. Brief aan de Tweede Kamer.

Palamar, J., Ompad, D., & Petkova, E. (2014). Correlates of intentions to use cannabis among US high school seniors in the case of cannabis legalization. International Journal of Drug Policy.

Pardo, B., Caulkins, J., & Kilmer, B. (2018). Assessing the Evidence on Supervised Drug Consumption Sites. RAND Corporation.

Parsons, J., Wei, Q., Rinaldi, J., Henrichson, C., Sandwick, T., Wendel, T., . . . Clear, T. (2015). A Natural Experiment in Reform: Analyzing Drug Policy Change In New York City. National Criminal Justice Reference Service.

Petrar, S. (2007). Injection drug users' perceptions regarding use of a medically supervised safer injecting facility. Addictive Behaviors.

PHS Community Services Society v Canada (Attorney General), 2010 BCCA 15 (Court of Appeal for British Columbia January 15, 2010).

Pinto, M. (2010). he 'resounding success' of Portuguese drug policy: the power of an attractive fallacy. Association for a Drug Free Portugal.

Pollini, R. (2008). Syringe possession arrests are associated with receptive syringe sharing in two Mexico-US border cities. Addiction.

Poschadel, S., Hoger, R., Schnitzler, J., & Schreckenberger, J. (2003). Evaluation der Arbeit der Drogenkonsumräume in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland: Endbericht im Auftrag des Bundesministeriums für Gesundheit, Das Bundesministerium für Gesundheit und Soziale Sicherung. Baden-Baden.

Prendergast, M., Pearson, F., Podus, D., Hamilton, Z., & Greenwell, L. (2013). The Andrews' principles of risk, needs, and responsivity as applied in drug treatment programs: meta-analysis of crime and drug use outcomes. Journal of Experimental Criminology.

Price, T., Parkes, T., & Malloch, M. (2020). 'Discursive struggles' between criminal justice sanctions and health interventions for people who use drugs: a qualitative exploration of diversion policy and practice in Scotland. Drugs: Education, Prevention and Policy .

Queensland Productivity Commission. (2020). Inquiry into imprisonment and recidivism.

Quilter, J., & McNamara, L. (2019). Queensland Productivity Commission Inquiry into imprisonment and recidivism. University of Wollongong .

Rance, J., & Fraser, S. (2011). Accidental intimacy: transformative emotion and the Sydney Medically Supervised Injecting Centre. Contemporary Drug Probation.

Rando, J., Broering, D., Olson, J., Marco, C., & Evans, S. (2015). Intranasal naloxone administration by police first responders is associated with decreased opioid overdose deaths. The American Journal of Emergency Medicine.

Rapid Response Service. (2016). Engaging law enforcement in harm reduction for people who inject drugs. Ontario HIV Treatment Network .

Rolles, S. (2009). A Comparison of the Cost-effectiveness of Prohibition and Regulation of Drugs. Transform.

Room, R. (2008). Cannabis policy: moving beyond stalemate. The Global Cannabis Commission Report. The Beckley Foundation.

Salmon, A., Van Beek, I., Kaldor, J., & Maher, L. (2010). The impact of a supervised injecting facility on ambulance call-outs in Sydney, Australia. Addiction.

Sarang, A., Rhodes, T., & Platt, L. (2008). Access to syringes in three Russian cities: implications for syringe distribution and coverage. International Journal of Drug Policy.

Schatz, E., & Nougier, M. (2012). Drug Consumption Rooms: evidence and practice. IDPC Briefing Paper.

Schatz, E., Schiffer, K., & Kools, J. (2010). The Dutch treatment and social support system for drug users: recent developments and the example of Amsterdam. IDPC Briefing Paper.

Single, E. (1989). The Impact of Marijuana Decriminalization: An Update. Journal of Public Health Policy .

Small, D. (2012). Canada's highest court unchains injection drug. Harm Reduction Journal .

Small, W. (2008). Accessing care for injection-related infections through a medically supervised injecting facility: A qualitative study. Drug and Alcohol Dependence.

Small, W. (2012). Street-level policing in the Downtown Eastside of Vancouver, Canada, during the 2010 winter Olympics. International Journal of Drug Policy, 128-133.

Small, W., Wood, E., Lloyd-Smith, E., Tyndall, M., & Kerr, T. (2008). Accessing care for injection-related infections through a medically supervised injecting facility: a qualitative study. . Drug Alcohol Depend.

Statistics Canada . (2019). Analysis of trends in the prevalence of cannabis use and related metrics in Canada. Retrieved from https://www150.

Statistics Canada. (2018). Police-reported cannabis offences in Canada, 2018: before and after legalization. Retrieved from

Statistics Canada. (2019). StatsCannabis data availability: Crowdsourced cannabis prices, third quarter 2019. Retrieved from https://www150.

Stevens, A. (2019). Is policy 'liberalization' associated with higher odds of adolescent cannabis use? A re-analysis of data from 38 countries. International Journal of Drug Policy.

Stolts, J. (2007). Changes in injecting practices associated with the use of a medically supervised safer injection facility. Journal of Public Health.

Taskforce on Cannabis Legalisation and Regulation. (2016). A Framework for the Legalisation and Regulation of Cannabis in Canada. Government of Canada.

Toth, E. C., Tegner, J., Lauridsen, S., & Kappel, N. (2016). A cross-sectional national survey assessing self-reported drug intake behavior, contact with the primary sector and drug treatment among service users of Danish drug consumption rooms. Harm Reduction Journal.

Transform Drug Policy Foundation. (2019). Cannabis legalisation in Canada: one year on .

Tupper, K. a. (2018). Initial results of a drug checking pilot program to detect fentanyl adulteration in a Canadian setting. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 242-245.

van Amsterdam, J., Nutt, D., Phillips, L., & van den Brink, W. (2015). European rating of drug harms. Journal of Psychopharmacology.

Van Het Loo, M., & Van Beusekom, I. (2002). Decriminalization of Drug Use in Portugal: The Development of a Policy. The Annals of the American Association of Political and Social Science.

Van Laar. (2015). The Netherlands Drug Situation 2014. Trimbos Institute.

Van Laar, M., & Van Ooyen-Houben, M. (2009). Evaluatie van het Nederlandse drugsbleid. Trimbos Instituut.

Wagner, K. (2010). The perceived consequences of safer injection: an exploration of qualitative findings and gender differences. Psycological Health Medicine.

Wagner, K., Simon-Freeman, R., & Bluthenthal, R. (2013). The association between law enforcement encounters and syringe sharing among IDUs on skid row: a mixed methods analysis. AIDS Behaviour.

Wan, W.-Y., Weatherburn, D., Wardlaw, G., Sarafidis, V., & Grant, S. (2014). Supply-side reduction policy and drug-related harm. Trends and Issues in Crime and Criminal Justice.

Welsh, B., & Rocque, M. (2014). When crime prevention harms: a review of systematic reviews. Journal of Experimental Criminology volume .

White, C. (2018). Why synthetic marijuana is so risky. The Conversation.

White, M., Burton, R., Darke, S., Eastwood, B., Knight, J., Millar, T., . . . Marsden, J. (2015). Fatal opioid poisoning: a counterfactual model to estimate the preventive effect of treatment for opioid use disorder in England. Addiction.

Wood. (2017). Differential experiences of Mexican policing by people who inject drugs residing in Tijuana and San Diego. International Journal of Drug Policy.

Wood, E. (2006). Attendance at Supervised Injecting Facilities and Use of Detoxification Services. The New England Journal of Medicine.

Wood, E. e. (2003). The Impact of a Police Presence on Access to Needle Exchange Programs. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome .

Wood, E., Kerr, T., Small, W., Li, K., Marsh, D., Montaner, J., & Tyndall, M. (2004). Changes in public order after the opening of a medically supervised safer injecting facility for illicit injection drug users. Canadian Medical Association Journal.

Wood, E., Tyndall, M., Mark, W., Li, K., Lloyd-Smith, E., Small, W., . . . Kerr, T. (2005). Do Supervised Injecting Facilities Attract Higher-Risk Injection Drug Users? American Journal of Preventive Medicine.

Wood, E., Tyndall, M., Qui, Z., Zhang, R., Montaner, J., & Kerr, T. (2006). Service Uptake and Characteristics of Injection Drug Users Utilizing North America's First Medically Supervised Safer Injecting Facility. American Journal of Public Health.

Wood, E., Tyndall, M., Zhang, R., Montaner, J., & Kerr, T. (2007). Rate of detoxification service use and its impact. Addiction.