Independent Review of Underground Coal Gasification - Report

An independent examination of the issues and evidence surrounding Underground Coal Gasification.


(not a definitive list but all were considered in preparing the review)

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ABC (2016b) Linc Energy placed in administration "to avoid penalties"

Aghalayam, P.(2010) Underground coal gasification: a clean coal technology, in: Handbook of combustion, Wiley-VCH, New York, pp. 257-275.
Also in Green M (2009) Overview of worldwide field activity and the future of UCG. In: Proceedings of the 4th international underground coal gasification conference. London, UK, 10-11 Feb, 2009. Woking, Surrey, UK, The UCG Partnership, 33 pp

Ahern J.J. and Frazier J.A. (1982). Water quality changes at underground coal gasification sites - a literature review. Laramie Energy Technology Center, U.S. Department of Energy, under contractDE-AS20- 79LCO1761

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THE AUSTRALIAN, APRIL 18, 2016 5:07PM. "Linc hit by Qld UCG ban".

Australian Government National Health and Medical Research Council (2016) Australian Drinking Water Guidelines 6 Version 3.2

Berrow, A., Goold, D. and Westerman, R. (2014) UCG Potential of CNR's Kincardine Licence, Firth of Forth, Scotland.

Bhutto, A.W., Bazmi, A.A., and Zahedi, G., (2013) Underground coal gasification: from fundamentals to applications, Progress in Energy and Combustion Science, vol. 39, issue 1, p. 193.

Blinderman, M.S. and Jones, R.M, (2002) The Chinchilla IGCC Project to Date: Underground Coal Gasification and Environment. Paper to Gasification Technologies Conference, San Francisco, USA, October 27-30th, 2002.

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See also from ClimateXChange - UGE in Scotland: an update for policy makers, planners and regulators

Boothroyd, I.M., Almon, S., Qassim, S.M., Worral, F. and Davies R.J. (2016) Fugitive emissions of methane from abandoned decommissioned oil and gas wells Science of the Total Environment v 547, 15 March 2016, p 461-9

Boysen, J.E., Covell, J.R. and Sullivan, S. (1990) Rocky Mountain 1: Underground Coal Gasification Test, Hanna, Wyoming. Results from Venting, Flushing, and Cooling of the Rocky Mountain 1 UCG Cavities. Gas Research Institute Report GRI-90/0156, 87pp.

Broderisk, J. and Sharmina, M. (2014) The Greenhouse Gas Emissions Profiel of Coal Bed Methane ( CBM) Production: A review of Existing Research. Tyndall Manchester Climate Change Research commissioned by Friends of the Earth Scotland.

Busby, J. (2014) Clean coal exploitation and unconventional gas. British Geological Survey. . BGS Website sections on advantages of UCG.

Burton, E., Friedmann, J., and Upadhye, R. (2007) Best Practices in Underground Coal Gasification. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, USA

Civil Contingencies Act ( CCA) (2014)

Coal Authority (2009) Underground Coal Gasification: Policy Statement for Licensing by the Coal Authority. December 2009

Coal Authority (2013) Presentation to SEPA and Scottish Government on Underground Coal Gasification. Unpublished Powerpoint presentation.

Coal Authority (2016) "Best Practice Guide on Restoration Liability Assessments for Surface Coal Mines". Report on behalf of Welsh Government, ISBN 978 1 4734 5775 1 WG27790

Colborn T., Kwiatkowski C., Schultz K., et al. (2012) Natural gas operations from a public health perspective. Hum. Ecol. Risk Assess.; 17: 1039-1056

Committee on Climate Change (2016) Onshore Petroleum: The compatibility of UK onshore petroleum with meeting the UK's carbon budgets.

Committee on Climate Change (2016) Meeting Carbon Budgets - 2016 Progress Report to Parliament

Concerned Communities of Falkirk. (2014) Submission to the public inquiry on dart energy coal bed methane proposal, Falkirk, Scotland, 2012-2015

Concerned Communities of Falkirk. (2015) Community voices,

Costello, A., Abbas, M., Allen, A., et al. (2009), Managing the health effects of climate change. The Lancet, 373, (9676), p.1659, 16 May. Available at: article/PIIS0140-6736(09)60922-3/fulltext

Creedy, D.P., Garner, K., Holloway, S., Jones, Nand Ren, T.X., (2001) Review of Underground Coal Gasification Technological Advancements. Report No. COAL R211, DTI/Pub URN 01/1041. DTI/Crown Copyright

Czaja, P. (2014) Coal Energy Obtained Using Gasification, CHEMIK, 68, 12, 1026-1039

Daily Telegraph (2016) Workers suffered ill effects from coal gas site, court told.

Davies, R.J., Almond, S., Ward, R.S., et al. (2014) Oil and gas wells and their integrity: implications for shale and unconventional resource exploitation. Marine and Petroleum Geology,

DECC/ CoRWM (2014)

DECC (2013) Onshore Oil and Gas Exploration in the UK: regulation and best practice. Scotland. December 2013 . Crown Copyright.

DECC (2013). The Future of Heating: Meeting the challenge. ; le/190149/16_04-DECC- The_Future_of_Heating_Accessible-10.pdf

DECC (2013) Guidance Regulatory Roadmap: Onshore oil and gas exploration in the UK regulation and best practice.
See also

DECC (2015). Energy Consumption in the UK (2015). ;

DEFRA (2006) Response to the Report and Recommendations from the Committee on Radioactive Water Management ( CoRWM) by the UK Government and the Devolved Administrations.

Derbin, Y., Walker, J., Wanatowski, D. and Marshall, A. (2015) Soviet experience of underground coal gasification focusing on surface subsidence. Journal of Zhejiang University SCIENCE A (Applied Physics and Engineering), 16 (10), p. 839-850.

DTI (1999) Cleaner Coal Technologies: The Government's Plan for R & D, Technology Transfer and Export Promotion, Energy Paper 67, DTI, April 1999

DTI (2005a) Creating the Coalmine of the 21st Century. Authors: Smart, B.G.D., Rippon, J., Olden, P., Tatum, D., Ford, J.T., Somerville, J.M, Darlow, T., Foxon, R., Jowitt, P.C., Patrick, W.M, Newborough, M., Westerman, A.R. and Robin, A. Institute of Petroleum Engineering, Heriot-Watt University. Report no COAL R304 DTI Pub URN 06/942 pp68

DTI (2005b) Directional drilling in coal, in: Technology Status Report, DTI, Cleaner Fossil Fuels Programme, pp. 28

DTI (2006) Creating the Coalmine of the 21 st century: the feasibility of UCG under the Firth of Forth. Carbon Abatement Technologies Programme. Project Summary 382. (Commonly referred to as the "Heriot-Watt Report")

Doctors for the Environment Australia. (2013) The health factor: ignored by industry, over- looked by government. Doctors for the Environment Australia,

Dong, D., Zhao, M., Lin, G. et al.(2016) Optimization of Water Pumping and Injection for Underground Coal Gasification in the Meiguiying Mine, China. Mine Water Environ (2016) 35: 398. doi:10.1007/s10230-016-0389-1

EC (2014) Study of Deep Underground Coal Gasification and the permanent storage of CO 2 in the affected areas ( UCG and CO 2 Storage). DG Research and Innovation, Dir D. Research Fund for Coal and Steel. Hristov, N et al. (20 authors). EUR 26420.

EEA (European Environment Agency). Late lessons from early warnings: science, precaution, innovation. EEA Report No 1/2013. EEA,

Fisher, J. (2010) Need and Economics of UCG in Alaska. Estimated economics of the CIRI Underground Coal Gasification Facility, Beluga Alaska. Synapse Energy Economics, Inc. 22 Pearl Street, Cambridge, MA 02139

Friends of the Earth Scotland. (2015) Broad Alliance letter to MPs on Infrastructure Bill,

Friends of the Earth International/Monk, F. (2016) Fuelling the Fire: the chequered history of Underground Coal Gasification and Coal Chemicals around the world. ISBN 978-1-901855-98-2
See also

GasTech, Inc (2007) Viability of Underground Coal Gasification in the "Deep Coals" of the Powder River Basin, Wyoming. Prepared for the Wyoming Business Council Business and Industry Division, State Energy Office, Casper, Wyoming. June 2007

Gemmell, C., Bingham, S. and Isarin, N. (2016) Collaboration and consultancy, tackling environmental crime and delivering environment protection 119-138 in Pink and White, Eds Environmental Crime and Collaborative State Intervention. Palgrave.

Gemmell, J.C. and Scott, E.M. (2013) Environmental regulation, sustainability and risk . Sustainability AMP Journal v4, no. 2. 120-144

Geoscience Australia 2008, Australia's identified mineral resources 2008, Geoscience Australia, Canberra. (see also, in relation to Australian groundwater quality issues)

Golder Associates, (September 2013). Report Number: 13615077-12123-1 African Carbon Energy ( PTY) Ltd. Final Scoping Report: Underground Coal Gasification and Power Generation Project near Theunissen. DEA Reference number: 14/12/16/3/3/2/558 DETEA Reference number: EMS/9,22,23,3,4,5,26/13/11. Submitted to: Department of Environmental Affairs, Department of Economic Development, Tourism and Environmental Affairs, Department of Mineral Resources

Golder Associates (July 2013) Project No: 13615077. AFRICARY Holdings (Pty) Ltd, Underground Coal Gasification and power generation project near Theunissen, Free State Province

Golder Associates (February 2014) Report Number: 13615077 -12329 -5. AFRICARY ( PTY) LTD, Environmental Management Programme for Underground Coal Gasification and Power Generation Project near Theunissen.
DEA Reference number: 14/12/16/3/3/2/558 DETEA Reference number: EMS/9,22,23,3,4,5,26/13/11

Golder Associates [Etienne Roux] (January 2014) Report Number: 13615077-12437-6. AFRICAN CARBON ENERGY ( PTY) LIMITED. Air Quality Specialist Assessment for Underground Coal Gasification and Gas-Fired Power Generation Project

Goldstein, B.D. (2001) The precautionary principle also applies to public health actions. Am J Public Health; 91: 1358-1361

Goldstein, B.D. (2011). Potential health effects of Marcellus shale activities: the need for public health surveillance. Pittsburgh: Center for Healthy Environments and Communities, University of Pittsburgh, Shale/CHEC-Present-Goldstein-5.10.11-HealthMarcellus.pdf

Green, L. (2015) The importance of health impact assessments. In: Finkel, M.L. (ed.) The human and environmental impact of fracking; how fracturing shale for gas effects us and our world. Santa Barbara: Praeger, pp.49-60

Green, M.B. (1999) Underground Coal Gasification: A joint European Field Trial in Spain. Issue 17 of Coal R&D, R169. Harwell Laboratory, Oxfordshire England. DTI/Pub URN99/1093

Green, M. (2008) Underground Coal Gasification, State of the Art. From Proceedings of Clean Coal Conference 2008. Bedewo, Poland, 8 December 2008.
(Presentation att:)

Also in Green M (2009) Overview of worldwide field activity and the future of UCG. In: Proceedings of the 4th international underground coal gasification conference. London, UK, 10-11 Feb, 2009. Woking, Surrey, UK, The UCG Partnership, 33 pp

Griffiths, B. and Roods, M. (2013) Eskom Holdings (October 2013). Application for Rectification i.t.o. Section 24G of the National Environmental Management Act of 1998 (as amended) for the Unlawful Commencement of Listed Activities for Underground Coal Gasification: Pilot Plant Phase 1, near Amersfoort, Mpumalanga. DEA Ref 14/12/16/3/3/1/54

Guest, C., Ricciardi, W., Kawachi, I., and Lang, I. (Eds.). (2013). Oxford handbook of public health practice. OUP Oxford. 3 rd Edition.
SEE pp267-337/Chap 1.5 for HIA approaches and gas and mining connections. Also NHMRC links and Australian Government Drinking Water Guidelines (2004).

Hansen J, Kharecha P, Sato M, Masson-Delmotte V, Ackerman F, Beerling DJ, et al. (2013) Assessing "Dangerous Climate Change": Required Reduction of Carbon Emissions to Protect Young People, Future Generations and Nature. PLoS ONE 8(12): e81648. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0081648

Harris, P. and Spickett, J. (2011) Health Impact Assessment in Australia: A review and directions for progress. Environmental Impact Assessment Review, V 31, Issue 4, pp 425-432. Elsevier

Hawkins J. (2015) Fracking: mind the gaps. Environ Law Rev; 17: 8-21.
Hill, M. Shale gas regulation in the UK and the implications of fracking. Lancet 2014; 383: 2211-2212

HMSO (2015) Infrastructure Act

Holliday, D.W., Holloway, S., McMillan, A.A., Jones, N.S., Warrington, G. and Akhurst, M.C. (2004) The Evolution of the Carlisle Basin, NW England and SW Scotland. Doi: 10.1144/pygs.55.1.1 May 2004 Proceeding of the Yorkshire Geological Society, 55, 1-19. ISSN 0044-0604 (Print), ISSN 2041-4811 (Online)

Hughes, L. & McMichael, T. 2011, The Critical Decade: Climate Change and Health, Climate Commission Secretariat, Department of Climate Change and Energy Efficiency.

IEA (2012) World Energy Outlook. Special Report on Unconventional Gas. OECD/ IES

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change ( IPPC) (2014) Climate Change 2014: Synthesis Report. Contribution of Working Groups I, II and III to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Core Writing Team, R.K. Pachauri and L.A. Meyer (eds.)]. IPCC, Geneva, Switzerland, 151 pp.

See also IPPC (2005) Proceedings from IPCC Expert Meeting on Industrial Technology Development, Transfer and Diffusion, Tokyo.
IPPC (2002) Workshop on Carbon Capture and Storage, Regina.

Jones, N.S., Holloway, S., Creedy, D.P., Garner, K., Smith, N.J.P., Brown, M.A.E. and Durucan, S. (2004) UK Coal Resource for New Exploitation Technologies. Final Report. British Geological Survey ( BGS ) Commissioned Report CR/04/015N. NERC

Kalkbrenner, A. (2014) Underground Coal Gasification: A Regulatory Framework for Alberta. Alberta Law Review, Mar2014, 51, (3), p525-554, 30p

Kassotis, C.D., Tillitt, D.E., Wade Davis, J., et al. (2014) Estrogen and androgen receptor activ- ities of hydraulic fracturing chemicals and surface and ground water in a drilling- dense region. Endocrinology; 155: 897-907

Khadse, A., Qayyumi, M., Mahajani, S. and Aghalayam, P. (2007) Underground coal gasification: A new clean coal utilization technique for India, Energy, 32, 2061-2071

Konschnik, K.E. and Boling, M.K. (2014) Shale gas development: a smart regulation frame-work. Environ Sci Technol; 48: 8404-8416

Kumar, H.R.N., Udayakumar, D.L., Stojcevski, A. and Oo, A.M.T., (2014) Underground Coal Gasification: an alternate, Economical, and Viable Solution for future Sustainability, International Journal of Engineering Science Invention, 3, (1), pp57-68. ISSN (Online): 2319 - 6734, ISSN (Print): 2319 - 6726

Lavis, S., Courtney, R. and Mostade, M. (2013) Underground Coal Gasification. Chapter 8 in Osborne, D, The Coal Handbook. pp226-239

Linc Energy (2007) Terms of Reference for an Environmental Impact Statement. Underground Coal Gasification Gas to Liquids and Power Generation Project.

Liu, S-q., Li, J-g., Mei, M. and Dong D-l. et al (2007) Groundwater Pollution from Underground Coal Gasification. Journal of China University of Mining and Technology Vol 17, Issue 4 0467-0472

Mallett, C. (2015) Underground Coal Gasification: An overview of an Emerging Coal Conversion Technology. CornerStone, World Coal Journal. Vol 3, issue 2, Summer 2015 56-60

Mallett, C. and Ernst, A. (2014) The Australian UCG pilot experience. A review of Carbon Energy's UCG Pilot facility at Bloodwood Creek, Queensland, Australia.
See also
and ;

McGlade, C. and Ekins, P (2015) The geographical distribution of fossil fuels unused when limiting global warming to 2 oC. Nature v 517, no.7533, 187-190
MacKay DJC (2009) Sustainable Energy - without the hot air. UIT Cambridge

McKenzie, L.M., Ruixin, G., Witter, R.Z., et al. (2014) Birth outcomes and maternal residential proximity to natural gas development in rural Colorado. Environ Health Perspect; v122: 412-417.

Moncarz, P.D. (2008) Polish researchers implementing UCG technology based on Zakiewicz. Warsaw Voice: ecologic earth energy, Dec 7-14, 2008

Moore V, Beresford A, & Gove B (2014). Hydraulic fracturing for shale gas in the UK: Examining the evidence for potential environmental impacts. Sandy, Bedfordshire, UK: RSPB.

Moorhouse, J., Huot, M. and McCulloch, M. (2010) "Underground Coal Gasification: Environmental Risks and Benefits" Pembina Institute, Box 7558, Drayton Valley, Alberta, Canada, T7A 1S7

Moran, P.C., da Costa, P.J. and Cuff, E.P.C., (2013) Independent Scientific Panel Report on Underground Coal Gasification Pilot Trials. Queensland State Independent Scientific Panel ( QISP) on Underground Coal Gasification: Queensland, Australia

Motsoene, G., Reddy, P. and Roods, M. (2009). Draft Environmental Impact Report for the Proposed Underground Coal Gasification Pilot Project, Secunda, Mpumalanga Province. A project of SASOl Synfuels and SASOL Mining. Project Number E02.PTA.000207

Nordin, SJ (1992) Review of information and data relevant to the Hoe Creek underground coal gasification site restoration', Western Research Institute, The University of Wyoming Research Corporation, Laramie, Wyoming,,%20Inc/PRBRC%20Exhibits/PRBRC%20Exhibit%206%20WRI%20Hoe%20Creek%20Report.pdf

NTN (2013) Toxic Chemicals in the Exploration and Production of Gas from Unconventional Sources. National Toxics Network, April 2013.

O'Dochartaigh, B.E.; Smedley, P.L.; MacDonald, A.M.; Darling, W.G.; Homoncik, S.. 2011 Baseline Scotland : groundwater chemistry of the Carboniferous sedimentary aquifers of the Midland Valley . British Geological Survey, 91pp. ( OR/11/021) (Unpublished) Available via NORA ( NERC Open Research Archive)

Osborne D., Ed (2013) The Coal Handbook. Towards Cleaner Production. Volume 1: Coal Production. Woodhead Publishing Series in Energy: Number 50. Woodhead Publishing Limited, 80 High Street, Sawston, Cambridge, CB22 3HJ, UK. ISBN 978-0-85709-422-3 (print); ISBN 978-0-85709 -730-9 (online); ISBN 978-1-78242-153-5 (two-volume set); ISSN 2044-9364 Woodhead Publishing Series in Energy (print); ISSN 2044-9372 Woodhead Publishing Series in Energy (online).

Osborne, D.G. and Gupta, S.K. (2013) Industrial uses of coal. Chapter 1 in Osborne, D. (Ed) (2013) DOI 10.1533/9780857097309.1.3

Pfeiffer, A. Millar, R., Hepburn, C., Beinhocker, E. (2016) The 2 oC capital stock for electricity generation: committed cumulative carbon emissions from the electricity generation sector and the transition to the green economy. Applied Energy 179, October 2016, 1395-1408

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QLD CMD (2016) Joint Ministerial Statement - UCG Banned in Queensland

QLD DEHP (2016) Linc Energy Committed for Trial

QLD DEHP (2016b) Hopeland Area Soil Sampling

Reddy, P. and Roods, M (2012) Eskom Holdings SOC Ltd (October 2012). Environmental Scoping Report for the Underground Coal Gasification Project andAssociated Infrastructure in support of co-firing of gas at the Majuba Power Station,Amersfoort, Mpumalanga. Reference Number:E02.JNB.000308. Authority Reference: DEA Ref: 14/12/16/3/3/3/61, DMR Ref: 30/5/1/1/2/10031 MR

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Roddy, D.J. and Younger, P.L. (2010) Underground coal gasification with CCS: a pathway to decarbonising industry. Energy & Environmental Science, 3, 400-407

Royal Society of Edinburgh (2015) Options for Scotland's Gas Future. Advice Paper ( BP 15-01) June 2015

SA ( DMITRE) (2012) RoadMap for Unconventional Gas Projects in South Australia. Energy Resources Division (Goldstein, B et al)

SAf RHDHV (2014) Draft Environmental Impact Assessment Report for the Integrated Environmental Authorisation associated with the Underground Coal Gasification Pilot Project and Associated Infrastructure in support of co-firing of gas at the Majuba Powerr Station, Amersfoort, Mpumalanga. For Eskon Holdings by Royal Haskoning DEA Ref: 14/12/16/3/3/3/61 July 2014

Sajjad, M. and Rasul, M.G. (2014) Review on the Existing and Developing Underground Coal Gasification Techniques in Abandoned Coal Seam Gas Blocks: Australia and Global Context Conference Proceedings Paper - Energies "Whither Energy Conversion? Present Trends, Current Problems and Realistic Future Solutions" from First International e-Conference on Energies 14-31 March 2014

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Scottish Government (2016) Energy in Scotland

Scottish Government (2016) Statutory guidance on the general purpose of the Scottish environment protection agency and its contribution towards sustainable development. Edinburgh: Scottish Government,

Scottish Government (2015) Direction to SEPA on UCG

Scottish Government (2015b) Direction to Heads of Planning

Scottish Government (2014) Independent Expert Scientific Panel - Report on Unconventional Oil and Gas, July 2014.
SEPA (2012) Regulatory Guidance: Coal bed methane and shale gas

SEPA (2010) SEPA's Energy Position Statement

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Shu-qin, L., Jing-gang, L., Mei, M. and Dong-lin, D. (2007) Groundwater Pollution from Underground Coal Gasification. Journal of China University Mining and Technology, 17(4): 0467 - 0472

Shu-qin L., Yuan-yuan W., Ke Z., Ning Y. (2009). Enhanced-hydrogen gas production through underground gasification of lignite. Min. Sci. Technol.19:389-394.

Smith, C. (2015) Task Force on Shale Gas.

SPICe (2016) SPICe Briefing - Unconventional Gas: Frequently Asked Questions. 11 July 2016; 16/63. Alasdair Reid

Stanczyk, K., Kapusta, K., Wiatowski, M., Swiadrowski, J., Smolinski., A, Rogut, J., Kotyrba, A. (2012) Experimental simulation of hard coal underground gasification for hydrogen production, Fuel, 91, 40-50

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